VOLCANO NEWS

Updated on 27th of September 2022 (latest news classified according to countries)

Highlight today : Piton de la Fournaise eruption is still continuing (Reunion Island - France) - Explosive activity continued at Sabancaya (Peru) - Moderate eruptive activity continued at Alaid volcan (Kurile Island- Russia)

 

Saint Vincent - Soufriere volcano (West-Indies)

March 18th, 2022

As of the 17th of March, seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has continued to decrease reaching the minimum activity since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting on 22 April, 2021. No lahar signals have been recorded. As of the 15th of February, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has continued to be at a low level since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting on 22 April. No lahar signals have been recorded. Gas measurements indicate that the plume chemistry shows decreasing sulphur dioxide (SO2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. The plume chemistry indicates that the gas composition is slowly returning to its pre- eruption chemistry. Previous news 2021 - As of the 30th of November, UWI-SRC declared Eruptive Phase Ends at La Soufriѐre Volcano. Activity at the volcano has declined steadily since the last explosive event on April 22nd, 2021and all currently available monitoring data points to an end in eruptive activity. However, residual steaming at the summit and lahars (mudslides) in the valleys surrounding the volcano will continue to be observed for some time. As of the 24th of November,UWI-SRC reported that the seismic activity at La Soufrière in St Vincent has continued to decrease since the tremor associated with the explosion and the evacuation of ashes on April 22. Small lahars were recorded on October 31. Current activity corresponds to a period of unrest after an eruption. As of the 22nd of October, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has continued to decrease since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting on 22 April. No lahars occurred . Previously, one lahar was recorded on 11 Oct. UWI-SRC reported no change have occurred in the crater. Measurements of the sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux at La Soufrière were carried out by boat off the west coast on 23rd September. Several traverses were completed and yielded an average SO2 flux of 176 tons per day. Three lahar signals were observed between 26 - 27 September..Visual observation on 19 of September indicated no major major change have occuured in the crater. As of the 16th of September; the alert level of the volcano La Soufrière de St. Vincent has been lowered to YELLOW. A Yellow alert level means that the volcano is agitated, that the seismic or fumarolic activity is higher than the historical level of the volcano. Activities on the volcano have been weak and significantly reduced in recent months since the last explosive eruption on April 22, 2021. All the communities that evacuated following the evacuation order given on April 8, 2021 can now return to their homes. Access to the top of the volcano remains restricted.As of the 14th of September, UWI-SRC reported that Seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has remained low since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting on 22 April.No lahar signals have been observed and work has been completed on all seismic stations As of the 30th of August, UWI-SRC reported that over the past week, there has been a slight increase in magnitude, but this has provided no indication of reactivation. Current activity corresponds to a period of unrest after a rash. This can last for weeks or even months. While volcanic activity is on the decline, there is the continued presence of hot spots near the surface, daily seismic activity, and persistent outgassing. Lahar signals were observed: 4 on August 24, and 1 on August 25, related to the precipitation that was recorded during this period. Clear weather conditions at the volcano on August 30 allowed excellent views of the crater and observations indicate that no major changes have occurred in the crater since the end of explosive activity on April 22. As of the 28th of August, UWI-SRC reported that current activity corresponds to a period of unrest after an eruption. This can last for weeks or even months. Heavy rains over the past week-end resulted n lahars in most of the valleys on the volcano. These were all flows very similar in characteristics to a swollen river. On Aug 15, vigorous steaming accompanied a period of heavy rainfall. These observations are in keeping with the continuedpresence of near surface hot spots within the crater and are not a sign of an explosive eruption occurring. Measurements of the sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux at La Soufrière were carried out by boat off the West coast on 10 August, with the assistance of the coast guard. Several traverses were completed and yielded an average SO2 flux of 205 tons per day. While volcanic activity is on the decline, there is the continued presence of hot spots near the surface, daily seismic activity, and persistent outgassing. Sulfur dioxide flow measurements at La Soufrière were taken by boat off the west coast on August 3, with help from the coast guard. Several crossings were made and gave an average SO2 flow of 207 tonnes per day.As of the 5th of August, UWI-SRC reported that In the last 24 hours, only a few small earthquakes have been recorded. Persistent steam emissions from a few regions inside the crater. Measurements of the sulphur dioxide flux at La Soufrière were carried out by boat off the west coast on 22 July, with the assistance of the coast guard. Several traverses were completed and yielded an average SO2 flux of 233 tons per day. Recent mapping confirmed that no new lava dome formed as a result of the explosions that ended on the 22 April 2021, and the average characteristics inside the new crater (including the crater itself) are all the result of the explosive phase of the eruption between April 9 and 22, 2021. Mapping has identified several prominent fumaroles that are the source of the vapor and gas plumes visible above the rim of the summit crater on a clear day. The presence of fumaroles also confirms the detection of thermal anomalies inside the new crater by the satellites. As of the 6th of July UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has remained low. In the last 24 hours, only a few small earthquakes have been recorded. Persistent steam emissions from a few regions inside the crater continue to be the dominant observable feature. Measurement of the sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux was carried out by helicopter on June 23rd and yielded an average SO2 flux of 683 tons per day. SO2 can be an indicator that fresh magma from a deeper source is being degassed. As of the 18th of June, UWU-SRC reported that persistent steam emissions from a few regions inside the crater continue to be the dominant observable feature. As o the 15th oj June seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has remained low since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting on 22 April and in the last 24 hours, only a few small earthquakes have been recorded.Thermal anomalies continue to be detected but do not indicate an explosive event is imminent. As of the 12th of June a photo taken by Prof. Robsertson shows now look of the Crater with 1979 crater rim, the 2021 new explosion crater rim, and the lake. There are several hydrothermal vents and these are responsible for the vapor that can be seen on most days. The alert is still in Orange and access to the volcano is still prohibited for the moment. UWI-SRC noted that with the start of the rainy season, the main danger at Soufrière de St Vincent remains the risk of lahars. Several lahars were reported between 5th to 7th of June.No change reported during the last 24 h regarding previous news. As of the 3rd of June, UWI-SRC reported that in the last 24 hours, only a few long-period.earthquakes have been recorded. Persistent steaming is observable from the observatory once the cloud cover is high enough. Thermal anomalies continue to be detected but do not indicate an explosive event isimminent Measurement of the sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux was carried out off the west coast on June 1st and 3rd and yielded an average SO2 flux of 543 and 456 tons per day, respectively. As of the 2nd of June UWI-SRC reported that the volcano is still in a state of unrest and access is prohibited at this time. Seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has remained low since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting on 22 April. From 5:40am on 30 May to 8:00am (local time) on 31 May, there has been no recorded seismicity associated with La Soufrière. Persistent steaming is observable from the observatory once the cloud cover is high enough. Thermal anomalies continue to be detected by the NASA. As of the 28th of May, UWI-SRC reported that a persistent vapor was observable from the observatory once the cloud cover is sufficiently high. Thermal anomalies continue to be detected by the NASA FIRMS alert system. These have persisted since the explosion of April 22. They indicate that there is a heat source in the crater and most likely originate from a small body of magma remaining, near the bottom of Summit Crater. The volcano continues to be in a state of unrest. Escalation of activity can still take place with little or no warning. The volcano is at Orange alert level.As of the 26th of may, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has remained low since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting on 22 April. Persistent steaming is observable from the observatory once the cloud cover is high enough. Measurements of the sulphur dioxide (SO2) flux were done on 20 May and yielded an average SO2 flux of 461 tons per day. UWI-SRC reported that on 12th of May, In the last 24 hours, seismic activity was limited to a few long-period earthquakes. Gas measurements on May 11 yielded an average SO2 flux of 252 tons per day. The volcano continues to be in a state of unrest.As of the 10th of May, UWI-SRC reported that in the last 24 hours, only a few long-period earthquakes have been recorded. Measurements of the sulphur dioxide flux at La Soufrière were carried out by boat off the west. coast yesterday (9 May) with the assistance of the coastguard. Several traverses were completed and yielded an average SO2 flux of 208 tons per day. The volcano continues to be in a state of unrest. Escalation in activity can still take place with little or no warning. As of the 7th of may, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity remained low. No earthquakes have been recorded in the last 24 hours. A small lahar signal was observed at 7:40am on the morning. As of the 6th of May, UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to be in a state of turmoil. The government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has lowered the volcanic alert level at La Soufrière to ORANGE based on a recommendation from the University of the West Indies Seismic Research Center. As of the 5th of May, UWI-SRC reported that In the last 24 hours, only a few long-period, hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded and there was no further seismic tremor. As of the 2nd of May - 6pm - UWI-SRC reported that in the past 24 hours, only a few long-period hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded and there have been no further earthquakes. The seismic stations recorded the signals from small lahars around 1 a.m. and 8:30 a.m., in the red and orange areas. The volcano continues to be in a state of unrest. As of the 30th, UWI-SRC reported that activity has remained low. As of the 29th of April, UWI-SRC reported that in the last 24 hours, only a few long-period, hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded and there was no further tremor. The seismic stations recorded signals from multiple lahars during a 12-hour period starting at 9pm on 28 April. Lahars seem to have taken place in all the valleys that drain from La Soufrière and caused considerable erosion and damage.As of the 28th of April - 6mp UWI-SRC reported that in the last 24 hours, only a few long-period, hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded and there was no further tremor. The volcano continues to be in a state of unrest. As of the 27th - 6pm - UWI-SRC reported that explosions at La Soufriere in St. Vincent have greatly diminished. Seismic activity remained low with only a few long-period hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes recorded and there was no sign of a tremor. Signals of several lahars (mudslides) were recorded between 9 and 10 a.m. on April 27, during and after a period of rain.An observation flight took place on April 26 at around 11:30 am Visibility was poor with clouds blocking the crater most of the time. However it was possible to see white vapor escaping almost continuously from several places on the bottom of the crater. No dome was visible, although a spine could be seen through the cloudsAs of the 25th (6pm) UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity low since the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting around noon on 22 April.In the last 24 hours, only a few long-period, hybrid and volcano- tectonic earthquakes have been recorded and there was no further tremor. Satellite radar imagery acquired on 24th April indicates probable continued growth or formation of a lava dome following the xplosions on 18 and 22 April. As of the 24th of April UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to erupt. Its pattern of seismic activity over the last few days is typical ofthe growth and destruction of lava domes. As of the 23rd of April 6pm, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent has been low after the tremor associated with the explosion and ash venting around noon on 22 April. Only a few long-period, hybrid and volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded and there was no further tremor.The seismic network recorded signals from multiple lahars (mudflows) at about 9 pm on 22 April. The locations of these lahars have not been only determined.Measurements of sulphur dioxide flux (mass) at La Soufriere volcano was again undertaken along the west coast today with the assistance of the coastguard. An average SO2 flux of 992 tons per day was recorded. As of the 22nd of April, UWI-SRC reported that small long-lived and hybrid earthquakes continued to be recorded, their rate of occurrence gradually increasing on April 22. The high-level seismic tremor began at 11:09 a.m., generated by explosive activity, and lasted for approximately 20 minutes. A vertical explosive eruption plume slowly rose above the crater, eventually reaching a height of around 8,000 meters During the initial stages of the explosion, a base surge (pyroclastic density current, PDC) was observed descending the western flank of the volcano. The tremor continued, at a lower level, for the next two hours as La Soufrière continued to evacuate ash. As of the 21st of April, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity of the Soufrière of St. Vincent continued the pattern established after the explosive activity of April 18. The agricultural sector of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has been severely affected by the eruptions of the Soufrière volcano. Preliminary evaluations reveal that in the red zone, 100% of vegetable crops and 60% of arrowroot (dictame) have been lost. The weight of the heavy ash fall caused the leaves and branches of many tree crops to break. About 90% of tree crops and 80% of root crops would also be damaged in the red zone. The cattle, which were left in the wild, are now without fodder as their pastures have also been totally destroyed by ash and dust. Small, long-lived and hybrid earthquakes continued to be recorded, their rate of occurrence gradually increasing over the past 24 hours.As of the 20th of April - 6pm UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to erupt. Its pattern of seismic activity over the last few days is typical ofhe growth and destruction of lava domes. easurements yielded an average SO2 flux of 350 tons per day. No seismic tremor has been recorded in the last 12 hours.UWI-SRC reported that swarm of long-lived and hybrid earthquakes continues, with no significant change in their frequency of occurrence. Occasional small volcano-tectonic earthquakes were still recorded. Its pattern of seismic activity over the past few days is typical of the growth and destruction of lava domes. An explosion generated a high level tremor period starting at 4 p.m. 49 April 18. The resulting eruption plume rose over 8 km and drifted south and southwest of the island. An average SO2 flux of 232 and 391 tonnes per day, on April 17 and 18, respectively, was recorded. As of the 17th of April, the swarm of long-period and hybrid earthquakes continued at La Soufrière. The rate of occurrence of these earthquakes dropped significantly at about 8 pm on 16 April and has remained near-constant since. No episodes of tremor have been recorded in the lhe crater is thought to be at least 100 m deep (Raphael Grandin, IPGP) and is centred in the SW sector of theast 12 hours. A revised picture has been constructed of the summit crater based on satellite images. The new crater, measures approximately 900 m N to S and at least 750 m E to W pf the. Summit Crater. As of the 16th of April, UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity at La Soufrière in St. Vincent has changed in appearance and continues with a constant swarm of LP and hybrid earthquakes, interspersed with brief low-level tremor episod. Sulfur dioxide flux measurements at La Soufrière were again undertaken along the west coast, giving an average SO2 flux of 460 tonnes per day. The presence of sulfur dioxide indicates that fresh magma is degassing from a deeper source ... the eruption continues, despite a pause in explosive activity.es. There was a high-level tremor episode at 6:15 a.m., which lasted about three minutes, followed by over two hours of low-level tremor generated by explosive activity and ventilation. SCIENTIFIC UPDATE - 15/04/21 6:00AM -  Seismic activity at La Soufrière continued to follow the established pattern with bands of tremor about between 13 and 15 hours apart separated by swarms of small long-period earthquakes. The latest band of tremor started at about 2:30 am and was associated with increased venting. The volcano continues to erupt explosively and has now begun to generate pyroclastic density currents - hot (200°C-700°C), ground-hugging flows of ash and debris. Its current pattern of explosions appears to be episodic (stop-start) with increasing periods between eruptions and less energy. Explosions and accompanying ashfall, of similar or larger magnitude, are likely to continue to occur over the next few days impacting St. Vincent and neighbouring islands.SCIENTIFIC UPDATE - 14/04/21 6:00AM - Seismic activity at La Soufrière, St Vincent showed a similar pattern to yesterday. Small long-period earthquakes continued to gradually increase in number after the explosive activity at 6:30am on 13 April. These continued until another episode of explosive activity started at 8:30 pm on 13 April. This generated continuous seismic tremor which lasted for four to five hours. 5. After the tremor had died down, small, long-period earthquakes were again recorded, again slowly growing in numbers. The explosions which occurred pulsed for >40 minutes and produced pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) which, appear to have gone down valleys that drain towards the Rabacca River on the east coast of the island. PDCs are hot (200°C-700°C), ground-hugging flows of ash and debris. Lahars (mudflows) were reported in the Sandy Bay Area on 13 April. The volcano continues to erupt explosively and has now begun to generate pyroclastic density currents. Its current pattern of explosions appears to be episodic (stop-and-go). Over the past 24 hours the time between each explosion has increased. Explosions and accompanying ashfall, of similar or larger magnitude, are likely to continue to occur over the next few days impacting St. Vincent and neighbouring islands such as Barbados, Grenada, Saint Lucia.  The volcano is at alert level Red. UWI-SRC reported that seismic activity changed with the explosive activity at 6.30am on April 13th. Prior to the explosion, long-period (LP) earthquakes had increased in number. The explosions of  La Soufrière pulsed for about 30 minutes and produced pyroclastic density currents that reached the sea at the mouth of the Wallibou about 6 km from the volcano and which extended out to sea, according to observers. Observations made during the afternoon show that the pyroclastic flows reached the sea from all the valleys between Larikai and Wallibou. As of the 12th - 6pm - UWI-SRC reported that pattern of seismic activity changed again, with the end of the episodes of high-amplitude tremor 2-8 hours apart.Three episodes of tremor have been recorded since 6am, two of them lower-amplitude and the third, at about 5pm, was high-amplitudeThe episodes continue to coincide with periods of enhanced. A reconnaissance of the entire north coast of St. Vincent from Chateaubelair to Georgetown with assistance from the Coast guards.Observations made indicate that pyroclastic density currents western flanks of the volcano and had reached the sea at Morne onde, Larikai and Trois Loupes Bay.Extensive damage to vegetation was noted in an area extending rom Larikai Bay to Turner Bay on the west coast.No other areas along the coast had been affected by PDCs but villages located on the eastern flank of the volcano had been ffected by heavy ashfall.Explosions and accompanying ashfall, of similar or larger magnitude, are likely to continue to occur over the next few days. UWI-SRC reported that the day of April 12 eruptive activity was marked by a huge explosions at 4:15 am, which was accompanied by a plume of ash and gas reaching an altitude of 17-18 km., And density currents. pyroclastic descending several valleys on the southern and western flanks of the volcano. They reached the sea at Morne Ronde, Larikai and Trois Loupes Bay and caused extensive damage to vegetation. The amplitude of the tremor has changed since April 11 around noon, with a lengthening of the time between high amplitude episodes at 5-8 hours; Around 6 p.m. on April 11, small volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded. On April 12, 3 episodes of tremor were recorded for 6 hours, coinciding with periods of explosive activity or increased venting. UWI-SRC - La Soufriere Eruption Scientific Update 11/04/21 at 9am : in the last twelve hours episodes of tremor normally lasting up to 20 minutes have continued to be recorded.The intervals between the tremors have been between 1.5 to 3 hours. Based on visual observations and satellite imagery, the intervals are associated with periods of explosive activity or enhanced venting.Thunder and lightning were experienced during these periods. Heavy ash fall was observed at the Belmont Observatory throughout the night.Ashfall was also reported to have occurred in most areas of the island overnight and in neighbouring islands: the Grenadines, Barbados and Saint Lucia. Explosions and accompanying ashfall, of similar or larger magnitude, are likely to continue to occur over the next few days. UWI-SRC reported that aAfter the initial explosion of La Soufrière in St. Vincent at 8:41 am on 9th of April, which was accompanied by a plume of ash and gas with an estimated height of 10,000 meters (Dr. Robertson), the seismicity rose again around 11:30 a.m., as a seismic swarm that ended at 2:40 p.m.At 2:58 p.m .: a second explosion occurred, accompanied by a vertical plume of gas and ash about 4 km high.It continues nourished by successive impulses.Tremor has been recorded continuously since 3 p.m., the most important signals accompanying the most important phases of ash emissions, charged with lightning. A third explosion occurred from 6.35 p.m.. As of 8:41 am this morning April 9, 2021 UWI-SRC reported that an explosive eruption began at the La Soufrière volcano in St. Vincent. This is a culmination of the seismic activity that began on April 8. The eruption is ongoing and more information will be shared as things progress. Previously la Soufriere volcano was raised to alert level Red. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, W.I. – 6:30pm April 8th, 2021 - Scientists have observed a significant increase in activity at La Soufriere volcano which has prompted The Government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines to raise the volcanic alert level at the La Soufriere volcano to Red. he UWI-Seismic Research Centre scientific team based at the Belmont Observatory in St. Vincent recorded six separate bands of volcanic tremor throughout the day. This new type of seismic event has not yet been observed since the beginning of the eruption in December 2020. This type of seismic signal is usually associated with movement of magma and fluids close to the surface. Ash venting was also observed during the most recent tremor episode.The effusive eruption is continuing and an explosive phase of the eruption may begin with very little warning. An evacuation order has been issued for communities in the Red volcanic hazard zone. Prime Minister Ralph Gonsalves made the announcement during the second of two press conferences held in Kingstown today. The UWI-SRC Geologist and Scientific Team Lead, Prof. Richard Robertson indicated that “We cannot give any clear warning that nothing can happen within the next 24-48 hours and we would not be surprised if there are explosions at the volcano during that period.” As of the 7th of Aprl, UWI-SRC reported that the Volcano Monitoring Network continued to record small earthquakes associated with the growth of the lava dome. There were also several small Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes located beneath the volcano. UWI-SRC reported that the new swarm of Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes which began at the La Soufrière Volcano at 6:38 am on 5th of April continued at a fairly constant rate before starting to decline at about 2:00 p.m. Activities declined significantly at 4:00 p.m. although small Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes were still being recorded. The current swarm of Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes have been located at a depth about 6 km below the summit of the La Soufrière Volcano. This is slightly deeper than those recorded between March 23 and 25, 2021 which were located at depths from 3 to 5 km below the summit. (Earlier estimates of these swarms were revised from 10 km to 3 to 5 km). The largest Volcano-Tectonic earthquake was recorded at 2:16 pm today, with a magnitude of 3.9. There were nine more Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes in the swarm with magnitudes of 3.0 or more.This new warm of Volcano-Tectonic earthquakes were also much more intense compared to those which occurred during the period March 23-25 and contained many more small earthquakes, with an average rate of about 50 earthquakes per hour compared with 1.5 per hour in March.UWI-SRC reported that on 3rd of April, dome growth continues as the magma fills the space around the old 1979 dome. As of the 29th of March, UWI-SRC reported that activity at the La Soufrière Volcano continues to be at a low level dominated by small earthquakes associated with growth of the lava dome. The alert level remains at Orange. The National Emergency Management Organisation is reminding the public that no evacuation order or notice has been issued. As of the 28th of March, UWI-SRC reported that period of elevated volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes which began on 23 March 2021 stopped on March 26, 2021. Since then, the only seismic activity being recorded are small low frequency events associated with the growth of the dome. These kinds of events were dominant before March 23, 2021. Their rate of occurrence does not appear to have changed as a result of the volcano tectonic earthquake swarm.The new dome continues to grow towards the Leeward and Windward sides of the Volcano with the most active gas emissions being at the top of the new dome, as well as the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 and 2020/21 domes. A drone survey of the dome conducted on March 19th indicates that approximately 6,291,084 m3 of new material (nearly double in size), has been added to the dome since the last survey on February 12. As of the 25th of March, UWI-SRC reported that here have been no changes in activities at the La Soufrière Volcano over the past twenty four hours. Volcano tectonic earthquakes continue to be recorded beneath the volcano and their magnitude is such that they can be felt in villages such as Fancy, Owia, Point and Sandy Bay. The alert level remains at Orange. As of the 24th of March, UWI-SRC reported that mMonitoring scientists at the Belmont Observatory led by scientists from The UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC) have noted a change in seismic activity associated with the ongoing eruption of the La Soufrière Volcano. Up until 23 March 2021, the seismic activity had been dominated by very small low-frequency events which were associated with the ongoing extrusion of the lava dome. These were almost always only recorded at the seismic station closest to the dome. Starting at approximately 10:30 local time (14:30 UTC) on 23 March 2021, the monitoring network recorded a swarm of small low-frequency seismic events which lasted for about 45 minutes. These events were different from previous activity in that they were also recorded on other stations. These events were probably associated with magma movement beneath the dome, although their depth cannot be determined. This is the first time that such a swarm has been seen since the seismic network was upgraded in early 2021. Starting at 16:53 local time (20:53 UTC) on 23 March 2021, the monitoring network started recording volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. These earthquakes are normally associated with underground fractures of the rock mass and are commonly generated by magma pushing through an unyielding rock mass. The volcano-tectonic earthquakes were located beneath the volcano, at depths down to 10 km below the summit. The largest of these had a magnitude of 2.6. Some of them have been reported felt by people living in communities close to the volcano such as Fancy Owia and Sandy Bay. At the present time the volcano-tectonic earthquakes continue, with the numbers of events fluctuating. The very-small dome-extrusion events also continue.As of the 23rd of March, UWI-SRC reported that the dome has continued to grow towards the north-west and south-east with the most active gas emissions being at the top of the new dome, as well as the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-21 dome. As of the 19th of March, new estimation for lava dome gave a volume of 13.13 millions/m3 with a length of 912 m, a width of 243 m, and a height of 105 m. As of the 16th of March UWI-SRC reported that the lava dome is still slowly growing at about 2m/3 per second. No notable change occurred at the volcano (update video). As of the 12th of March, testing and preparation to install a permanent multi-gas monitoring instrument at the top the volcano continues. The team from the Soufriere Monitoring Unit will conduct a drone survey and take aerial photographs of the volcano on Saturday 13th March, 2020, once the weather condition is good. As of the 8th of March, UWI-SRC that the monitoring team made a visit to the La Soufrière Volcano last week for visual observations and drone survey of the dome. Another visit was made to the hot springs on the Wallibou River for water sampling, gas and temperature measurements. Measurements were also undertaken of carbon dioxide in the soil along the Wallibou riverbed. Clear weather conditions at the top of the volcano allowed for aerial photographs to be taken but no new volumes were obtained due to technical problems with the images. Visual observations of the inside of the volcano during the visit confirmed that slow dome growth continues with the south-eastern front of the dome now in line with the pre-existing fumarole on the 1979 dome. No new data is available on the gas coming from the volcano. The ongoing outflow of magma onto the crater floor continues with periodic changes in the rate of dome growth. As of the 5th of March, the new seismic station built at the Bamboo Range National Parks Interpretive Center on the east side of the volcano was operational. A new Global Positioning System (GPS) continuous monitoring station has been installed on the recently constructed monument in Fancy. Work continued at the Belmont Observatory on the installation of the seismic data acquisition system.The gas plume coming from the dome at La Soufriere continues to cause damage to vegetation in the summit areas on the south-western side of the volcano. The measurement of carbon dioxide in soil along the lower sides of the volcano has commenced. As of the 26th of February UWI-SRC reported that no drone surveys or aerial photographs of the volcano were done due to poor weather conditions. Satellite images on February 23, 2021 confirmed that the dome continues to grow slowly. The results from the testing of gas given off by the new dome remain unchanged and continue to consist of water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2,), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). As of the 25th of February, UWI-SRC reported that the lava dome is still growing. No notable change occurred at the volcano. The camera set up at the La Soufrière Volcano was replaced. There are plans in place to install a new seismic station at Bamboo Range on the eastern (Windward) side of the volcano. Equipment for installation is being prepared by the Seismic Research Centre and Soufrière Monitoring Unit Team. Gusty conditions did not allow for drone footage past week. The team continued their work at the summit on Saturday 20th February and managed to get a few photos. Update on dome volume will be given after a full drone flight. As of the 17th of February, UWI-SRC reported that all monitoring data indicate that the ongoing effusion (outflow) of magma onto the crater floor continues. The overall rate of growth since onset of dome growth is approximately 1.9 cubic metres per second. There are no clear indications that the activity is either increasing or decreasing in intensity, but there are periodic changes in the rate at which dome growth is occurring. Measurements of the gas emissions (releases) from the new dome, as well as a preliminary visual inspection of rock samples collected from the dome is indicative of new magmatic material from depth, contributing to the lava extrusion now taking place in the crater. There is a clear gas plume column/cloud/trail) from the dome that is damaging the vegetation in the summit areas on the south-west of the volcano. As of the 16th of February, UWI-SRC reported that the new dome continues to grow towards the north-west and south-east with the most active gas emissions being the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-21 domes, as well as the top of the new dome.Plans have been put in place to establish a new seismic station along the volcano trail and for the establishment of benchmarks for GPS measurements to be done at Table Rock and Jacob’s Well along the trail to the volcano. As of the 13th of february, UWI-SRC reported that the volume of the dome  was now estimated at 6.83 million m³, for 618 m in length, 232 m in width and 90 m in height, growing. The most active gas emissions are at the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-2021 dome, as well as at the top of the new dome. Damage to vegetation, due to acid gases emitted by the growing dome, downstream from the summit, continues to be observed. Falling blocks on the sides of the new dome are recorded by seismographs, and observed. New seismic monitoring equipment was provided by the USGS through the Volcano Disaster Program. An Orange Level alert means highly elevated seismicity or fumarolic activity, or both.As of the 12h of February, UWI-SRC reported that the most active gas emissions are at the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-21 dome, as well as the top of the new dome.Damage to vegetation, from acidic gases emitted from the growing dome, downslope of the summit continues to be observed. As of the 10th of February UWI-SRC reported that no noticeable change occured, the new dome continue to grow with lateral spreading of material towards the North and South, with a preferred northward growth observed. (updated video). The most active gas emissions are at the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-21 dome, as well as the top of the new dome.Satellite images captured on February 5, 202l allowed for a completely clear view of the crater. The new dome continues to grow with lateral spreading of ~15 m towards the north-west and south-east. An investigation was carried out in the region of the hot springs of Wallibou on Sunday February 7, 2021 based on a report indicating irregular temperatures and unusual gas odors. Some gas samples were taken and the temperature was taken at various points and also some liquid samples were taken for further analysis. Lava dome measurements carried out on February 1st was : 511 meters lengh by 231 meters large, for a height of 93 meters and an estimated volume of 5.93 million m³. Observations made northwest of the dome suggest a new area affected by fire that affected vegetation on the crater walls. (updated video) . Some gas measurements were done on 1st of February using a Multi-Gas Instrument and a filter pack and detected the first day that sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas in the eruption. Additional reflectors for the Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) target were installed this day, bringing the total number of reflectors installed to nine (9). These reflectors will be used to assist with measurements of deformation associated with the flanks of the volcano. .Some gas measurements were done today using a Multi-Gas Instrument and a filter pack. The Multi-Gas measurements were successful. Since the installation of station on 06 January on the flanks of the volcano, at Wallibou, and the one at the summit, on 18 January, 573 events have been recorded, up to 07:30 a.m., on 30 January. Three GPS stations are currently streaming data to Seismic Research Centre. Telemetry of the data being collected from the new GPS station installed at the Richmond Vale Academy on 23 January, is still ongoing. Since 31 December 2020, no significant deformation signals related to the current effusive eruption have been observed. The Team from the UWI Seismic Research Centre and the Soufrière Monitoring Unit will spend the next few days scouting to air mark sites to carry out the surveys for the EDM and to install more reflectors inside the base at the volcano for the EDM target.On 27th of January the dimensions of the new dome of the Soufrière de St Vincent  was 428 m lengh, 217 m large and 80 m in height - total volume 4.45 million m³. As of the 25th of January, UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. Generally clear views of the volcano indicate that the damage to the vegetation due to acidic gases continue to creep downslope. Alert level remains at Orange.  Full advantage was taken of the general clear conditions at the summit on 24th of January to achieve several tasks.Aerial photographs and video of the volcano were taken, through the assistance of Drone Pilot Rommel De Freitas and Professor Robertson.The electronics team led by Mr Ian Juman installed a camera and EDM reflector on the southern crater wall. The camera will be used to help track growth of the dome while the EDM reflector would be used to check for possible instability of the southern crater wall. UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. GPS monitoring station was installed at the Richmond Vale Academy on 23rd of January. The team prepared monitoring equipment at Belmont to be installed close to the summit of the volcano on Sunday 24th. As of the 22nd of January, UWI-SRC reported that the volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. Close observations of the volcano were made at the Belmont Observatory during most of the day. Gas emissions from the dome were consistent throughout the day.The area of burnt vegetation continues to creep downslope and has now expanded towards the top eastern rim of the crater. As of the 21st of January, UWI-SRC reported that Alert level remains at Orange. The volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. Persons living in areas close to the volcano should expect strong sulphur smells for several days to weeks, depending on changes in wind direction. UWI-SRC reported that no clear views were obtained of the dome on 20th of January. The volcano continued to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. As of the 19th of January, UWI-SRC reported that effusive activity of the lava dome continued. The dome took on an elliptical shape. As of the 18th of January, UWI-SRC reported that effusive activity continued (video report from UWI-SRC) . UWI-SRC reported that visual observations of the dome on 17th of January late in the afternoon allowed for clear views into the crater. The dome continues to increase in height, to spread laterally and to emit volcanic gases. The areas of most active gas emission were noted to be the contact areas between the pre-existing 1979 dome and the 2020-21 dome, as well as the top of this new dome. An extensive area of burnt vegetation was observed in the western section of the crater floor, extending outwards from the dome. UWI-SRC reported that Soufriere continues to erupt "effusively" as hot magma reaches the surface at extreme temperatures. This appears overnight as a bright red glow above the crater, observed by the villagers of Chateaubelair and surrounding areas on the western flank of the volcano. UWI-SRC team safely and successfully collected rock samples from the new lava dome  on January 16. Analyzing the composition of these rocks will provide valuable information on whether the new dome is made of old material (linked to the 1979 eruption) or fresh material from greater depths. During the field visit on January 16th, UWI-SRC team took photo of the dome with a thermal camera: on a growing area, the max. was 590.8 ° C but the internal temperatures must be higher, which justifies a night incandescence. An expanse of burnt vegetation was observed in the western section of the crater floor, extending outward from the dome. As of the 15th of January, UWI-SRC reported that observations indicate that the dome has continued to grow; and was now about three quarters (¾) of the height of the pre-existing 1979 dome, with a estimated of 340 m long, 160 m wide, and 90 m high. . Growth of the dome continues with lateral spreading of material towards the east and west along the moat areas surrounding the 1979 dome.Gas emissions were observed from several areas of the 1979 dome as well as the crater floor through several cracks which have developed. Damage to the vegetation was extensive within the eastern, southern, and western parts of the inner crater walls. The damage reported on previously that is occurring along the upper part of the south western crater rim, has continued to slowly extend downslope. UWI-SRC reported that te dome continues to grow in height and extends laterally to the east and west, confined between the old dome and the crater wall, following continued magmatic extrusion. Steam is visible from the Belmont Observatory. A helicopter arrived from Antigua on January 14, allowing aerial reconnaissance, and the taking of thermal images, gas emissions and measurements of the dimensions of the new dome. New gas measurements and analyzes must be carried out. The alert level remains at orange. The scientists have reported that carbon dioxide is also one of the gases coming out of the volcano, along with Sulphur Dioxide. UWI-SRC reported that heavy cloud did not allow for aerial reconnaissance on 13th of January. Arrangements have been made for aerial reconnaissance over the next few days via helicopter. As of the 12th of January UWI-SRC reported that due to bad wheather conditions no areial reconnaissance could be carried.dome. The new dome continues to grow (estimation from UWI-SRC) about 1.5 m3 per second; wedged between it and the crater wall, it expands laterally in a westerly direction. Its shape has changed from round to ellipsoid. The vapors emitted are visible from the Belmont observatory.The alert level remains orange.(video) dated 12th of January. As of the 11th of January, UWI-SRC reported that no reconnaissance flight of the La Soufriere was done due to unfavorable weather conditions. The dome that broke through the crater floor, on the south-west perimeter of the existing dome, continues to grow within the crater of La Soufrière and has an ellipsoid shape with growth expanding in a westerly direction. UWI-SRC bulletin 11, dated 10th of January reported that weather conditions did not allow for a reconnaissance flight on Saturday 9th January or Sunday 10th January, 2021, however analysis of footage collected from a drone flight over the volcano on Saturday 9th January indicate that the drone continues to grow (photo). The dome that broke through the crater floor, on December 27, 2020, on the south-west perimeter of the existing dome, continues to grow within the crater of La Soufrière and has an ellipsoid shape with growth expanding in a westerly direction. Alert level remains at Orange. Two scientists from the Seismic Research Centre (SRC) based at the Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), will join the current team here in St. Vincent later this week. They are expected to gather data from the dome and crater through temperature and photogrammetry measurements and gas measurements using a MultiGAS and spectrometer. UWI-SRC bulletin 10, dated of January 8th, reported that the dome that broke through the crater floor, on December 27, 2020, on the south-west perimeter of the existing dome, continues to grow within the crater of La Soufrière and has an ellipsoid shape with growth expanding in a westerly direction. UWI-SRC bulletin 9 dated on 7th of January reported the volcano continues to exude magma on the surface, steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory and the new dome also continues to increase in size. Persons living in areas close to the volcano should expect strong sulphur smells for several days to weeks, depending on changes in wind direction. The SRC Team conducted a successful reconnaissance of the La Soufriere Volcano on board the French Helicopter on Wednesday 6th January, 2021 through an arrangement between the Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines and the Government of France, through the Embassy of France to the Eastern Caribbean States, to Barbados and the OECS in Saint Lucia. The second planned reconnaissance on that day on board the Regional Security System (RSS) Aircraft was cancelled due to the presence of heavy cloud cover when the aircraft arrived.UWI-SRC bulletin 8 dated of 5th of January reported that alert level remained at Orange. The Volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory.Based on observations this day, the dome is slowly getting bigger. Persons living in areas close to the volcano should expect strong sulphur smells for several days to weeks, depending on changes in wind direction. UWI-SRC-NEMO reported that no aerial reconnaissance of La Soufriere was done on 4th of January due to the heavy cloud cover. Alert level remains at Orange. The Volcano continues to exude magma on the surface and steam can still be observed from the Belmont Observatory. Persons living in areas close to the volcano should expect strong sulphur smells for several days to weeks, depending on changes in wind direction. UWI-SRC reported that a flyby carried out by the Nemo on January 3rd allowed to see the new dome in constant growth. Satellite images taken by Sentinel 2 SWIR and visible Planetlabs clearly reveal its position in the crater.The surveillance of La Soufrière has been reinforced. A webcam surveillance system was installed at Rose Hall on January 2 to continuously observe the summit of the volcano. A data center has also been created at the Belmont Observatory, to analyze the data collected on the volcano. The alert level remains at Orange. The volcano continues its effusion activity, and steam can be observed from Belmont. UWI-SRC reported that two aerial reconnaissance were carried out on 31st of December 2020 at the Soufrière of St-Vincent: but a strong cloud cover prevented a good view of the crater during the first reconnaissance; The second aerial reconnaissance was carried out around 4:00 p.m. and the photographer was able to capture photos of the crater, which shows the effusive eruption is continuing and the new dome is also continuing to increase in size. The alert level remains at Orange. People living in areas near the volcano, which include communities of Fancy in Georgetown and Belle Isle in Richmond, are urged to remain vigilant and listen to any advice from the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO).As of the 30th of December, NEMO and UWI reported that although there have been no significant changes over the past 24 hours at Soufrière de St -Vincent, materials and magma continue to accumulate on the surface with no associated seismic activity. The construction of the Dome continues, its size is seen slightly larger than on December 29, during the monitoring of the volcano by aerial surveillance. The alert level remains at Orange - high fumarolic activity. All residents living in communities closer to the volcano (red and orange zones) are asked to be on alert for any increased activity.Following an effusive episode residents of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines have been placed on alert.(relief bulletin). According to a press briefing on December 22, the Seismic Research Center at the University of the West Indies (UWI-SRC) in Trinidad was made aware by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of a hot spot on La Soufrière. Since the beginning of November, there has been an increase in the background level of seismic activity recorded at La Soufrière. The photo taken by the main seismic technician of the Soufrière monitoring unit on December 29, 2020 shows a new dome with steam in the crater following an effusive eruption at the La Soufrière volcano in St Vincent. The UWI-SRC is currently monitoring the situation in collaboration with the local authorities and an update will be provided shortly. The public is advised not to visit the volcano until a new update is provided. The UWI-SRC and the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO) are the official sources of information on earthquakes and volcanic activity in St Vincent and the Grenadines. Soufrière St. Vincent is the northernmost and youngest volcano on St. Vincent Island. The NE rim of the 1.6-km wide summit crater is cut by a crater formed in 1812. The crater itself lies on the SW margin of a larger 2.2-km-wide Somma crater, which is breached widely to the SW as a result of slope failure. Frequent explosive eruptions since about 4300 years ago produced pyroclastic deposits of the Yellow Tephra Formation, which blanket much of the island. The first historical eruption took place in 1718; it and the 1812 eruption produced major explosions. Much of the northern end of the island was devastated by a major eruption in 1902 that coincided with the catastrophic Mont Pelée eruption on Martinique. A lava dome was emplaced in the summit crater in 1971 during a strictly effusive eruption, forming an island in a lake that filled the crater prior to an eruption in 1979. The lake was then largely ejected during a series of explosive eruptions, and the dome was replaced with another. (GVN/GVP). Photos booklet online about previous eruption.

FRANCE - Montagne Pelée ( Martinique island)

September 26th, 2022

Between September 16th and 23rd, 2022, the OVSM recorded at Mount Pelée at least 9 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude less than 0.1, of which 2 could be located. This seismicity is superficial, and associated with the formation of micro-fractures of the building, located at 400m. above sea level, approximately 1 km. deep below the top surface.In addition, 3 hybrid earthquakes were recorded, related to internal fluids.To the areas of deteriorated vegetation already confirmed located between Morne Plumé and the Rivière Chaude, another has been added since August 26 to the north of the Rivière Chaude.The alert level remains at yellow / vigilance. The weekly report of the OVSM-IPGP for the period between August 19 and August 26, 2022 mentions at least nine volcano-tectonic earthquakes under Mount Pelée (it had been three weeks since there had been any more earthquakes). They were of magnitude less than 0.1 and were located inside the volcanic edifice (500 to 900m deep). These earthquakes are, still according to the OVSM, associated with the formation of micro-fractures in the volcanic edifice. None of the earthquakes were felt by the population. An extension of two areas of deteriorated vegetation located between Morne Plumé and the Chaude River was noted during helicopter overflights carried out on February 9 and May 5 with the support of Dragon 972 (see monthly bulletin for February 2022), and confirmed by analysis of satellite images and a drone (overflight of May 11). The alert level remains yellow: vigilance. Between June 10th, 2022 at 4 p.m. (UTC) and June 17th, 2022 at 4 p.m. (UTC), the OVSM recorded at least 3 volcano-tectonic earthquakes. The zone of degassing at sea at shallow depth between St Pierre and le Prêcheur is still observed. The IGP took fluid samples in order to understand the origin of this degassing and to assess its possible relationship with the Mount Pelée hydrothermal system. The alert level remains YELLOW: vigilance. OVSM reported that between March 25 and April 1, the OVSM recorded at least 10 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude less than or equal to 0.6 under Mount Pelee. (There had been 2 the previous week.) These earthquakes of low energy were located inside the volcanic edifice between 0.7 and 1.5 km depth below the surface. This superficial volcano-tectonic seismicity is associated with the formation of micro-fractures in the volcanic edifice. None of these earthquakes was felt by the population.The zone of degassing at sea at shallow depth between Saint-Pierre and Le Prêcheur is still observed. The IPGP took fluid samples in order to determine the origin of this degassing and to assess its possible relationship with the Mount Pelée hydrothermal system. Between March 18th and 25th at 4 p.m. UTC, the volcanological and seismological observatory of Martinique recorded 2 low-energy volcano-tectonic earthquakes under Mount Pelée, associated with the micro-fracturing of the volcanic edifice; the hypocentres are located between 700 meters and 1,100 meters deep. An extension of two zones of deteriorated vegetation, located between Morne Plumé and Rivière Chaude, was observed and verified by a helicopter flight and satellite images. Between February 25, 2022 and March 4, 2022, the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Martinique recorded at least 27 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude less than or equal to 1.1. There had been at least 35 the previous week . These low energy earthquakes were located inside the volcanic edifice between 0.7 and 0.9 km deep below the surface. This superficial volcano-tectonic seismicity is associated with the formation of micro-fractures in the volcanic edifice. None of these earthquakes was felt by the population.OVSM recorded between February 18 and February 25 at 4 p.m. UTC at least 35 volcano-tectonic earthquakes with a magnitude less than or equal to 0.5 under Mount Pelee. The hypocenters were located between 500 m and 1,200 meters below the surface.This superficial seismicity is associated with the micro-fracturing of the volcanic edifice.A hybrid earthquake associated with the presence of fluids was recorded.An extension of two areas of deteriorated vegetation was noted during an overflight.The alert level remains at yellow. OVSM reported that between December 31, 2021 and January 7, 2022, the OVSM recorded at Mount Pelée 16 VT earthquakes of M less than or equal to 0.25, between 1.0 km depth and the surface. They are related to the micro-fracturing of rocks. Areas of vegetation degraded by gas are regrowing, while others have been detected. The shallow sea degassing zone is still under investigation. The level of volcanic vigilance has been yellow since December 4, 2020. Previous news 2021 - OVSM reported that between October 15, 2021 at 4 p.m. (UTC) and October 22, 2021 at 4 p.m. (UTC), the OVSM recorded at Montagne Pelée, Martinique, at least 44 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, associated with the formation micro-fractures in the volcanic edifice, of magnitude less than or equal to 0.1.These earthquakes were located inside the volcanic edifice between 1 km and 0.1 km below the surface. None of these earthquakes were felt by the population.A degassing zone at sea was detected at shallow depth (between St Pierre and le Prêcheur). The IGP is currently setting up experiments to map this gas emanation zone, carry out physicochemical measurements of the fluids and samples of these fluids in order to understand the origin of this degassing and to assess its possible relationship. with the hydrothermal system of Mount Pelée. This kind of manifestation is frequent on active or not active underwater volcanic sites. The analyzes underway by the OVSM-IPGP will make it possible to determine the possible relationship of this underwater degassing with the activity of Mount Pelée recorded by the OVSM since 2019.A main area of ​​heavily degraded vegetation is still observed on the southwest flank of Mount Pelée, between the upper Claire River and the Chaude River.The alert level remains at  YELLOW / vigilance. Between August 6 and 13, the OVSM recorded at least 29 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude less than or equal to 0.2 (since the lightning of the night of June 29 to 30, 82% of the Montagne Pelée seismological station network and 86% of the volcano's deformation detection network are operational). The previous week, between July 30 and August 6, 121 earthquakes were recorded. These earthquakes were located inside the volcanic edifice between 0.3 km above sea level and the surface. None of these earthquakes were felt by the population. This volcano-tectonic-type superficial seismicity is associated with the formation of microfractures in the volcanic edifice.A degassing zone at sea was detected at shallow depth (between Saint-Pierre and Le Prêcheur). The alert level remains on Yellow. Between July 9 and 16, the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Martinique recorded at least 76 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude less than or equal to 0.2. There were 41 earthquakes between July 2 and 9. This week's 76 earthquakes were located inside the volcanic edifice between sea level and 1 km above sea level. None of these earthquakes were felt by the population. A main area of ​​heavily degraded vegetation is still observed on the southwest flank of Mount Pelée, between the upper Claire River and the Chaude River. These observations reflect the variable dynamics of the processes of magmatic and hydrothermal origin at Mount Pelée in line with its renewed activity since April 2019. L'Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique (OVSM) reported that seismicity at Pelée increased during 19-26 March. The seismic network recorded at least 55 high-frequency volcano-tectonic earthquakes with magnitudes less than or equal to 1, located at depths between 1.7 km below sea level and 1 km above sea level. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).L'Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique (OVSM) reported that seismicity at Pelée remained at significant levels during 8-15 January, though had slightly decreased compared to the previous week. The seismic network recorded at least 22 high-frequency, volcano-tectonic earthquakes with magnitudes less than 1, located at shallow depths between 600 and 1,000 m above sea level. Two low-frequency, long-period earthquakes were also noted. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). L'Observatoire Volcanologique et Sismologique de Martinique (OVSM) reported that seismicity related to volcanism has typically remained low at Pelé since 1980, when monitoring instrumentation was first installed, with a few dozen earthquakes recorded per year. Swarms were recorded in 1980, 1985-1986, 2007, and 2014, though the latter two swarms were associated with tectonic events. Volcanic seismicity appeared in April 2019 centered 4-5 km below the summit and deeper (more than 10 km below sea level). In addition, tremor-type signals were recorded during 8-9 November 2020, possibly signifying a reactivation of the hydrothermal system. The seismic data recorded since April 2019 represented an increase above baseline levels recorded during 1 January 2015 to April 2019. As a result of this activity OVSM raised the Alert Level to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 4 December 2020. Seismicity remained above background levels during 18 December 2020-1 January 2021, with at least 14 volcano-tectonic earthquakes detected with magnitudes less than or equal to 1. Scientists did not observe fumarolic activity during an overflight on 29 December 2020. The number of high-frequency, volcano-tectonic earthquakes (M 1 or less) totaled 65 during 1-8 January. A significant number (249) of long-period earthquakes in a volcanic tremor-type signal were distributed over two periods, 0000-0200 on 3 January and between 2100 on 3 January and 0200 on 4 January. Two isolated, low-frequency, long-period signals were also recorded. The data suggested ongoing perturbation of the hydrothermal system. Previously, Volcanological and Seismological Observatory of Martinique of the IPGP (Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, CNRS) sent, on Thursday 3 December 2020, an explanatory note to the Prefect of Martinique to recommend a passage to the level of yellow volcanic alert (2nd alert level on a scale that counts 4) of the Pelee Mountain. This recommendation of the OVSM-IPGP comes after the detection of the evolution of seismic signals measured in the context of monitoring the volcano by the observatory and the consultation of a group of experts who studied these phenomena.  Renowned Montagne Pelée, forming the northern end of the island of Martinique, is the most active volcano of the Lesser Antilles arc. Three major edifice failures since the late Pleistocene, the last about 9000 years ago, have left large horseshoe-shaped calderas breached to the SW inside which the modern volcano has been constructed. More than 20 major eruptions have occurred here during the past 5000 years. Extensive pyroclastic-flow deposits, incised by steep-walled ravines, mantle the slopes of the volcano. The l'Etang Sec summit crater is filled by two lava domes emplaced during the 1902 and 1929 eruptions. Historical eruptions date back to the 18th century; only two modest phreatic or phreatomagmatic eruptions took place prior to 1902. The catastrophic 1902 eruption, which destroyed the city of St. Pierre, the "Pearl of the Lesser Antilles," became the type-example of pelean eruptions and marked the onset of modern volcanological studies of the behavior of pyroclastic flows. (GVN/GVP)

FRANCE - Soufriere Guadeloupe

October 3rd, 2020

OVSG reported that a new sequence of volcanic earthquakes began on September 29, 2020 at 5:33 am local time in the area of the La Soufrière of Guadeloupe. On October 2, the OVSG networks recorded 228 earthquakes of M <1, not felt; the hypocenter is located 2.5 km under the dome of La Soufrière. The alert level remains at yellow / vigilance.OVSG reported tha the new sequence of volcanic earthquakes that began on Saturday September 12, 2020 at 7.20 a.m. local time in the La Soufrière area continued on 14th of September with 146 recorded earthquakes of very low magnitude (M <1). .OVSG reported that the sequence of volcanic earthquakes that began on Saturday August 15, 2020 at 2:47 a.m. local time (Saturday August 15, 2020 at 6:47 a.m. UTC in the volcanic aera of La Soufrière of ​​Guadeloupe continues on 16th of August. Since the start of this sequence, the OVSG-IPGP networks have recorded 372 very low magnitude earthquakes (M <1). No earthquakes were reported felt. The events are located at a depth of <2.5 km below the top of the dome of La Soufrière. OVSG reported that since the beginning of 2018 a cyclical process of injecting deep magmatic gases at the base of the hydrothermal system of the Soufrière of Guadeloupe, at a depth between 2 and 3 km below the summit. It generates a recurrent process of overheating and overpressure of the hydrothermal system which results in disturbances in the circulation of hydrothermal fluids; the evolution of the activity of fumaroles at the summit, as evidenced by the projection of hot, acid mud over a few meters; increased swarm volcanic seismicity; some volcanic earthquakes felt, four between February and April 2018, including an earthquake of magnitude M4.1 on April 27, 2018, the strongest since 1976, deformations of small amplitude and limited to the dome of La Soufrière of the order of 3- 7 mm / year and the continued opening of summit fractures, the fluctuation of the flow rates of fumarolic gas from a pressurized hydrothermal reservoir, an increase in thermal anomalies in the soil at the top of La Soufrière. These phenomena are not yet clearly associated with an anomaly in the other monitoring parameters which could indicate a possible rise in magma. The latter would typically, but not systematically, manifest itself through numerous deep or felt earthquakes, large-scale deformations beyond the dome, and the emission of sulfur gases at high temperature (> 150 ° C). La Soufrière de la Guadeloupe volcano occupies the southern end of Basse-Terre, the western half of the butterfly-shaped island of Guadeloupe. Construction of the Grand Découverte volcano about 0.2 million years ago (Ma) was followed by caldera formation after a plinian eruption about 0.1 Ma, and then by construction of the Carmichaël volcano within the caldera. Two episodes of edifice collapse and associated large debris avalanches formed the Carmichaël and Amic craters about 11,500 and 3100 years ago, respectively. The presently active La Soufrière volcano subsequently grew within the Amic crater. The summit consists of a flat-topped lava dome, and several other domes occur on the southern flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from NW-SE-trending fissure systems that cut across the summit and upper flanks. A relatively minor phreatic eruption in 1976-77 caused severe economic disruption when Basse-Terre, the island's capital city, which lies immediately below the volcano, was evacuated. (GVN/GVP)

Grenade - Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano

June 17th, 2020

Following an increase in the seismic activity of the underwater volcano Kick 'em Jenny, in the volcanic arc of the Lesser Antilles, observed over a period of seven days in June - a swarm of more than 1,400 volcanic earthquakes of M <1 , 8 -, the National Disaster Management Agency (NaDMA) issued a vigilance notice on June 14, 2020. Although the alert level remained at Yellow / 2, with a 1.5 km marine exclusion zone around the submerged summit of the volcano, the corner is to be avoided, even between eruptions: the release of large quantities of gas bubbles from the volcano, without signs of this surface activity, can decrease the density of seawater above the vent, and decrease the lift of the water.Any navigator is therefore reminded that the 1.5 km exclusion zone must continue to be observed. The volcano is under surveillance by the University of the West Indies Seismic Research Center of the Trinidad and Tobago campus (UWI SRC) and the NaDMA. Kick 'em Jenny, a historically active submarine volcano 8 km off the north shore of Grenada, rises 1300 m from the sea floor. Recent bathymetric surveys have shown evidence for a major arcuate collapse structure that was the source of a submarine debris avalanche that traveled more than 15 km to the west. Bathymetry also revealed another submarine cone to the SE, Kick 'em Jack, and submarine lava domes to its south. These and subaerial tuff rings and lava flows at Ile de Caille and other nearby islands may represent a single large volcanic complex. Numerous historical eruptions, mostly documented by acoustic signals, have occurred at Kick 'em Jenny since 1939, when an eruption cloud rose 275 m above the sea surface. Prior to the 1939 eruption, which was witnessed by a large number of people in northern Grenada, there had been no written mention of Kick 'em Jenny. Eruptions have involved both explosive activity and the quiet extrusion of lava flows and lava domes in the summit crater; deep rumbling noises have sometimes been heard onshore. Historical eruptions have modified the morphology of the summit crater. (video)

MONTSERRAT - Soufriere Hills volcano - West-Indies

May 4th, 2022

MVO reported that a smaller rockfall activity occurred at the volcano starting on 28 April at 22:50 local time until 1 May. The reason for the event is a partial collapse of the lava dome in combination with a recent heavy rainfall resulting in the flow tumbling down the slope. Previous news 2021 - Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano remains low. The seismic network recorded nine volcano tectonic earthquakes and one rockfall this week from 5th to 12th of November. SO2 flux measurements were taken by boat on 06 and 10 November. The average flux valueswere 305 tonnes per day on the 06 November from nine traverses and 280 tonnes per day on 10 November from nine traverses..MVO Weekly Report for the Period 29 October to 05 November 2021 -Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano remains low. The seismic network recorded four volcano tectonic earthquakes and two rockfalls this week.Measurements of the SO2 flux were taken from the helicopter on 02 November. There were eight traverses with an average flux of 254 tonnes per day. As of the 19th of April, MVO reported that Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano remains low.The seismic network recorded four volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week.Measurements of the SO2 flux were taken by helicopter on 13 April. There were ten traverses withn average flux of 151 tonnes per day.Due to an unusual, more northerly, wind direction during the week it was possible to smell gases from the volcanic plume at times. On 13 April a very light and fine-grained ash deposit was observed which is thought to have originated from the recent extensive explosive activity of La Soufriere of Saint Vincent. Due to the large size of the lava dome, pyroclastic flows can occur at any time without warning on any side of the volcano, including Gages from where they can travel rapidly into Plymouth. Tracks across the Belham Valley can be destroyed or heavily modified by flash flooding or lahars, and caution should be exercised crossing the valley during and after rainfall. MVO reported that a good visibility on the lava dome of the Soufriere Hills volcano on January 29 and February 2 allowed various fumaroles to be imaged using the portable thermal camera, giving temperatures included between 212 and 472 ° C. These are consistent with previous temperatures measured in December 2020. Visual observations from the helicopter also revealed evidence of continued rockfall activity under all steep faces of the lava dome, particularly inside the 2010 collapse scar and at the head of Gage Fan on the west side of the Lava Dome. Three large slabs have also been observed to form in the cliff wall on the Tar River side of the lava dome, which could lead to large rockfall in the future. This is part of the natural process of weathering and loss of mass and does not imply a decrease in the stability of the lava dome. Previous news 2020 - On the evening of October 19th, 2020, the cloudless Soufriere Hills lava dome was photographed from the Montserrat / MVO and Jack Boy Hill Observatory. A series of digital photographs and thermal images were taken at both locations to capture the fumaroles and hot spots on the lava dome. Digital photographs captured an incandescence of three prominent fumaroles in the cliff that forms the back wall of the 2010 collapsed scar.Comparing these images to the previous ones, there are no changes in the number and distribution of glowing features and hot spots. MVO reported that the activity for the period from June 26 to July 3, 2020 remains low. The seismic network recorded 6 volcano-tectonic earthquakes during the week.The alert level remains at 1, with prohibition of public access to zone V; maritime zones E and W can be used by maritime traffic, without stopping. MVO recent weekly report. Latest MVO report about period 1st of April - 30th of September 2018 - The pause in lava extrusion that started on 11 February 2010 continues and is now more than 103 months long as of 30 September 2018. This prolonged period of persistent low-level unrest, (i.e., continued inflation, sporadic seismicity and persistent de-gassing) clearly demonstrates that the magmatic system has not shut down. Thus, the potential for a restart remains. Consequently, MVO continues to hold the view that little has changed in regards to the Hazard and Risk posed by the Soufriere Hills volcano at this time. Overall, activity during the reporting period has been low. Seismic activity has consisted of sporadic volcanotectonic (VT) earthquakes, sometimes in strings or brief swarms. Low-frequency seismicity has been completely absent, while rockfall activity has continued at a very low level - Read complete report - No recent news since 2016 - latest MVO Weekly Report for the Period 26 August to 2 September 2016 - Activity at the Soufriere Hills Volcano remains low. The seismic network recorded eight rockfalls, seven volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week. Four of the volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred in a very brief swarm on 28th August. The rockfalls were probably a continuation of the increased activity following the heavy rainfall on 24 August. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were not possible during the reporting period. No recent activity reported since September 2015 - Based on satellite image analyses and wind data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 September 2015 possible re-suspended ash from Soufriere Hills drifted WNW at an altitude of 1 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. - latest previous report about eruptive activity dated for the period from 8th of March 2013 to 5th of July 2013 - Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 28th of June to 5h of July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 271 tonnes/day with a maximum of 427 and a minimum of 161 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 21st to 28th of June. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 353 tonnes/day with a maximum of 459 and a minimum of 221 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded four rockfalls and nine volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes the week from 14th to 21st.of June. Six of the VT earthquakes occurred in a brief swarm on 16 July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were only possible on three days this week and gave an average flux of 289 tonnes/day with a maximum of 332 and a minimum of 247 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded one rockfall and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 7th to 14 th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 281 tonnes/day with a maximum of 428 and a minimum of 185 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded nine rockfalls, five volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event the previous week frm 31st of may to 7th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 485 tonnes/day with a maximum of 543 and a minimum of 430 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event this week from 24th to 31st of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 395 tonnes/day with a maximum of 588 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. . The seismic network recorded three rockfalls the week from 17th to 24th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 380 tonnes/day with a maximum of 536 and a minimum of 281 tonnes/day. Many residents of Montserrat felt an earthquake at 7:51 pm on 18 May 2013. This earthquake had a magnitude of 4.9 and was located south-west of Barbuda; about 100 km north of Montserrat. It was not associated with the Soufrière Hills Volcano. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic this week from 10th to 17th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 373 tonnes/day with a maximum of 553 and a minimum of 137 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week from 3rd to 10th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 313 tonnes/day with a maximum of 435 and a minimum of 160 tonnes/day. Measurements were only possible on three days this week because of adverse wind conditions. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 26th of April to 3rd of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 379 tonnes/day with a maximum of 466 and a minimum of 254 tonnes/day. The wind has been mainly towards the north and north-east since the night of 1/2 May. This has blown the volcanic plume over inhabited areas and the smell of volcanic gases has been noticeable at times. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 19th to 26th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 366 tonnes/day with a maximum of 535 and a minimum of 181 tonnes/day. There have been no good views of the dome for over a month now. Reports from helicopter pilots suggest that most of the large slab on the eastern side of the dome is now gone; removed by the pyroclastic flow on 28 March 2013. As of the 19th of April, MVO reported that activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes during the week from 12th to 19th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 556 tonnes/day with a maximum of 1155 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. Past week 5th to 12th of April, the seismic network recorded no seismic events related to the volcano this week. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 325 tonnes/day with a maximum of 585 and a minimum of 186 tonnes/day. MVO reported that during 22-29 March activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. A pyroclastic flow traveled down the Tar River Valley (E) at about 0500 on 28 March. The flow was not observed directly, but the deposits indicated that it traveled halfway down the valley, 1-1.5 km from the dome. There were no reports of ashfall; any ash was probably blown over Plymouth and out to sea. The source of the flow was not known due to cloud cover, but was likely from the failure a large slab that had been slowing moving away from the dome. Heavy rainfall during the evening of 28 March generated large lahars in several valleys around the volcano, including in the Belham Valley (NW). These started at about 1900 and lasted for several hours. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded one rockfall and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 15th to 22nd of March.Sulphur-dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 359 tonnes/day with a maximum of 540 and a minimum of 258 tonnes/day. There appear to have been no changes in the large slab recently observed to be peeling away from the dome above the Tar River Valley. The slab is now estimated to have dimensions of 80 by 60 by 4-6 metres. If this slab falls as a single block it will produce a large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas. previously , the seismic network recorded one rockfall this week from 8th to 15th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 251 tonnes/day with a maximum of 264 and a minimum of 227 tonnes/day. During a helicopter inspection on 8 March 2013, we observed a large fissure in the cliff on the eastern side of the dome, part of which has existed since 2007. This fissure is the result of slow cooling and erosion of the dome. It is parallel to the cliff face and is estimated to be two metres wide, suggesting that a large slab is slowing peeling away from the dome. If this slab falls as a single block it will probably produce a moderate-to-large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas The seismic network recorded one rockfall, two volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one hybrid event this week from 1st to 8th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements for the week gave an average flux of 368 tonnes/day with a maximum of 552 and a minimum of 213 tonnes/day. Variable winds blew the volcanic plume over inhabited areas for much of the week, particularly the first half, and the smell of volcanic gases was very noticeable at times. There has been no visible emission of ash from the volcano this week. Montserrat Volcano Observatory - View latest NOAA satellite image of Montserrat ( every 30 mn)

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Soufriere Saint Vincent dome - 14th of January 2021 - UWI-SRC

Evolution of the new dome (Soufriere Saint-Vincent)

Soufriere Saint Vincent lava dome footprint between 27th of December 2020 and 19th of March 2021 ( UWI-SRC document)

Explosion on 9th of April 2021 (UWI-SRC)

ECUADOR - Tungurahua volcano

January 4th, 2022

IGEPN informed that through the Volcanic Observers Network (ROVE) and IGEPN cameras recorded on Monday January 3, 2022, a process of resuspension of ash on the northwest flank of the Tungurahua volcano. This process is recorded from around 12:00 TL and is due to the strong winds in the area and the dry climate. There is no change in the internal activity of the Tungurahua volcano. The Geophysical Institute of the National Polytechnic School is monitoring the activity of the volcano and will report on any changes that may be recorded. Previous news 2021 - As of the 7th of June, IGEPN reported that the latest earthquakes felt in the town of Baños, of magnitudes less than 2.9 and shallow, were associated with faults nearby. They do not pose a threat to the population. Monitoring of the volcano remains permanent; its surface activity is very low, and the internal activity remains low, both unchanged. Previous news 2020 -IGEPN reported that on November 15th from 6:40 am local, the seismic stations BULB and BILB of the Tungurahua volcano recorded a high frequency signal, perhaps associated with the appearance of mudslides and debris (lahars) which descended the drainages of the volcano. Proximity to rivers was not recommended. IGEPN can make a connection with the information of November 9 which mentionned a process of resuspension of ash in the upper part of Tungurahua, following strong winds blowing towards the north-west. (NOAA - IGEPN satellite image) Previous news dated 2016 - IG reported that during 27 September-4 October seismic activity at Tungurahua remained at moderate levels, characterized by 1-8 long-period earthquakes and up to three volcano-tectonic events per day. An hour-long period of tremor was recorded on 1 October. Minor fumarolic emissions rose above the crater rim. IG reported that Tungurahua's seismic network detected a significant increase in the number of long-period (LP) earthquakes on 12 September and small episodes of tremor beginning on 16 September. A swarm of 24 LP events were detected during 0408-0424 on 18 September. Starting at 1400 on 24 September the number of LP events again increased. Gas emissions were low, and together with the increased seismicity, possibly indicates a blocked conduit. IG noted that a possible large-scale eruption may happen within hours to days. In response, the Secretaria de Gestion de Riesgos (SGR) announced that the Alert Level was raised from Yellow to Orange (the second highest on a 4-color scale) on 26 September. Previously IG reported that activity at Tungurahua was at moderate-to-high levels during 16-17 March, moderate levels during 18-21 March, and low levels on 22 March. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano; the weather cleared for a brief period on 20 March and no activity was observed. IG reported that moderate-to-high levels of activity at Tungurahua continued during 9-15 March. Gas-and-ash plumes rose from the crater on most days, often to heights less than 2 km above the crater, and drifted NW, W, WSW, and SW; cloud cover sometimes obscured views of the volcano. Explosions were recorded daily, and crater incandescence was reported almost nightly. Ash fell on 9 March in Pillate (8 km W), El Manzano (8 km SW), Cotalo (8 km NW), and Macas. On 10 March a small pyroclastic flow traveled 1.5 km NW down the Achupashal drainage. On 15 March residents in the Runten sector (NNE) heard an explosion and sounds resembling rolling rocks on the NE flank. Ash fell in Patate (NW) and Juive (7 km NNW). Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador's capital city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano. Tungurahua - Live webcam

ECUADOR - Guagua Pichincha volcano

June 16th, 2016

No new report since 2016 - The Washington VAAC reported that on 14 June 2016 a possible ash emission from Guagua Pichincha was visible in satellite images drifting NW. Seismicity was elevated. A VAAC report issued about five hours later noted that no further notices of activity had been received. Previous news 2015 - IGEPN reported that seismic activity was detected since end of March 2015. (58 earthquakes during the 31st of March) A second swarm has been reported from 14th to-15th of April probably due to rocks fracturation. As of the 17-18 and 19th of April sulfur odor was detected from the rifugio and according to visual observation the main fumarole close the 1981'crater was more active that the previous days. As of the 20th of April, two phreatic explosions occurred (at 5:06 and 5:58 local time) on the Cristal dome complex active zone. As of the 29th of April, IGEPN recorded a signal tremor type probably in relation with geothermal activity under the volcano. Last previous activity was reported on 2010 : As of the 14 th of September 2010, IG reported that no significative change between 6-12 September period. Seismic network continues to record important number of events related to fracture of rock to the interior of the volcano, nevertheless did not register any type of additional anomaly. As of the 17th of April 2010, IG reported that there no change, both the seismic activity and fumarole emission remained at a low level. Previous significative information : as of the 20th of February 2009, IG reported that the seismic stations Geophysical Institute have registered for days back a slight increase of the internal activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. In previous days 4 phreatic explosions of moderate size have been registered. These explosions happen due to an increase of the internal steam pressure, possibly related to the increase of precipitations observed in the zone of volcano. Therefore the Geophysical Institute recommends that it is not allowed to descend to the interior of the crater since the phreatic explosions could be repeated and the people could take the rock hit, other materials and/or rarefaction waves that are generated by these events. These phreatic explosions they happen generally at times of much rainfall, this is the reason why these explosions not necessarily are indicative of a substantial increase of the activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. The Geophysical Institute in its preprecautionary eagerness of the security of the people maintains a monitoring permanent of the state of this and other volcanos of the country and will inform opportunely into any change that these can present/display. The activity of the volcano shows a slight increase in its seismic activity with respect to the previous months. 40 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes have been registered, which are related to the fracturing of rocks to the interior of the complex between the 14th and the 18th of February. These earthquakes are of small magnitude, which is the reason why they have not been perceived by the population. It is possible to indicate that during the 2007, an average of 4.2 VT earthquakes per day was had. Also in this time interval 6 events of long period (LP) per day were registered when the average in the 2008 was of 0.3. LP events are related to resonances of cracks full of flowed inside the volcano. In addition it is important to mention the presence of explosions of moderate magnitude, related to the phreatic activity. The 16th of February the guardian of the refuge of the volcano perceived an increase in the scent to sulphur in the high part of the crater. Guagua Pichincha rises immediately W of Quito, Ecuador's capital city. The broad volcanic massif is cut by a large horseshoe-shaped summit caldera, ~6 km in diameter and 600 m deep, that was breached to the W during a slope failure ~50,000 years ago. - Information : I G Quito

ECUADOR - Reventador volcano

September 27th, 2022

The explosive-effusive activity remains moderate on September 24th-25th. The REVS reference station for daily seismic statistics transmitted without problems during the last 24 hours: with 64 explosion earthquakes, 19 LP earthquakes, 1 episode of emission tremor, and 6 episodes of harmonic tremor. At the end of the afternoon yesterday the volcano was clear and an emission of steam, gas and ash could be observed moving towards the northeast at more than 1000 meters above the level of the crater. The Washington VAAC issued 3 reports of ash emission 988 meters above the summit in a northeasterly, northwesterly and southwesterly direction. The IGEPN reported for the period from 22d to 23rd of September at 11 a.m. gas and ash emissions observed, reaching heights of up to 1200 meters above the level of the crater in a west and northwest direction. The Washington VAAC reported 3 ash emissions with heights of 1338 meters above the summit in a northwesterly direction.At night and early in the morning, incandescence was observed in the crater and the rolling of blocks up to 600 meters below the summit on all sides of the volcano. The lava flow on the northeast flank remains active. IGEPN rported that on August 24th, several gas and ash emissions were observed with heights of up to 500 meters in a northwest direction. The Washington VAAC recorded 4 ash releases with heights of 988 m to 1638 m, the direction oscillated from northwest to southwest.For August 25th, 3 ash emissions at 1,638 m. above the crater were recorded by VAAC Washington. During the night and early in the morning, an incandescence could be observed at the level of the crater with the descent of blocks along the northeast flank up to 500 meters below the summit, today morning it rose clear and an ash emission was observed 300 meters high above the crater to the northwest. IGEPN reports moderate surface and internal activity levels, however on the rise on the surface for July 29th / 11 a.m. Seismicity was characterized by: 38 explosion earthquakes, 62 Long Period (LP) earthquakes, 11 emission tremor periods. In the morning, several gas emissions with ash were recorded with heights up to 1,000 meters in a northwest direction, in addition the Washington VAAC reported an emission of 688 m above the level of the le summit in a westerly direction. As of the 8th of July, IGEPN reported that moderate levels of surface activity and internal activity, with no changes. Several ash and gas emissions were observed, with heights of 500 to 800 m above the level of the crater and with a direction to the west. The Washington VAAC reported an ash emission with a height of 1338 m above crater level, with a westerly direction. At dawn, an incandescence was observed in the upper part of the volcanic edifice, and an active lava flow in the northeast flank. As of the 27th of June, IG reported that the surface and internal activity continued at moderate levels, with no changes. Seismicity is characterized by 45 explosion earthquakes, 70 LP earthquakes, 13 episodes of emission tremor, and 4 of harmonic tremor On June 16 and 17, gas and ash emissions were observed, ranging up to 1,200 meters, with directions oscillating between SO and NO. The WORLDVIEW system records 3 thermal alerts in the last 12 hours.IG reported that a high level of activity continued during 14-22 June, though cloudy weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Gas-and-ash plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1.7 km above the summit and drifted mainly NW and W. Incandescence from the crater was often visible at night or during the early morning.IGEPN reported that on May 26 at the end of the afternoon, an emission of gas and ash was observed in Reventador / Ecuador, with a height of 800 m and a direction towards the West. Thanks to images shared by ECU-911, several emissions were recorded this morning, with heights of less than 2 km. The Washington VAAC reported two ash emissions that reached up to 988 m and the direction was west. No thermal anomaly has been recorded in the past 24 hours. Seismicity is characterized by 40 explosion earthquakes, 63 long-period earthquakes and 4 emission tremors. As of the 18th of May, IGEPN reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. Near-constant vulcanian explosions continue to take place from the summit vent that reached 15,000 ft (4,600 m) altitude and drifted west direction. The lava flow continues to be active on the northeastern flank. Visibility of the volcano is very limited due to dense clouds for now.IGEPN reported that in the afternoon of 19 and April 20, steam, gas and ash emissions up to 1,000 m. asl. to the Reventador, with dispersion between the north and the northeast. Nocturnal incandescence was observed at the level of the crater.Seismicity is characterized by 25 explosion earthquakes, 62 LP earthquakes and 4 episodes of harmonic tremor. IGEPN reported that at the end of the afternoon of April 15, the volcano cleared and several emissions of steam, gas and ash could be observed with a maximum height of 800 meters above the level of the crater, heading towards the North-west.IGEPN reported that the activity remained high, unchanged between April 7 and 8 / 11 a.m., with 50 explosion earthquakes, 29 LP earthquakes and 20 episodes of tremor. On 8th of April during the afternoon and during the night, the volcano was partially cleared and emissions of gas, steam and ash could be observed with a maximum height of 1,000 meters above the level of the crater towards the west. IG reported that a high level of activity continued at Reventador during 30 March through 5 April, though cloudy weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Gas-and-ash plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly NW, W, and SW. As many as 68 daily explosions were detected, in addition to long-period (LP) and emission tremors. Daily thermal anomalies were also reported. On clear weather nights, incandescence could be observed in the upper part of the E flank of the volcano. Blocks were recorded rolling 400 m below the crater on all flanks during 4 April, in addition to the incandescence in the crater.IG reported that a high level of activity continued at Reventador during 15-22 March, though cloudy weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Steam-and-ash plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 1 km above the summit crater and drifted mainly NW, W, and SW. Crater incandescence was visible most nights; incandescent material was visible descending the S flank during 15-16 March.IGEPN reported that surface explosive activity remained high and unchanged; internal activity is moderate. On March 12-13, the VAAC Washington reported steam and gas and ash emissions at 870 meters above the crater, and a gas and steam emission at 500 m above the crater. On March 14, at 01:26 UTC, the VAAC reported an ash plume at an altitude of 4,600 m. (flight level 150). IGEPN reported tha on the afternoon of March 2, emissions of gas and ash were observed at Reventador, with heights greater than 1000 meters above the level of the crater, in a northwest and west direction. The Washington VAAC reported 2 emission alerts with heights up to 988 meters above crater level in a northwest and southwest direction. The seismicity of the last 24 hours is characterized by 6 explosion earthquakes, 2 LP earthquakes, and 32 episodes of emission tremor. On 1st of March of the afternoon, the volcano remained partially clear. During the night, an incandescence was observed in the crater with rolling blocks up to 500 meters below the summit (western flank). Pyroclastic flow could be observed on the southern and southeastern flanks. IGEPN reported that on February 18 during the afternoon, several gas and ash emissions were observed, up to 1,000m. Asl. , in a northwesterly and westerly direction. The VAAC Washington also reported 2 ash emissions at 1,338 meters high and 1 emission at 988 meters, the 3 emissions in a southeasterly direction. MIROVA records 1 low thermal alert in the last 24 hours. Yesterday afternoon, the volcano partially cleared and gas emission was observed, In addition, during the night hours, an incandescence was observed at the level of the crater.Seismicity is characterized by 14 explosion earthquakes, 45 LP earthquakes and 3 episodes of harmonic tremor. As of the 9th of Februry, IG reported two emission alerts were recorded by VAAC Washington at Reventador, Ecuador, with a maximum height of 1338m above crater level in a northwesterly direction. Emissions were observed with heights greater than 1000m above crater level in a westerly direction.An incandescence was observed at the level of the summit accompanied by the rolling of blocks up to 700 m below the level of the crater, on all the flanks, an additional lava flow was recorded on the northeast flank. MIROVA records 1 low thermal alert. Seismicity is characterized in the last 24 hours by: 38 LP earthquakes, 21 explosion earthquakes and 12 tremor episodes. IG reported that a high level of activity continued at Reventador during 18-25 January. Gas-and-ash plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, sometimes rose higher than 1 km above the summit crater and drifted mainly NW, W, and SW. Crater incandescence was visible at night during 19-20 January. Cloudy weather sometimes prevented visual observation during 21-23 January. Lava flows on the E and NE flanks were visible during 23-25 January and continued to advance..Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. (GVN/GVP) - IG webcam

ECUADOR - Sangay volcano

September 3rd, 2022

IGEPN reported that explosive activity continued, with 257 explosion earthquakes between September 1 and September 2 at 11 a.m., and 77 episodes of emission tremors. FIRMS recorded 17 thermal alerts and MIROVA recorded 2 high thermal alerts (396 and 110 MW) in the last 24 hours.The MOUNTS system reported 172.5 tons of SO2, measured on 2022-09-01 at 7:17 p.m. Through images shared by ECU 911, incandescence was observed in the crater with rolling blocks on the eastern flank. As of the 25th of August, IGEPN reported that surface and internal activity levels remain high, and unchanged. Ash and gas rich plumes were being generated from the summit crater, reaching ca. 7,000 m altitude throughout the day on August 24. Ash emissions spread to the west and southwest of the volcano.For August 25, the VAAC Washington common ic ash emissions at 1,770 m. above the crater, heading west. Near-constant glow and small intermittent Strombolian eruptions continued to be seen in the summit vent overnight. Incandescent materials are ejected above the crater, spraying the upper part of the building with incandescent slag. Much of the material falls into the main drainage forming glowing avalanches.Sulfur dioxide emissions hit 690 tonnes on 24th of August. During the morning on 16th of August, several continuous emissions of gas, steam and ash with heights greater than 2000 meters above the level of the crater, with a direction mainly to the west. The Washington VAAC published 3 ash emission records at 1770 meters above crater level with a westerly direction and one emission at 2060 meters above crater level in a southwest direction.At 09:00 on 16th ashffall was confirmed in Pancun Ichubamba, province of Chimborazo. According to satellite images, the ash cloud may continue to generate ashfall in the same province. This phenomenon has been frequent throughout the current eruptive period. As of the 13th of August, IGEPN reported an increase in the internal and superficial activity of the volcano. From 10:00 TL, an increase in seismic energy was recorded, which resulted in the emission of a new lava flow, sounds heard in Guayaquil and ash falls in the province of Chimborazo and possibly in Guayas. Due to the good weather conditions, the sounds and the ash emission had higher than normal ranges. This pulse of activity is distinguished by the emission of a large lava flow which was observed with satellite images and the ECU-911 camera.As of the 9th of August IGEPN reported that eruptive activity continued at high level without change. During the night hours it was possible to observe the incandescence at the level of the crater, and the rolling of the blocks on the sides of the volcano. The Mounts system reports 109 tons of SO2, with data on 08/08/2022 at 6:27 p.m. TLAs of the 8th of July, IGEPN reported that surface and internal activity levels remain high, with an increasing trend for surface activity.Incandescent materials were observed on the southeast flank.The Washington VAAC reported three ash releases with heights varying between 870 m and 1,170 m above crater level and with a westerly direction. IGEPN reported that an internal and superficial level of activity continued, both high and unchanged. Seismicity is characterized by 42 exlosion earthquakes, 79 LP earthquakes, and 20 episodes of emission tremor. This seismicity reflects gas and ash emissions on June 26th and 27th, observed at heights of up to 1,400 meters above sea level and directions oscillating between west and southwest. The WORLDVIEW system records 37 thermal alerts over the past 12 hours, and Mirova reports anomalies between 2 and 1047MW on June 27-28. IGEPN reported that the surface and internal activity levels remained high and unchanged. On the morning of June 15, thanks to satellite images (GOES-16), a thin cloud of ash could be seen which reached 1.4 km above the crater, with a west-southwest direction. In addition, ash falls are reported in the town of Retén Ichubamba (Chimborazo province). IGEPN reported that on May 29, 2022 a high surface and internal activity, with no expected change. The seismicity declined in 119 LP earthquakes, 47 explosion earthquakes, and an earthquake in connection with a lahar. Yesterday afternoon there was rain in the area which generated a drop of muddy water in the area. The ash plumes were obscured by a cloudy sector. However, the Washington VAAC reported 3 emissions from 870 meters above crater level with southwest and west directions. IGEPN reported that the surface and internal activity of Sangay, in Ecuador, remained qualified as high. For the day from April 2 to 3 / 11 a.m., seismicity is characterized by 39 explosion earthquakes, 110 LP earthquakes and 10 tremor episodes. Through photos of ECU-911, an emission of gas and ash was observed more than 1000 meters above the level of the crater to the west. The Washington VAAC reported ash emissions at 870 and 1170 meters above the summit in a west, southwest direction. IG reported that effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues. A larger glowing rockfall event in combination with strombolian-type explosion occurred at the volcano in the evening of 31 March. Much of the ejected incandescent material was thrown at an approx. height of several hundred meters and slid down along the north-northeast flank. An ash plume sent pyroclastic material to 6,1 and 6,4 km height and drifted west-southwest.IG reported that between March 24th and 25th at 11 a.m. an emission of gas and ash was observed up to 800 meters above the level of the crater in a north-north direction. The Washington VAAC reported ash emissions at 870 and 2,070 meters above the summit in a west, southwest and northwest direction. Seismicity is characterized by 19 explosion earthquakes, 48 ​​LP earthquakes, 4 episodes of emission tremor. High frequency signals associated with two secondary lahars in the volcano area were recorded during the afternoon of the 24th. IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 15-22 March. Weather clouds and rain often prevented visual and webcam observations of the volcano, though daily ash-and-gas plumes were identified in satellite images by the Washington VAAC or in webcam views; plumes rose as high as 1 km above the volcano and drifted N, NW, W, and SW. Multiple daily thermal anomalies over the volcano were visible in satellite data. Emissions of incandescent material were occasionally visible in webcam images. The seismic network detected signals indicating descending lahars on 17, 19, and 21 March. As of the 6th of March, Washington VAAC reported 4 emissions at Sangay, whose heights varied between 870 and 1170 meters above the level of the crater with West, North-West and South-West directions. Gas measured via the Mounts system returned 1,888 t at 1:56 p.m. on 05/03/2022. TROPOMI detected a strong SO2 signal at a distance of 13.7 km from Sangay with 15.07 DU of SO2 at an altitude of about 1 km. Estimated mass within a radius of 300 km: 1.5 ktonne.IGEPN reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 22 February-1 March. Weather clouds and rain often prevented visual and webcam observations of the volcano, though daily ash-and-gas plumes were identified in satellite images by the Washington VAAC or in webcam views; plumes rose as high as 2 km above the volcano and drifted N, NW, W, and SW. Multiple daily thermal anomalies over the volcano were visible in satellite data. IGEPN reported that on February 12, 2022, from around 11:50 a.m. TL, the SAGA seismic station recorded seismic signals corresponding to the descent of mudslides and debris (lahars) in the Sangay volcano.IGEPN reported an increasing superficial activity in Sangay on February 8 / 11 a.m. From 04:30 TL, with satellite images (GOES-16), it was possible to observe an ash cloud that reached more than 7 km above the level of the crater, similar to what was observed during the pulses of greatest activity of the current eruptive period. Report from SNGRE and the Network of Volcanic Observers of Ecuador, reported that ashfalls has been confirmed in the provinces of Chimborazo, in the cantons of Riobamba, Colta and Guamote. Bolívar in the townships of Echeandía and Las Naves and Los Ríos in the townships of Ventanas and Mocache. IGEPN reported that since 8:00 a.m. TL on January 30, 2022, several gas and ash emissions have been observed at Sangay with heights reaching 1500 meters above the level of the crater and in the east-southeast directions. The W-VAAC reported 4 emissions observed through the satellites and their directions varied between east and southeast, the The estimated heights did not exceed 1800 meters above the level of the crater. According to reports from SNGRE, a slight fall of ash has been confirmed in Macas, in the province of Morona Santiago. IGEPN reportedthat on the morning of January 3, 2022, the Sangay volcano was cleared, a continuous emission of gas and ash could be observed at 1000 meters above the crater in a south-easterly direction. The VAAC issued 5 reports of ash emission from 1,170 meters above the summit in a south, southwest, southeast direction. The FIRMS system recorded 86 thermal alerts and the MIROVA system recorded 2 high thermal alerts, of VRP 124 and 205 MW on January 3, and on January 4 at 3.20 a very high anomaly of VRP 1063MW. The seismicity between January 2 and 3 at 11 a.m. is characterized by 192 explosion earthquakes, 55 LP earthquakes and 19 emission tremor epiosids.The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Wolf volcano (Galapagos)

May 8th, 2022

On 5 May IG reported that the eruption at Wolf's SE flank was over. The eruption began at 2320 on 6 January from an approximately 8-km-long radial fissure, trending NW-SE, that had at least five active vents. Lava flows from the vents traveled SE then E, covering an area of more than 30 square kilometers. The maximum length of the flow field was 18.5 km, with the
farthest-reaching flow stopping 150-200 m from the coastline. The highest levels of heat, sulfur dioxide emissions, seismicity, and deformation were recorded in the early days of the eruption. Sulfur dioxide emissions had been absent for the previous 30 days.A s of the 6th of May. The latest available satellite image from 1 May seems to confirm that the lava flow has stopped its advance about 150-200 meters off the ocean shore and started to cool itself gradually. According to the local volcano observatory Instituto Geofísico (IG), the reported length of the lava flow is about 18,5 km covering more than 30 km2 of the area. The seismic activity has continued at decreasing levels.IG reported that the eruption at Wolf continued during 13-18 April. Lava flows continued to advance towards the coast based on thermal data; satellite images showed minor advancement during 11-16 April and the end of the flow near the coastline.IG reported that the eruption at Wolf continued during 5-12 April. Minor sulfur dioxide emissions were recorded during 5-6 April. Thermal data captured and mapped on 6 April indicated that lava flows were getting closer to the coast; daily thermal alert counts, as many as around 154, indicated active and advancing lava flows during the rest of the week. IG reported that the eruption at Wolf continued during 22-29 March. Daily thermal alert counts, as many as around 200, indicated active and advancing lava flows on the SSE flank.As of the 21st of March, IGEPN reported that volcano's surface and internal activity levels remain high, with a decreasing trend. Between March 20 and 21 / 11 a.m., the IGEPN recorded 3 volcano-tectonic earthquakes The MOUNTS system recorded 12.6 tons of SO2 on 03/20/2022 at 2:15 p.m. TL. FIRMS registers 63 thermal alerts and MIROVA registers 1 high thermal alert (1276 MW) and 1 moderate alerts at Wolf (between 210 and 491 MW) during the last 24 hours. The thermal anomalies of the GOES-16 satellite are maintained due to the advance of the flows of lava.As of the 16th of March, IGEPN reported that hermal anomalies are still recorded. Surface and internal activity levels remain high, unchanged. Thanks to the images provided by the GOES-16 satellite, thermal anomalies can be observed due to the effect of the advance of the lava, which has still not reached the coast. No seismic event has been recorded at the volcano in the past 24 hours.
IGEPN reported that on 12.03.2022 / 11 a.m., a volcano-tectonic earthquake during the last 24 hours.The FIRMS system recorded 159 thermal alerts. The MIROVA system recorded 2 thermal alerts high (889 MW and 606 MW).The observatory has uploaded an animation of the weekly advance of lava flows in Wolf Volcano. The current eruption began on January 6 this year. The animation was created using information from daily thermal anomalies recorded by NASA's FIRMS satellite system. IGEPN reported that thermal anomalies are still reported at Wolf Volcano on March 11, 2022: The FIRMS system recorded 91 thermal alerts. The MIROVA system recorded 2 moderate thermal alerts, 1 high (471 MW) and 1 very high (1840 MW). In the MOUNTS system, 31.8 tonnes of SO2 were recorded, with data from March 10. Seismicity comes down to a single Volcano-tectonic earthquake (VT). As of the 6th of March, IGEPN reported that the activity, both superficial and internal, of the Wolf volcano remained high, with an unchanged trend. Thermal anomalies continue to appear on satellite images, associated with the presence of lava flows. The MIROVA system recorded 3 very high thermal anomalies (1089, 1139 and 1859 MW) and the WORLDVIEW system recorded 106 thermal alerts over the past 24 hours.Seismicity comes down to a single volcano-tectonic earthquake. No good satellite view as the Galapagos were covered with clouds. IGEPN reported that activity of the Wolf volcano continued on 28th of February. FIRMS registers 229 thermal alerts and MIROVA registers 2 high thermal alerts (181 and 974 MW) and 1 very high (2012 MW) in the last 24 hours These thermal anomalies on the satellite are due to advancing lava. Only one volcano-tectonic earthquake is reported in the last 24 hours. Thermal anomalies continue to be observed at Wolf Volcano by satellites, due to advancing lava.The WORLSVIEW system recorded 170 thermal alerts in the last 12 hours and MIROVA recorded 4 very high thermal alerts (1783, 1424, 2343 and 2364 MW) at the Wolf as of February 25, 2022.on February 26, the WORLDVIEW system recorded more than 100 thermal alerts, and MIROVA recorded 2 high thermal alerts (105 and 999 M.W.) and 1 very high (1522 M.W.) in the last 24 hours.Seismicity is limited to one daily LP earthquake. The GOES-16 satellite images show no anomalies on 22nd of February at 13:20 UTC (TL Galapagos -6HS) at Wolf Volcano. At the seismic level: only one volcano-tectonic earthquake were mentioned by the IGEPN. No VAAC alert or ash emission report was recorded. WORLdVIEW records 171 thermal alerts at Wolf, in the last 12 hours MIROVA records very high thermal alerts, in the last 24 hours During the night, the thermal anomaly recorded by the satellites was maintained. The eruption of the Wolf volcano, which began on January 6, 2022, continues. As of the 16th of February thermal anomalies have been observed in satellite images at Volcan Wolf, in the Galapagos archipelago. FIRMS records 235 thermal alerts; while MIROVA registers 1 high thermal alert (748 MW) and 3 very high (1617, 1537 and 2142 MW). These thermal anomalies are related to lava flows. As of the 9th of February FIRMS recorded 309 thermal alerts, while MIROVA records 3 very high thermal alerts, of VRP 1876, 3727 and 4714 MW, and a high alert of VRP 670 MW in the last 24 time. No emission was observed by the GOES-16 satellite. On the map of lava flows established on February 8, 2022, we can see that since mid-January, a flow has been mainly fed in a south-southwest direction; another heading west. The lava field has widened but the flows have still not reached the coast. Only one Volcano-tectonic earthquake has been recorded in the last 24 hours. As of the 2nd of February MIROVA recorded 3 very high thermal anomalies (6005 MW, 3392 MW and 1532 MW) and 1 moderate, while FIRMS recorded more than a hundred thermal anomalies during of the last 24 hours.These anomalies are related to lava flows to the south.WORLDVIEW applications recorded 18 thermal anomalies and MIROVA recorded 1 high thermal anomaly (672 MW), and three smaller ones on January 30 in the past 24 hours. At 19:52 UTC, through the MOUNTS project, a measurement of 2,173 t of SO2 is recorded for the Wolf volcano. Surface and internal activity levels remain high, although decreasing. IGEPN reported that the eruption continued from January 18th-25th. Daily thermal alerts numbered in the hundreds, centered on advancing lava flows on the SE flank. Diffuse gas emissions were visible drifting SW from 18 to 20 January. The level of activity remained stable at the beginning of the week then began a downward trend from 21 January.On January 26 / 11 a.m., the IG reports a large-period (LP) earthquake. IGPEN reported that the level of surface and internal activity of the Wolf volcano remains high, but decreasing. Only two long-period earthquakes are mentioned in the last 24 hours. There is no observation of gas emissions in the satellite images. MIROVA reported thermal anomalies for this January 21, between 122 and 5729 MW, and FIRMS recorded hundreds of thermal alerts in 24 hours, observed due to advancing lava flows.Light ash emissions were observed by satellite at Wolf Volcano drifting southwest on January 19.Thermal alerts are broadcast by Mirova and FIRMS, in connection with lava flows. Seismicity is characterized by 3 LP earthquakes. Satellite monitoring of Wolf Volcano, Galapagos, shows that thermal anomalies are continuing on January 18, 2022. The MIROVA system reports 2 very high (2,190 and 7,581 MW) and 1 extreme (14,048 MW) thermal alerts in the last 24 hours, and the WORLDVIEW system reports hundreds of thermal alerts. They are due to lava flows that have not yet reached the sea. Slight gas emissions were observed on the satellite towards the southwest. At the seismic level, only three LP earthquakes are reported. The effusive eruption of the volcano continues. A satellite image from 16 January identified that the lava flow, being active from two eruptive fissures, branched off into two lava arms traveling east. The larger (northern) lava tongue didn't make it to the sea yet, 2 kilometers have been leaving to the ocean entry. According to MIROVA Detection System, extreme thermal anomalies (14000 MW-17000 MW) continue to detect in satellite images.As of the 16th of January, IGEPN reported that superficial and internal activity of the Wolf volcano remains high, but with a downward trend.. On January 16 in the evening, slight gas emissions were observed in a southwesterly direction, on an image from the GOES-16 satellite. MIROVA is reporting extreme thermal anomalies on January 16-17, while FIRMS is reporting hundreds of thermal alerts over the past 24 hours. Satellite monitoring shows that thermal anomalies are continuing. During the last 24 hours, the seismicity is characterized by a volcano-tectonic earthquake and 3 LP earthquakes. As of the 15th of January, according to IGEPN eruptivze activity is continuing. Very weak gas emissions, in a southwesterly direction, were observed thanks to satellite images at the Wolf volcano on 13th of January. The MIROVA satellite system reported 1 extreme thermal alert (11728 MW), 2 very high (7571 and 8791 MW) and 1 high (200 MW) and FIRMS reported more than 100 thermal alerts in Wolf, in the last 24 hours. On the satellite images, we observe that the thermal anomalies are gradually weakening. However, although unlikely, new pulses of lava flow emission are not excluded. As of the 12th of January, two active eruptive fissures continue to keep the lava flow active while the highest vent shows signs of inactivity. The total length of the lava flow is about 16,5 km and 15 km length of the active flow and haven't reached the sea entry yet. According to the latest official data, the area covered by lava flows amounts to 7,6 km per square in total.As of the 9th of January, GOES-16 satellite images show the gas emission column from the eruption of Wolf volcano in the Galapagos, looking southwest. The Washington VAAC reported four alerts, mostly for gas, with heights up to 700 meters above sea level and heading southwest. GOES 16 satellite images at 11:20 UTC (TL GALÁPAGOS: UTC-6) show that the thermal anomaly associated with the lava flows has slightly altered its course from SSE to E. The lava flows continue to move towards the sea , situation on January 9, 2022/11 a.m. The WORLDVIEW satellite system has reported hundreds of thermal alerts to Wolf during the past 12 hours. As of the 8th of December, IGEPN reported that eruption continues. The Washington VAAC reported four emissions, mostly gas, with average heights of 1,300 meters and a westerly direction on January 8, 2022. The MIROVA satellite system reported 2 extreme thermal anomalies, respectively VRP 38,693 and 30,045 MW, mainly associated with lava flows. The FIRMS system reported more than a hundred thermal alerts in the last 12 hours. On satellite images, it was possible to observe gas emission columns and thermal anomalies associated with lava flows. The seismicity is characterized by 40 explosion earthquakes, and 9 emission tremor episodes between 07.01 and 08.01 at 11 a.m. IGEPN reported that on on Friday January 7, 2022 from 00:20 TL (23:20 on January 06, 2022 local time) a new fissure eruption was observed at the level of the volcano Wolf. (Photo) Seismic recording from the FER1 station, located in the Galapagos Islands, shows that at approximately 9:00 p.m. local time in the Galapagos, a seismic swarm occurred. At 9:35 p.m., an earthquake of magnitude 2.4 was recorded, with its epicenter at the Wolf volcano. From 11:15 pm TL Galapagos, a tremor signal can be observed, probably associated with the onset of the eruption. All of these signals were of low amplitude because the FER1 station is located on Fernandina Island. At 01:20 TL (00:20 TL Galapagos) on January 07, 2022, a cloud of gas and ash is visible on satellite images, reaching heights between 3,793 m asl in the northeast (NE) and 1,943 m asl in the west (W); There is no population near the volcano or towards the ash clouds. The FIRMS satellite system shows several thermal alerts located on the southern and southeastern flanks of the volcano. These alerts are associated with the high temperatures generated by the eruptive fissure and lava flows.Observation confirmed that the opened crack south of Wolf volcano where magma emerges in the same direction, towards the interior of the island. The columns of gas and ash reach several thousand meters in height (between 1900 and 3800 meters) and are directed to the north, then the west of the island, where there is no human population at risk. Previous eruptive activity occurred in 2015. Wolf, the highest volcano of the Galápagos Islands, straddles the equator at the north end of the archipelago's largest island, Isabela. The 1710-m-high edifice has steeper slopes than most other Isabela volcanoes, reaching angles up to 35 degrees. A 6 x 7 km caldera, at 700 m one of the deepest of the Galápagos Islands, is located at the summit. A prominent bench on the west side of the caldera rises 450 above the caldera floor, much of which is covered by a lava flow erupted in 1982. Radial fissures concentrated along diffuse rift zones extend down the north, NW, and SE flanks, and submarine vents lie beyond the north and NW fissures. Similar unvegetated flows originating from a circumferential chain of spatter and scoria cones on the eastern caldera rim drape the forested flanks to the sea. The proportion of aa lava flows at Volcán Wolf exceeds that of other Galápagos volcanoes. An eruption in in 1797 was the first documented historical eruption in the Galápagos Islands. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Sierra Negra volcano (Galapagos)

September 2nd, 2018

As of the 1st of September IG reported that due to the continuous decrease in seismic energy levels, reaching even earlier values ​​at the beginning of the eruptive period from June to August 2018 at the Sierra Negra volcano, and the decrease in the number of thermal alerts and SO2 emission , the IGEPN reported the possible end of the eruptive activity or the entry into a period of calm after 58 days of eruption. By 25 August the lava flows in total covered an area of 30.6 square kilometers. Activity continued to decline the last week of August with decreased
seismicity, gas emission, and no surficial activity visible. . IG reported that during 20-21 August both steam-and-gas emissions and incandescence from lava flows were visible on the Sierra Negra webcam. No activity was noted when the weather was clear during 22-28 August. On 15 August satellite images showed lava from Fissure 4 continuing to enter the ocean. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 7-14 August. Incandescence from active NNW lava flows was visible almost nightly. A steam-and-gas plume rose 1.8 km a.s.l. and drifted W on 7 August. IG reported that on August 9, at 17:45 GMT, the tremor increased in amplitude, in relation with a new surge of activity on the northern flank.
Seismicity is further characterized by 52 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, and 6 LP earthquakes.The largest earthquake occurred at 10:55 am M3,1 TG and a depth of 2 km. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 1-7 August. Incandescence from active lava flows was visible daily. An increase of tremor began at 2220 on 3 August and lasted two hours, signifying a new pulse of activity on the N flank. Small gas emissions were visible on 4 August, and steam-and-gas emissions were noted on 6 August. IG reported that the eruption at Sierra Negra continued during 25-31 July. Sulfur dioxide flux was as high as about 1,400 tons per day (on 28 July), and daily counts of volcano-tectonic and long-period events were 24-65 and 3-32, respectively. Nightly incandescence from advancing lava flows was visible. Gas plumes rose more than 1.8 km above the vents and drifted N, NW, and W. As of the 20th of July, IGEPN reported that the activity remains unchanged, at a superficial and high internal level.During the last measurement period, 18 to 19 July at 11am, the number of VT earthquakes decreased, with 39 events; the number of LP earthquakes is 11.The gas emissions are at least 1,800 meters above sea level, and go to the WNW.Nighttime glow is observed at the emission points, and on the lava flows.As of the 10th of July, IGEPN reported that Sierra Negra's surface and internal activity levels remain high. The eruptive process continues, as evidenced by numerous volcano-tectonic earthquakes and emission tremor; thermal anomalies are noted as well as the emission of a plume of vapor, gas and ash rising to 2,400 meters in height, then moving towards the southwest sparing the populated areas for the moment. Lava flows come from a source located in the lower part of the northwestern flank of the volcano; the emission of lava would have increased significantly since July 7 at 17h local. From July 2nd to 3rd at 11am local time, the IG reports 241 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 37 LP earthquakes and 2 VLP earthquakes. During the last 24 hours, about fifty volcanic earthquakes have been located at a depth of less than 5 km; the strongest was on the east flank of the volcano, at a depth of 2 km, with a magnitude of 3.4.The satellite images show gas and vapor emissions, and the presence of lava flows. IGEPN reported that after a small earthquake on July 1, 2018 at 15:52 GMT, tremor appeared. At 18 o'clock, the National Park staff reports incandescence and the presence of lava flows on the northwest flank of the volcano. The IGEPN informs, for the period from 01 to 11 am to 02 July at 11 am, 286 volcano-tectonic earthquakes, 43 LP earthquakes, 3 VLP earthquakes and emission tremor. An ash emission was mounted 1,000 meters above the crater, then headed west. IGEPN reported that the activity of the past 12 hours was characterized by a gradual decrease in seismic and acoustic tremor, but these signals nevertheless indicate the continuation of the eruption with a lower intensity.One hundred and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes have been recorded; the largest, with a magnitude of 3.3, is located south of the caldera at a depth of 4.3 km. The others are located at a shallower depth, and in the western part of the caldera. Previously, IGEPN and PNG reported that following a rise in seismicity for some months, and some more recent major earthquakes, including one of M 4.2 on June 22 at 6:24 GMT and another of M 5.3 on June 26 at 3:15 GMT under the Sierra Negra volcano / Isabela Island to the Galapagos, the seismicity was marked by replicas and tremor. On June 26, from 11:17 am TG, a new seismic swarm began in Sierra Negra; earthquakes are characterized by a depth of between 3 and 5 km and a magnitude of 4.6 maximum. Since the earthquake of M 4,2 at 13:38 TG, the amplitude of seismicity and infrasonic signals has greatly increased. Galapagos National Park staff reported rumbles from the volcano. all these signs suggest the beginning of the eruptive process. Images from the GOES-16 Satellite show a strong thermal anomaly in the northern area of ​​the caldera. The Park staff then reported lava flows inside the caldera and on the northern flank of the volcano towards Bahia Elizabeth. As Isabela Island is populated, the authorities have ordered the evacuation of 50 residents, who will be cared for by host families; tourist access to the Sierra Negra volcano area and the El Cura area is restricted. On 8 June IG reported a continuing high level of seismicity at Sierra Negra, characterized by a larger number and magnitude of earthquakes, indicating magma movement. The number of events per day had been significantly increasing since mid-2016. In the previous 10 days there was an average of 42 local events/day; on 25 May there were 104 events, the largest number of earthquakes per day recorded since 2015. In addition, in a 24-hour period during 7-8 June there were a total of 48 volcano-tectonic events, two long-period events, and three hybrid earthquakes; a M 4.8 long-period earthquake was recorded at 0715 on 8 June. The earthquake epicenters were mainly located on the edges of the crater, in two NE-SW trending lineaments; the first covered the N and W edges of the crater and the second went from the NE part around to the S edge. Data showed very large deformation at the caldera's center, compared with lower levels of deformation outside of the caldera. The broad shield volcano of Sierra Negra at the southern end of Isabela Island contains a shallow 7 x 10.5 km caldera that is the largest in the Galápagos Islands. Flank vents abound, including cinder cones and spatter cones concentrated along an ENE-trending rift system and tuff cones along the coast and forming offshore islands. The 1124-m-high volcano is elongated in a NE direction. Although it is the largest of the five major Isabela volcanoes, it has the flattest slopes, averaging less than 5 degrees and diminishing to 2 degrees near the coast. A sinuous 14-km-long, N-S-trending ridge occupies the west part of the caldera floor, which lies only about 100 m below its rim. Volcan de Azufre, the largest fumarolic area in the Galapagos Islands, lies within a graben between this ridge and the west caldera wall. Lava flows from a major eruption in 1979 extend all the way to the north coast from circumferential fissure vents on the upper northern flank. Sierra Negra, along with Cerro Azul and Volcan Wolf, is one of the most active of Isabela Island volcanoes. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Fernandina volcano (Galapagos)

November 18th, 2021

As of the 17th of November, IG reported that slow deformation at Fernandina has been recorded over the previous 18 months. InSAR data showed that inflation was occurring at a rate of about 400 mm/year in the summit caldera and on the NE flank, while deflation was occurring at a rate of about 100-400 mm/year in areas on the upper W and SW flanks. On 13 October the areas of deflation changed to inflation and the rate of deformation in the caldera increased. On 17 November IG noted that fumarolic activity in the summit crater was visible during the previous few days and may have been related to a small episode of tremor on 16 November. IG also noted that periodic fumarolic activity and small episodes of tremor are common at Fernandina without an eruption. Previous news 2020 - IGEPN reported that the seismic activity which following the January 12, 2020 eruption has not returned to basic levels (pre-eruption); on the contrary, seismicity increased, presenting sporadic earthquakes of magnitude greater than M 3.0 and small seismic swarms which have evolved over time. The strongest earthquake was recorded on January 21, 2020 with a magnitude of 4.2. In addition, a ground deformation of about 35 cm was detected in the emission zone of the lava flows. The preliminary estimate of the lava flows emitted on January 12, 2020, located east of the volcano, indicates that they cover an area of ​​approximately 3.8 km², a value lower than the estimates of the previous circumferential eruptions (2017 and 2005) .IGEPN reported that the eruption hich started shortly before 6.10 p.m. on January 12, 2020, from a circumferential crack located under the eastern edge of the caldera to an altitude of about 1300-1400 m above sea level, caused the emission of lava flows on the eastern flank. A cloud of volcanic gas was also observed at a height of approximately 1500-2000 m above the level of the crack (~ 3-3.5 km above sea level) and moving towards the west -North West. The eruption was observed by the park guards of the Galapagos National Park from the Bolivar Canal station. In the past few hours, the level of seismic activity, the emission of volcanic gas and thermal anomalies have decreased significantly, indicating a rapid decrease in eruptive activity, similar to what happened in 2017 and 2018. It is important to indicate that on other occasions (Fernandina 2009, Wolf 2015, Sierra Negra 2018), an initial drop in initial activity was followed by a second eruptive phase. IGEPN reported that following a seismic crisis, an eruption occurred on January 12, 2020, around 10 local Galapagos time. After the 4.7M magnitude seismic event occurred at 4:42 p.m., 29 localized events were recorded, the magnitude of which remained below 3.1. Eruptive activity is located east of Fernandina Island along a circumferential fissure.Fernandina, the most active of Galápagos volcanoes and the one closest to the Galápagos mantle plume, is a basaltic shield volcano with a deep 5 x 6.5 km summit caldera. The volcano displays the classic "overturned soup bowl" profile of Galápagos shield volcanoes. Its caldera is elongated in a NW-SE direction and formed during several episodes of collapse. Circumferential fissures surround the caldera and were instrumental in growth of the volcano. Reporting has been poor in this uninhabited western end of the archipelago, and even a 1981 eruption was not witnessed at the time. In 1968 the caldera floor dropped 350 m following a major explosive eruption. Subsequent eruptions, mostly from vents located on or near the caldera boundary faults, have produced lava flows inside the caldera as well as those in 1995 that reached the coast from a SW-flank vent. Collapse of a nearly 1 km3 section of the east caldera wall during an eruption in 1988 produced a debris-avalanche deposit that covered much of the caldera floor and absorbed the caldera lake. (GVN/GVP)

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Tungurahua volcano from Pelileo

MEXICO - Popocatepetl volcano

September 24th, 2022

As of the 23rd of September, CENAPRED reported that during the past 24 hours, 67 exhalations have been detected accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash. On September 23rd at 04:26 (local time) an explosion was detected which, due to the energy and seismic amplitude, was classified as minor. Note that on September 22, there were 4 explosions, and on September 21, 7 explosions were mentioned by Cenapred.In addition, 52 minutes of tremor were recorded. As of the 31st of August CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours,75 low intensity exhalations have been detected, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and sometimes slight amounts of ash. At the end of the morning, a constant emission of water vapor and gas is observed, dispersing in a West North-West direction. CENAPRED reported that there were steam-and-gas emissions, sometimes containing minor amounts of ash, rising from Popocatepetl each day during 9-16 August. A minor explosion was recorded at 0839 on 10 August and a moderate explosion was detected at 1528 on 11 August. Minor ashfall was reported in the municipality of Ecatzingo, State of Mexico. An explosion at 1952 on 13 August was followed at 2125 by minor amounts of ashfall in Tetela del Volcán. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale).As of the 25th of July, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours,17 low intensity exhalations have been detected, accompanied by water vapor and volcanic gases, sometimes accompanied by ash. In addition, 18 minutes of low amplitude tremor and two volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded, the first recorded yesterday at 11:04 p.m. and the second today at 7:57 a.m. local time, both with a magnitude of 1.7.As of the 11th of July, CENAPRED reported that during the past 24 hours, 22 low intensity exhalations have been detected, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash. During the morning and on July 11 / 11 a.m. local, a continuous emission of water vapor and gas is observed, dispersing towards the southwest. As of the 26th of June, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours 23 low intensity exhalations have been detected, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash, In addition, nine minutes of very low amplitude tremor and a volcano-tectonic earthquake recorded today at 00:33, with a magnitude of 1.3, were recorded.As of the 18th of June, CENAPRED reported that during the past 24 hours, thanks to the monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 40 low intensity exhalations have been detected, accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and slight amounts of ash. In addition, low amplitude tremor segments were recorded which totaled 41 minutes and a volcano-tectonic earthquake of magnitude 1.4. The volcano is no longer observed after due to the intense clouds in the area.The low-level eruptive activity at the volcano continues. An occasional minor explosion occurred from the summit crater at 17:17 local time on 22nd of May. Plume of ash rose to an altitude of 19,000 ft (5,800 m) and drifted S-SE. The volcano continues at calm period, with only venting (degassing) of gas and water vapor emissions. The alert status for the volcano remains at "yellow".CENAPRED reported that the eruption continued during 19-26 April. Each day there were 6-27 steam-and-gas emissions that rose from the crater and drifted mainly SW. The plumes sometimes contained ash. Incandescence from the crater was sometimes visible at night. Two minor explosions were recorded at 0152 and 0559 on 21 April. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale).As of the 22nd of April, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, thanks to the monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 27 low intensity exhalations have been detected, accompanied by water vapor, gas and sometimes slight amounts of ash. During the morning and until 4:00 p.m. GMT on April 21, a low-level emission composed of volcanic gases and water vapor is observed, which disperses towards the southwest.CENAPRED reported that the eruption at Popocatepetl continued during 30 March through 5 April. Each day there were 11-29 diffuse gas-and-steam emissions with ash rising from the crater and drifting S, E, NE, and SE. Based on webcam, satellite and wind models, the Washington VAAC reported ash plumes that rose to 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. that drifted E and SE. A moderate explosion was recorded at 2022 on 29 March, resulting in light ashfall in San Pedro Benito Juarez, a municipality of Atlixco. Three volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes were recorded on 30 March at 1129, 1146, and 1514. Intermittent VT earthquakes continued during the week. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale).As of the 30th of March ,CENAPRED reported that occasional explosions at the volcano continue from time to time. A moderate eruption occurred at 20:22 local time the day before showering the summit cone with juvenile glowing lava bombs. An ash column, accompanied the event, rose approx. 6,560 ft (2,000 m) above the crater and drifted SE. Emissions of steam, gas and small amount of ash continued to emit after the explosion this morning. As of the 21st of March CENAPRED reported that the explosive eruption of the volcano continued at lesser intensity over the past three weeks characterized by occasional ash emissions to an approx. altitude of 19,000-20,000 ft (5,800-6,100 m) and with continuous venting of steam and gases emissions. The inner crater activity is shown in the video below associated with the strong fumarolic activity. The seismic station recorded 507 minutes of low amplitude volcanic tremor the day before. As of the 5th of March, CENAPRED reported that during the past 24 hours, 50 low intensity exhalations have been detected, accompanied by water vapor, gas and slight amounts of ash. After more than 2000 minutes of tremor accumulated in the Popocatépetl volcano over the past 7 days... a moderate explosion was recorded today at 09:00:59 a.m. In addition, 534 minutes of low amplitude tremor were recorded, and a volcano-tectonic earthquake recorded yesterday at 11:14 p.m., with a magnitude of 1.6. During the morning until 11 a.m. local, a constant emission of volcanic gases and a slight amount of ash are observed, which disperse towards the west. On the morning of February 23, scientists from CENAPRED and the UNAM Institute of Geophysics conducted an overflight of Popocatépetl using a National Guard helicopter. The volcano was clear, with low gas emissions, so the bottom of the crater could be seen. The absence of a fresh lava dome was noted, although remnants of recent small lava domes and small explosion craters were found at the bottom of the crater.As of the 17th of February, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours 60 low intensity exhalations have been detected, accompanied by water vapor and gas. At 07:15 a small explosion was detected, generating an eruptive column less than 1 km above the crater. The winds scatter the ashes towards the Puebla side. As of the 16th of January CENAPRED reported that two days when an eruption was recorded every day , 18 low intensity exhalations have been identified in the last 24 hours, accompanied by volcanic gases and small amounts of ash. During the morning and at the time of this report (January 16, 11 a.m. local time), a slight emission of water vapor and volcanic gases with a southeasterly direction was observed. Previous news 2021 - CENAPRED reported that on November 21 at 2:30 a.m. a minor explosion was detected, which generated an ash column 600 meters high which dispersed to the northwest. On November 20, an explosion was also observed.CENAPRED - UNAM carried out an overfllight above the volcano on Friday, November 5th. from observation it has been possible to determine that the inner crater has an approximate diameter of 380 to 400 meters and a depth of 160 to 200 meters. The presence of a new lava body inside the crater could not be distinguished. On the basis of the various monitoring parameters and the information obtained during the overflight, it is considered that the ash emissions will continue as well as explosions not exceeding in intensity those already observed. These scenarios are considered in level amarillo fase 2. CENAPRED reported that each day during 26 October-2 November there were 9-118 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatepetl. Some of the emissions contained ash during 26-28 October and 31 October-1 November. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). During the last 24 hours, thanks to the monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 96 exhalations accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash have been identified. In addition, 74 minutes of tremors and four explosions were recorded: two moderate, recorded on October 6 at 10:44 am and 9:42 pm; two minors, the first yesterday at 5:57 p.m. and the second on October 7 at 1:17 a.m. As of the 17th of September, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 95 exhalations have been identified, some accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and ash. The broadcasts were mainly dispersed to the northwest. Five minor explosions were also detected on 09/16 at 11:05 am and 3:35 pm and three recorded on September 17 at 12:41 am, 3:34 am and 5:49 am. A moderate explosion occurred on 09/16 at 10:07 p.m. In addition, 334 minutes of low to medium amplitude tremors and a volcanotectonic earthquake (VT) with a calculated magnitude of 1.7 were recorded on 16th at 19:54 (local time). Cenacom reports light ash falls in the municipalities of Valle de Chalco, Ixtapaluca, Chalco, Tlalmanalco, Amecameca, Ayapango, Tenango del Aire, Temamatla y Ecatzingo in the State of Mexico, as well as in the municipalities of Iztapalapa, Xochimilco and Tlahuac in Mexico City. CENAPRED reported that an an explosion was reported on 14th of September at 11:50 p.m., accompanied by the expulsion of incandescent fragments on the sides of the volcano and a plume of ash. CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, thanks to the monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 130 exhalations have been identified, probably accompanied by volcanic gases and light amounts of ash. There were also 379 minutes of low to medium amplitude tremor. In addition, three explosions were recorded, one moderate on 13 at 12:05, and two small on 14.09 at 08:46 and 08:59. The 8.46 am explosion was preceded by a gradual increase in degassing; the eruptive plume is minted at a height of 1,500 meters above the crater, dispersing towards Puebla. The volcanic alert remains at Amarillo fase 2. As of the 11th of September CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, thanks to the monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 128 exhalations accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and low ash content have been identified. In addition, 753 minutes of low amplitude tremor were identified, as well as an explosion, recorded today at 1:34 am. A total of 14 explosions have been recorded by since September 2. From morning until 11 a.m., the crater was observed with a slight emission of water vapor, gas and light amounts of ash in a southwest direction. As of the 8th of August, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 30 exhalations have been identified, some of them accompanied by water vapor, volcanic gases and ash. In addition, 789 minutes of tremor were recorded, and an explosion at 2:58 a.m., due to weather conditions, its height and direction could not be determined. On August 7 at 7:37 p.m., a volcano-tectonic earthquake with a calculated magnitude of 1.6 was recorded. During the morning and at the time of this report, the emission of volcanic gases with a westerly direction was observed. CENAPRED reported that on July 16, there were two explosions respectively at 8:01 p.m. and 8:43 p.m. accompanied by the emission of water vapor, gas and ash. The emission reached an average height of 900 m in a westerly direction. On July 17 from 1:50 a.m., a low amplitude tremor episode started and at 3:50 a.m. the amplitude increased with a continuous emission of water vapor, gas and ash, in addition to incandescent fragments were observed at short distance. At 3:40 a.m. a high amplitude tremor episode began which continues at this time with a continuous emission of water vapor, gas and ash towards the west. CENAPRED reported that each day during 6-13 July there were 47-112 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl. Some emissions contained ash during 8-13 July. Almost daily periods of low-amplitude tremor lasted from 10 minutes to five hours. A few volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded. Crater incandescence was visible at night during 12-13 July. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).CENAPRED reported that the activity of the volcano continues at low levels over the past month. The volcano is currently a bit calmer than usual, with only venting of water vapor and gases emissions from the summit crater. The degassing activity produced 102 emissions with small amounts of ash which drifted SW.CENAPRED reported that each day during 2-8 June there were 87-136 steam-and-gas emissions with minor amounts of ash from Popocatepetl and periods of low-amplitude tremor lasting from five minutes to about three hours and 40 minutes. Minor crater incandescence was visible overnight during most nights. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). CENAPRED reported that each day during 13-20 April there were 14-34 steam, gas, and ash emissions from Popocatepetl and periods of tremor lasting from 5-15 hours. Two volcanic earthquakes were recorded at 1054 and 2354 on 16 April. Minor crater incandescence was visible overnight during 17-18 April. A M 1.3 volcano-tectonic earthquake was recorded at 2057 on 18 April. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).As of the 13th of march, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 63 exhalations and 487 minutes of tremor have been identified, accompanied by emissions of water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash. Based on information from the National Communications Center (CENACOM), on 12th of March a slight fall of ash was reported in the municipalities of Amecameca and Tlalmanalco around 22:50. Meanwhile, a constant emission of water vapor, gas and small amounts of ash was observed, which is dispersed in a north-westerly (NW) direction. The recent flyby confirmed that there was no lava dome inside the crater. As of the 6th of March, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours 82 exhalations and 234 minutes of tremor have been identified, accompanied by emissions of water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash. Since March 6 in the morning, we observe an intermittent emission of volcanic gases and sometimes ash, which disperse in an east-south-east direction. As part of the monitoring of the Popocatépetl volcano, expert staff from the Institute of Geophysics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and the National Center for Disaster Reduction (CENAPRED), carried out an overview, with the support of the National Guard, yesterday March 5, 2021. It has been observed that the inner crater maintains a diameter of 360-390 meters and an approximate depth of 150-180 meters, which is covered with various fragmented materials (tephra). Likewise, it was confirmed that there was no lava dome inside the crater. As of the 23rd of February, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, thanks to the monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 25 exhalations accompanied by emissions of water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash have been identified. In addition, two explosions, the first yesterday at 12:46 p.m. on February 22 and the last on February 23 at 1:23 a.m., for a total of thirteen explosions in the last 6 days. During the night, a slight incandescence could be observed above the crater. Since the morning of February 23, a constant light emission of water vapor and volcanic gases has been observed, which disperse towards the west. As of the 11th of February, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, 53 exhalations have been identified accompanied by emissions of water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash, in addition to 2 minor explosions that occurred on the 10th February at 10:58 p.m. and February 11 at 8:28 a.m. In addition, 238 minutes of low amplitude tremor and 21 volcanotectonic earthquakes were recorded. During the night a slight incandescence could be observed above the crater. Between 0 a.m. and 5 p.m., a constant emission of volcanic gases and light amounts of ash was observed, which are dispersed in a north-northeast direction. CENAPRED reported that each day during 3-9 January there were 14-34 steam, gas, and ash emissions from Popocatepetl. Minor crater incandescence from the crater was visible during a few of the nights. An explosion at 2138 on 6 February generated an eruption plume with low ash content that rose 2 km above the summit and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).CENAPRED reported tat over the past week, the activity of the volcano has remained at moderately high levels. On 19 January at about 15:00 local time a powerful eruption occurred from the summit crater generated an increasingly tall and dense dark ash plume that rose to estimated 23,000 ft (7,000 m) altitude and drifted N. At the end of December 2020, daily volcanic tremor duration increased to approx. 1000 min / day around which value it has been decreasing on 13 and 14 January (500 min / day) and started to increase again on 15 January until yesterday when the highest value in January was recorded (1319 minutes). This event as well as near-constant emissions of gas and small amounts of ash suggest continued rise of fresh magma probably accumulating as a new lava dome in the inner summit crater. As of the 17th of January, CENAPRED reported that during the last 24 hours, thanks to the monitoring systems of the Popocatépetl volcano, 16 exhalations and 981 minutes of tremor have been identified, accompanied by emissions of water vapor, volcanic gases and small amounts of ash. In addition, three minor explosions were recorded, two on January 16th at 12:41 p.m. and 4:51 p.m., and the last one on january 17th at 8:36 a.m. Visibility is partial, but allowed to observe a slight emission of water vapor, gas and a slight quantity of ash, which disperses towards the northeast. CENAPRED reported that each day during 5-12 January there were 11-31 steam, gas, and ash emissions from Popocatepetl. Minor ashfall was reported in several municipalities in Puebla including San Salvador el Verde (30 km NNE), Atlixco (23 km SE), San Andres Cholula (35 km E), San Nicolas de los Ranchos (15 km ENE), and Domingo Arenas. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale). CENAPRED reported that 106 exhalations and 980 minutes of tremor were recorded accompanied by emissions of volcanic gases and ash, with a plume reaching a maximum height of 600 m., Dispersed mainly towards the northeast. In addition, an explosion was recorded on 1st of January at 3:14 am accompanied by the expulsion of some incandescent fragments a short distance from the crater. In the early morning and until 5 p.m., emissions of volcanic gases and ash are observed, which disperse in a northeast direction.Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time. A small eruption on 21 December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring towns and villages. (GVN/GVP) . - Live cam of Popocatepetl -

Popocatepetl volcano (Mexico)

MEXICO - Colima volcano

July 16th, 2019

Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and two small explosions were recorded during 5-12 July. Five lahars descended the Montegrande ravine. An overflight on 9 July revealed that the diameter of the vent had slightly increased, likely caused by subsidence, and other areas of minor subsidence within the crater were noted. An area of collapsed material on the outer W wall was also identified. Temperatures inside the crater were 116 degrees Celsius, lower than the temperature of 250 degrees Celsius recorded in May. The temperatures in the fumarolic area decreased from 202 degrees Celsius in May to 169 degrees. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with fumarolic emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, mainly from the NE side of the crater, and three small explosions were recorded during 29 June-5 July. A thermal camera located S of the volcano recorded thermal anomalies associated with emissions. Weather conditions sometimes prevented observations of the crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that intermittent steam-and-gas emissions mainly from the NE side of the crater and small explosions continued to be recorded during 8-14 June. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the crater. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that small explosions and intermittent steam-and-gas emissions, originating mainly from the NE side of the crater, continued to be recorded during 1-7 June. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the crater. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that during 25-31 May small explosions and intermittent steam-and-gas emissions mainly from the NE side of the crater continued to be recorded. During overflights conducted during 23-24 May scientists observed that the new feature (a crack or cavity) reported the previous week had become a hole due to the combination of excavation due to explosions and probable subsidence. The maximum temperature recorded with a portable thermal camera was 252 degrees Celsius, an increase of 80 degrees since recorded on 1 May. Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported that 51 low-magnitude explosions mainly from the NE part of Colima’s crater were recorded by the seismic and infrasound network during 11-24 May. Emissions from the explosions consisted mainly of water vapor and gas, and were the first surficial manifestations of activity since seismicity increased in the past few weeks. Footage from five drone overflights conducted on 22 May showed fumarolic activity on the inner wall of the NE part of the crater and a new small explosion crater near the center of the main crater.Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia - Universidad de Colima reported increased seismicity at Colima during 20-26 April characterized by a considerable increase in the number of high-frequency and volcano-tectonic events. On 26 April a consensus was reached to raise the Alert Level to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and extend the exclusion zone to a 8-km radius during a meeting of the Coordinación Nacional de Protección Civil (CNPC), the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil Colima (UEPC), the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil y Bomberos de Jalisco (UEPCBJ), the Universidad de Colima (UdeC), and la Universidad de Guadalajara (UdeG). Seismicity continued to be elevated through 3 May. The largest events (M 2.4-3) were located 0.5-3 km deep in the N and NE parts of the volcano. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth. Colima's web video camera - Colima data base - new webcam *************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

GUATEMALA - Fuego volcano

September 1st, 2022

OVFGO reported a weak fumarolic activity of white color at Fuego on August 31, interspersed with explosions, at a rate of 5 to 8 per hour, weak to moderate; sometimes a louder explosion may occur. They generate plumes of gas and ash at an altitude of 4,500-4,800 m., dispersing over 10-20 km in a westerly and southwesterly direction, and cause avalanches in the contours of the crater, towards the barrancas Ceniza, Santa Teresa, Taniluya and Trinidad, and ashfall southwest of the volcano.Incandescent pulses are observed during the night and the morning at 100-300 meters above the crater. INSIVUMEH reported that The heavy rains of the last hours favor the descent of lahars through the ravines that surround the Volcán de Fuego, which constitutes a risk for the inhabitants of tthe communities located on the slopes of the volcano, mainly in Escuintla, onMonday, August 29, from after the local authorities. Fuego observatory reported that on August 22, 2022 about 5 to 8 weak to moderate explosions occurred per hour, which are accompanied by columns of ash at 4,500-4,800 m. asl. spreading west and south-west for more than 10 km. Fine ash falls were recorded on Panimache I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde, Yrpocapa and their surroundings. Incandescent pulses were observed at 100-200 m. above the crater, generating avalanches around the crater, some of which reach the limit of vegetation. As of the 12th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that the persistence of intense rains on the Fuego-Acatenango complex generated a lahar in the barranca Las Lajas, between weak to moderate, transporting fine volcanic material, rocks from 50 cm to 1.5 m. in diameter, branches and tree trunks. As of the 2nd of August, The local observatory reported that the lava flow decreased its advance and is no longer active towards the Ceniza chute. Weak-to-moderate vulcanian-type explosions continue to take place at regular intervals of 4 to 7 per hour generating 1,1 km-1,3 km high ash plumes that extended about 15 km to the west-southwest of the volcano.As of the 30th of July, OVFGO, reported a weak plume at a height of 4,800 meters above sea level which disperses in a west and south-west direction. Incandescent pulses were observed at a height of 200 meters above the crater, these generate avalanches on the edge of the crater of weak to moderate characteristics. The lava flow towards the barranca Ceniza has a length of about 1.2500 meters according to the image of the Landsat-9 satellite. The monitoring parameters of the seismic and acoustic stations around the Fuego volcano show an increase which translates into greater degassing and incandescence observed in the crater, since the early hours of July 28.This increase allowed the formation of a lava flow of about 300 meters in length towards the Ceniza ravine, constantly causing avalanches of moderate characteristics in the same direction. These could cover distances close to 2 km long, with the probability of reaching the top of the hill known as "El Cucurucho".The length of the flow reached 700 meters on July 29, generating strong avalanches towards the barranca Ceniza, and a plume of up to 4,800 m. asl.The instrumental recording of seismic and acoustic stations around the Fuego volcano shows an increase in degassing activity from the crater since Saturday 9th of July in the evening. OVFGO observers at Panimaché reported low to moderate sounds similar to a train locomotive, which went from intermittent periods of between 1 and 5 minutes, to remaining constant since early today. At this time, 2 to 5 weak explosions per hour are observed, as well as moderate and strong avalanches towards the Ceniza ravine. This activity raises a curtain of ash above the ravine, and the wind disperses this material over distances between 10 and 15 kilometers to the west and southwest. Some weak avalanches were also observed towards other ravines such as Santa Teresa and Las Lajas. All this favors the fall of fine ash in the communities of the southwestern flank such as Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Yucales, Palo Verde, El Porvenir, La Asunción and La Rochela. As of the 6th of July, INSIVUMEH and the OVFGO, observatory reported a weak white fumarole at a height of 4,500 meters above sea level which disperses in a west and southwest direction, as well as 5 to 8 explosions per hour of weak and moderate characteristics: these explosions generate a column of gas and ash from a height of 4,500 to 4,900 meters above sea level which spreads to the west and southwest of the volcano at a distance of 15 kilometers, and are accompanied by weak and moderate rumblings with a weak shock wave. At night and early in the morning, an incandescent pulse was observed 200 meters above the crater. Weak and moderate avalanches are also recorded around the crater and towards the ravines of Ceniza, Taniluyá, Santa Teresa, Honda and Las Lajas. A locomotive noise lasting 1 to 3 minutes is reported. Ash falls are reported at Panimaché I, Panimaché II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo and others in that direction. A lava flow is reported in the direction of the Ceniza ravine with a length of 100 meters, avalanches originate at the front of this flow.INSIVUMEH reported that effusive activity  has decreased on July 5, however it still maintains a lava flow 200 meters in length towards the Ceniza ravine. . During the last hours, the activity in the crater generated weak, moderate and some strong explosions accompanied by a weak shock wave and abundant ash columns with heights of 4,800 meters above the level of the sea ​​(15,748 feet) which are scattered to the west and southwest of the volcanic complex, at a distance of about 30 kilometers. Ash falls are reported in the communities of Santa Sofía, Morelia, Panimaché I and II, El Porvenir and others in these directions.INSIVUMEH reported that effusive activity recorded a gradual increase from the night of July 2nd, accompanied by periods of constant and abundant degassing that last from a few minutes to a few hours. This generated the formation of a new lava flow more than 1000 meters long in the direction of the Ceniza ravine, also generating, according to the recordings of the seismic stations and what is reported by the Fire Volcano Observatory (OVFGO ) , a pyroclastic flow in the barranca Ceniza and with a high probability that they also descend into nearby ravines, such as Trinidad. INSIVUMEH reported that on June 18th of 5 7 explosions, weak to moderate, per hour, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash at 4,600 - 5,000 m. asl., dispersing 15-20 km southwest and west. Fine ash falls were reported. They generate weak to moderate avalanches in the rim of the crater, with material reaching the limit of the vegetation. As of the 3rd of June, INSIVUMEH reported that s cloudiness in the area, however, low rumblings were heard 2 to 6 times per hour, associated with explosions; these explosions generate columns of ash from 4,500 to 4,800 meters above sea level which are dispersed in the northeast and east direction of the volcano due to the wind pattern. In addition, low noises were heard due to the avalanches generated around the crater and towards the ravines of Santa Teresa, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas and Honda. There is a likelihood of ash fall in communities northeast and east of the volcano, as well as in the Guatemala City metropolitan area.As of the 27th of May INSIVUMEH reported that activity continues, with moderate and some strong explosions, in a range of 6 to 9 per hour, accompanied by plumes of gray ash at heights of 4,500 to 4,800 meters above sea level, that the wind scatters towards the west northwest at a distance of about 30 kilometers. Ashfall is reported at Yepocapa, La Soledad, Acatenango, with the likelihood of ashfall at Antigua Guatemala and other towns on this flank. The explosions generate moderate avalanches towards the ravines of Santa Teresa, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas which reach the vegetation. Moderate and loud explosions generate rumbling and shock waves. INSIVUMEH reported tht on May 25th, from 5 to 8 hourly explosions of weak and moderate characteristics. Due to the activity recorded in the volcanic edifice, it presents columns of ash between 4,500 and 4,700 meters above sea level. They are moving north and northeast over a distance of about 25 kilometres. INSIVUMEH reported that 5 to 9 weak and moderate explosions per hour are recorded, with ash columns from 4,600 to 4,700 m. asl, extending 10 to 15 km in a northwesterly direction, on May 20.INSIVUMEH reported that 4-8 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 30 March through 5 April, generating gas-and-ash emissions that rose to 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 30 km NW, W, SW, and S. Block avalanches descended the Las Lajas (SE), Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Taniluye (SW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Santa Teresa drainages. At night, incandescence was observed up to 150 m above the crater. Fine ashfall was reported in Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Yepocapa (8 km NW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Shock waves from the explosions and rumbling sounds rattled local structuresAs of the 24th of March INSIVUMEH reported that 3 to 5 explosions per hour occurred, with weak, moderate and strong characteristics, which raise columns of gray ash to heights of 4,500 to 4,800 meters above sea level, which propagate north and northwest for a distance of up to 30 kilometers or more, with the probability of generating a weak ashfall on La Soledad, San Antonio Nejapa, Acatenango and Patzicía. The explosions produce weak avalanches and moderate towards the ravines of Santa Teresa, Ceniza and Las Lajas until they reach the edge of the vegetation, as well as low rumblings with shock waves that vibrate the roofs and windows of the houses of the nearby communities of the volcano.As of the 15th of March, INSIVUMEH reported that 4 to 7 weak, moderate and a few strong explosions occurred per hour, these generate a column of ash at a height of 4,500 to 5,000 meters above the level of the sea, which disperses 15 to 20 km to the west and southwest. Following the explosions, ash falls continue to be recorded in Panimaché I, Morelia, Santa Sofía, El Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo, Yepocapa and other communities. The explosions produce the descent of weak, moderate and strong avalanches around the crater and towards the ravines of Las Lajas, Ceniza and Trinidad, some reaching the vegetation. Incandescence is reported at a height of 200 to 300 meters above the crater. As of the 12th of March, INSIVUMEH reported that a degassing was recorded in the crater of the Fuego volcano at an altitude of 4,300 m above sea level, explosions with weak, moderate and strong characteristics with abundant gas and ash which dispersed towards the west and the southwest. These explosions also generated weak and moderate avalanches towards the ravines of the volcano, in particular towards the barrancas Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas. Due to this activity, tephra falls were reported in the communities of Morelia, Panimaché I, Panimaché II. As of the 8th of March, INSIVUMEH reported that weak to moderate explosions continue to produce copious amounts of ash. They accumulate on the flanks of the volcano and are unstable, being able to generate collapses, and descend in the form of moderate avalanches in the barrancas recently affected by pyroclastic flows. The vegetation, the streets and the roofs of the houses are covered with large deposits of ash, which can be mobilized by the wind, conditions that are detrimental to health.he RSAM reflects the drop in seismic amplitude, which returned to its base levels around 3 a.m., after 26 hours of eruptive activity. INSIVUMEH reported that a new eruptive stage has been in place at Fuego since March 5. From 6 p.m. on March 6, the audible parameters of the Fuego Volcano Observatory, OVFGO, seismic and acoustic recordings increased, noticing this increase in rumble with moderate to loud characteristics and sounds similar to those of a locomotive at constant train and a moderate aircraft turbine. Strombolian activity was observed in the crater of the volcano, which feeds two lava flows of 400 and 200 meters in length respectively advancing in the barrancas Ceniza and Santa Teresa. An incandescent source, from a height of between 100 and 200 meters above the crater, generated moderate to strong avalanches towards the ravines of the Fuego volcano, mainly the barrancas Ceniza, Trinidad and Santa Teresa. Pyroclastic flows, composed of gas, ash and blocks of rock at high temperature, were observed descending into the barranca Ceniza between 12:03 p.m. and 2:31 p.m. The flows traveled about 7 km. Ash falls were reported in Panimaché, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Yucales, El Porvenir and Sangre de Cristo, with a noticeable deterioration in air quality. In the evening, the OFGO recorded an increase in seismic parameters greater than that recorded in the last 24 hours, resulting from the large quantities of pyroclastic flows, mainly in the barranCa Ceniza, with a possibility in the barranca Las Lajas. An evacuation process in the village of Morelia, Yepocapa, Chimaltenango has been launched; Approximately 220 people will be transferred by bus from the Ingenio Pantaleón to the Santa Lucia Cotzumalguapa Fairgrounds, Escuintla. Conred advocates self-evacuation. Previously, As of the 23rd of February, INSIVUMEH reported that activity was characterized by explosions, at the rate of 3 to 6 weak explosions generated per hour. ; they are accompanied by plumes of gas and ash from 4,500 to 4,700 m. asl. which extend to the west and southwest. The explosions are accompanied by avalanches of weak, moderate and strong characteristics in all the ravines, mainly towards the barranca Ceniza, generating materials that reach the edge of the vegetation.As of the 18th of February INSIVUMEH reported that 3 to 6 explosions occurred per hour, with weak, moderate and some strong characteristics, which raise columns of gray ash to heights of 4,500 to 4,800 meters above sea level ( 14,764 to 15,748 feet), which disperse to the west and southwest for a distance of up to 20 kilometers; They cause a weak fall of ash in San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde, Panimaché I, Morelia and other communities in this direction. INSIVUMEH reported that since February 9th, 2022, the activity begins an effusive phase which generated a lava flow in the direction of the Ceniza ravine, with a length which varied between 75 and 200 meters. Seismic and acoustic monitoring parameters and field observations made by OVFGO observers indicate that starting yesterday (February 14), said effusive activity has increased, generating periods of high activity that last a few minutes. a few hours away. As a result, the extrusion of magmatic material generates greater degassing and incandescence at night and early in the morning. As of the 27th of January, INSIVUMEH reported that 5 to 7 weak and moderate explosions occurred per hour. These explosions generate a column of ash from a height of 4,300 to 4,600 meters above sea level (14,108 to 15,092 feet) which disperses to the west and southwest of the volcano; low and moderate rumblings are reported, which cause vibrations in the roofs and windows of houses near the volcano. Weak, moderate and strong avalanches are observed around the crater, and weak and moderate avalanches towards the barrancas Ceniza, Taniluyá and Trinidad and weak towards the barrancas Santa Teresa and Las Lajas. A sound similar to a train locomotive lasting 5-8 minutes is reported, sometimes the sound is heard continuously with durations of 20-30 minutes. Ash falls are reported in the communities of Panimaché I, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Palo Verde el Porvenir and others in this direction. A lava flow in the direction of the Ceniza ravine with a length of 40 meters is reported, in front of this lava flow constant avalanches are generated in the direction of the barrancas Ceniza and Trinidad.As of the 23rd of January, INSVIVUMEH reported that weak moderate and some strong explosions continued , in the range of 8 to 12 per hour, expelling columns of ash at an approximate height of 4,500 and 4,800 meters above sea level. (14 763 to 15,748 feet) extending west southeast, a distance of 15 kilometers. Sounds similar to a train locomotive for periods of 2-5 minutes. Ash falls are reported on the communities of Morelia, Santa Sofía, Panimache, La Rochela, Ceilán, Osuna. On the sides of the crater constant avalanches of blocks in all directions, some reaching the vegetation. Previous news 2021 - As of the 28th of December, the seismic stations reflect activity and OVFGO / Fuego observers report that during the night and early in the morning incandescent pulses that rise from 100 to 200 meters were observed. Weak and moderate explosions are further reported, in a range of 5 to 12 per hour, expelling gray ash plumes which rise to an average height of 4700 m, generating fine ash falls within a range of 10 to 15 kilometers specifically in the areas of Panimaché 1, Panimaché 2, Morelia, Santa Sofía, El Porvenir, among others. At the same time generating low and moderate rumblings with shock waves. Constant boulder avalanches were heard in the direction of the Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad and Santa Teresa barrancas, some of the material reached the edge of the vegetation. As of the 6th of December INSIVUMEH reported that the increase in radiance values ​​recorded from the evening of December 4 shows the appearance of a lava flow in the Ceniza canyon, which according to OVFGO reports reaches 500 meters in length and has generated abundant avalanches in the direction of the canyon in question. This Strombolian activity continued to increase during the afternoon and night, generating almost continuous explosions, which raise pulses of incandescent material to heights between 200 and 300 meters above the crater. The activity is accompanied by abundant avalanches towards the ravines of Trinidad, Taniluyá, El Jute, Las Lajas and Seca, some reaching the edge of the vegetation. Sometimes the explosions produce dense ash plumes that rise to 4,700 meters and spread south and west. Low and moderate sounds are heard, audible to several kilometers in the municipalities of the southern flank. The network of seismic stations records the activity of explosions and tremors (internal vibrations). INSIVUMEH reported that on November 20 with 8-11 explosions per hour occurred , generating ash plumes at 4,300-4,700 m. asl., dispersing southwest. Avalanches occur mainly towards the Ceniza, Trinidad, Taniluya barrancas, and more weakly towards the Santa Teresa and Las Lajas barrancas; some reach the vegetation limit.Ash falls are reported on Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Yucales, and El Porvenir. As of the 10th of November, OVFGO, reportseda weak gray fumarole at a height of 4,400 m above sea level (14,436 feet) which dispersed in the west direction of the volcano.From 6 to 12 explosions per hour are reported, with weak and moderate characteristics that expel. column of ash at a height of 4,400 to 4,800 m above sea level (14,436 feet to 15,748 feet) which is scattered in the west, northeast and north directions of the volcano, weak and moderate rumblings are reported, which cause vibrations in the roofs and windows in the houses near the volcano. INSIVUMEH reported that 3-14 explosions per hour were recorded at Fuego during 26 October-2 November, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and shock waves felt in communities around the volcano. Ash plumes mostly drifted as far as 50 km SW, W, and NW and 20 km N and S, causing almost daily ashfall in several areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Yucales (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Finca Palo Verde, La Rochela, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-400 m above the summit each day.During 24-28 September there were that 6-12 explosions per hour generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and shock waves that often rattled buildings within 10 km of the volcano. Ash plumes mostly drifted as far as 15 km W and SW, causing daily ashfall in several areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluya (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-300 m above the summit on most days.As of the 25th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that the lava flows towards the barrancas Ceniza and Trinidad are no longer active.Weak white fumaroles were observed at night and early in the morning, rising to 4,400 meters above sea level and the number of explosions remains within a range of 8 to 12 per hour, expelling columns of ash at an altitude of 4,700 to 4,800 m above sea level, moving west and southwest over a distance of 15 km.Fine ash falls are reported in the communities of Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, El Porvenir, Yepocapa and others in this direction.Incandescent pulses were observed above the crater, and constant avalanches of boulders were heard in the direction of the barrancas Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad and Santa Teresa, some of the material reached the edge of the vegetation. As of the 24th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that the seismic and acoustic monitoring parameters and field observations show a gradual decrease in activity: the effusion is decreasing, and the flows are no longer active. The materials deposited in the Ceniza and Trinidad barrancas can generate lahars of high temperatures, moderate to strong, under the effect of rains on the upper parts of the volcano. The number of explosions remains between 7 and 13 per hour, accompanied by ash plumes at 4,800 m. asl., moving west and southwest. Ash falls could affect the villages located in these directions. INSIVUMEH reported that the effusive-explosive eruption of the volcano continues at elevated levels. A strong explosion, starting on 23rd of September around 05:40 local time, triggered a pyroclastic flow that traveled over the Ceniza ravine reaching length of at least 4-6 km. Ash plumes separated from the pyroclastic density current and formed so-called phoenix clouds. The eruption column rose to an altitude of 16,000 ft (4,900 m) and extended to the west of the volcano. Pyroclastic flows are deadly, turbulent hot avalanche of lava rock fragments of all sizes embedded in a mixture of turbulent gas and ash racing down slopes. Seismic recordings of INSIVUMEH's instruments detected an increasing trend of the activity at the volcano on the morning of 24 september. Elevated strombolian activity started to produce two new lava flows slowly advancing towards Ceniza and Trinidad ravines. Lava continues to keep the flow active, currently about 250 and 350 m long. INSIVUMEH reported that a lava flow has been observed since September 13 in the barranca Ceniza, with an approximate length of 150 to 200 meters. Mirova reports moderate thermal anomalies on September 13 and 14, between 75 and 31 MW. Weak white fumaroles and explosions accompanied by ash have been observed at night and early in the morning in a range of 8 to 12, which rise to an approximate height of 4500 to 4700 m., dispersing in a southwest direction generating ash fall in areas close to the area. Incandescent pulses were observed rising 300 above the crater, accompanied by a faint white fumarole. Constant avalanches of boulders were heard in the direction of the barrancas Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad and Santa Teresa, some of the material reached the edge of the vegetation. INSIVUMEH reported that 6-13 explosions per hour were recorded during 18-25 August at Fuego, though the weather sometimes prevented visual confirmation. The resulting ash plumes rose to 4.5-4.8 km and drifted as far as 15 km W, SW, S, and NW, causing daily ashfall downwind in Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Yucales (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and Yepocapa (8 km NW). White gas-and-steam plumes rose to 4.5 km (14,764 ft) a.s.l. on 19 and 25 August. Shock waves often rattled buildings around the volcano as far as 15 km from the summit. Block avalanches accompanied the explosions, descending the Santa Teresa, Ceniza (SSW), Taniluye (SW), Trinidad (S), Seca (W), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, sometimes reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent ejecta was visible rising 100-400 m above the summit during the nights and early mornings of 20-23 August. INSIVUMEH reported that 4-13 explosions per hour were recorded during 3-10 August at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and shock waves that often rattled buildings around the volcano. Ash plumes mostly drifted as far as 15 km W and SW, causing daily ashfall in several areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Yucales (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluye (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-400 m above the summit during 4-6 and 9-10 August. At 1700 on 6 August a lahar descended the Las Lajas drainage, carrying fine material along with tree branches and blocks 1-2 m in diameter.INSIVUMEH reported that 5-15 explosions per hour were recorded during 13-20 July at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and shock waves that often rattled buildings around the volcano. Ash plumes mostly drifted 10-20 km NW, W, and SW and caused daily ashfall in several areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluye (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-400 m above the summit during 13-19 July.INSIVUMEH reported that on July 3, 2021 from 3 to 5 explosions per hour, accompanied by ash plumes at 4,500-4,700 m. asl. scattered in a north and west sector. Meanwhile, a white to gray degassing column was observed at 4,400 m Asl. Ash fallout is sporadic, between weak to strong, on the communities of San Miguel Duenas, Parramos, Jocotenango and Chimaltenango; Avalanches were reported in the direction of the Ceniza, Trinidad, Raniluya, Santa teresa and Las Lajas barrancas, part of which reaches the vegetation limit. INSIVUMEH reported that on 24 June lahars resulting from substantial rainfall descended the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on Fuego's ESE flank, carrying tree branches, trunks, and blocks as large as 1 m in diameter. During 23-29 June there were 4-15 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Daily shock waves rattled buildings in towns around the volcano. Ashfall was reported daily in several areas downwind, including Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), La Rochela, El Zapote, and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-400 m above the summit each day. INSIVUMEH reported that on 15 June lahars descended the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on Fuego's SE flank, carrying tree branches and blocks as large as 1.5 m in diameter. During 16-22 June there were 4-15 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Daily shock waves rattled buildings in towns around the volcano, and within 15 km of the S and SW flanks during 20-21 June. Ashfall was reported almost daily in several areas downwind, including Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluya (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-350 m above the summit each day.INSIVUMEH reported that 5-13 explosions per hour were recorded during 1-8 June at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Shock waves often rattled buildings around the volcano. Ashfall was reported almost daily in several areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluya (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-350 m above the summit on most days. INSIVUMEH reported that 5-14 explosions were recorded per hour during 21-27 April at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano, especially in areas as far as 20 km W and SW. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported on most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Explosions ejected incandescent material 100-400 m above the summit almost daily.As of the 26th of April INSIVUMEH reported that thermal anomalies were visible in recent days. Moderate to strong explosions at a rate of 9 to 12 per hour, are accompanied by shock waves and plumes of gas and ash reaching 4,500-4,600 m. asl., with dispersion towards the southwest. Ash falls are reported on Morelia, Santa Sofia, Panimache. The activity generates avalanches of boulders in the direction of the various barrancas. INSIVUMEH reported that 6-11 explosions per hour were recorded during 24-30 March at Fuego, generating ash  plumes that rose to 4.7 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.and drifted W, NW, and SW as far as 10-15 km. Shock waves rattled buildings near the volcano. Block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), and Trinidad (S) drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Ash plumes from explosions rose to 4.8 (16,000 ft) km a.s.l. and drifted N and NE on 25 March and W on 27 March far as 15-20 km, resulting in ashfall in Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache (8 km SW), Yucales (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Yepocapa (8 km NW), La Soledad (11 km N). Block avalanches descended the Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, in addition to those affected on 24 March. Weak crater incandescence was observed at night and in the early morning during 26 March. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m above the summit on 28 March, accompanied by ash plumes that rose to 4.8 km a.s.l. and resulted in ashfall in Palo Verde, Panimache II, Sangre de Cristo, Yepocapa, and El Porvenir (8 km ENE).INSIVUMEH reported that t 4-12 explosions were recorded per hour during 17-23 February at Fuego, generating  ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported on most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I (8 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Notably, on 17 February ash plumes drifted as far as 50 km E, causing ashfall in local communities as well as in Guatemala City (city center is about 40 km ENE). Ash plumes drifted 40 km SW on 18 February. Curtains of old ash deposits remobilized by strong winds were observed during 19-21 February. Incandescent material was ejected 100-400 m above the summit during 19-22 February.As of the 15th of February, INSIVUMEH reported that the intense effusive activity that had started a few days ago from the summit crater decreased significantly and seems to ended as seismic instrument detected decreasing period of the amplitude. The lava flow in Seca western direction ceased and is now no longer active while the second lava flow in Ceniza direction on the SW flank remains active, currently about 300 m long but it is expected to reduce its length in the coming hours. INSIVUMEH reported that on February 14, the occurrence in the morning around 10:20 a.m. of two pyroclastic flows in the barranca Ceniza, and the maintenance of two active lava flows, one in the barranca Seca, 200 meters long, the another in the barranca Ceniza, 800 meters long, with avalanches at the lava front. The explosive activity is characterized by expulsions of incandescent material 150 m away. above the crater and plumes of ash at 4,200 m. asl., dispersing over a large area west, south and southwest up to 20 km. This activity is maintained at a high level. A special INSIVUMEH bulletin reports an increase in the effusive activity of Fuego from 9 p.m. on February 13th, 2021, the incandescent materials were emitted at a height of 200 meters, accompanied by noises due to the decompression of the gases, and feed a new lava flow in the direction of the barranca Seca. Boulder avalanches occur at the lava front of the two flows. The explosive activity generates an ash plume at 4,500-4,800 m. asl., moving in a west-southwest direction. The ashes could affect La Aurora International Airport. INSIVUMEH reported that 5-11 explosions were recorded per hour during 19-25 January at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted no more than 15 km W, SW, and S. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano and were felt by residents as far as 12 km away. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m above the summit almost daily. Ashfall was reported on most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofia (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). As of the 12th of January, INSIVUMEH reported that explosive eruption of the volcano has remained essentially unchanged at moderate to high levels. No significant change in activity has occurred since the previous update. Ongoing moderate-to-strong strombolian-to-vulcanian activity continues from the summit crater at regular intervals of 9 to 12 per hour showering the summit cone with glowing lava bombs. Incandescent material is being ejected to an approximate height of several hundred meters above the crater and caused moderate to strong avalanches of material as can be seen in the attached video. Plume of ash rose to an estimated altitude of 4,700 ft (15,420 m) and extending about 15-20 km to the NW of the volcano. INSIVUMEH reported that 3-15 explosions were recorded per hour during 29 December-5 January at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted 7-30 km generally N, NW, W, SW, and S. Shock waves rattled buildings around the volcano and were detected as far as 25 km away. Block avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages, often reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m above the summit almost daily. Ashfall was reported most days in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Santa Sofia (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Yucales, La Soledad (11 km N), San Miguel Dueas (10 km NE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Previous news 2020 - INSIVUMEH reported that activity increased at 0430 on 11 December with notable avalanches of material and block-and-ash flows lava dome traveling down the W and SW flanks. Ash plumes drifted 15 km SW, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Finca Montebello, Loma Linda, and San Marcos Palajunoj. Activity remained elevated at least through 13 December; ash plumes drifted as far as 20 km W, SW, and S, and pyroclastic flows descended the flanks. As of 10th of December INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity continued with weak to strong explosions, at a rate of 3 to 6 per hour; ash falls were reported on Panimache, Sangre de Cristo, Ojo de Agua, Santa Isabel, and others. Moderate boulder avalanches were reported in the drainages, some boulders reach the vegetation limit. A night glowing was observed 100-200 meters above the crater. As of the 21st of November, INSIVUMEH reported that the volcano showed 4-8 weak and moderate explosions per hour, expelling plumes of gas and gray ash at an altitude of 4,500 to 4,700 meters (14,763 to 15,419 feet) which disperse mainly to the south -Where is. Some explosions are strong and cause shock waves that vibrate the roofs and windows of houses near the volcanic perimeter. The explosions are accompanied by weak and moderate avalanches, which disperse towards the ravines of Seca, Ceniza, Taniluya, Trinidad and Las Lajas. Avalanches with strong characteristics persist on the ravines of Seca and Ceniza, some of which reach the vegetation limit. Fine ash falls were recorded in the Panimaché 1 area. At night and early in the morning, reflections of incandescent pulses were observed on the crater. INSIVUMEH reported that 2-14 explosions were recorded per hour during 27 October-3 November at Fuego, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that drifted 10-25 km generally S, SW, and W. Shock waves rattled buildings within 12 km of the summit. Incandescent material ejected 100-300 m high caused block avalanches in the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), El Jute, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages; avalanches sometimes reached vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported during 30 October-3 November in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, La Rochela, Santa Sofi­a (12 km SW), Ceylon, El Zapote (10 km S), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). INSIVUMEH reported that, during September, a total of 2,306 explosions occurred. In mid-October, 1,037 explosions were recorded, including 5 strong explosions over the last 18 hours, accompanied by white-gray plumes of 1,000 meters above the crater. On October 14 at 10 a.m., an illustrated explosion, qualified as moderate, generated an avalanche in the barranca Ceniza. As of the 27th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions occurred, at a rate of 6 to 12 per hour, generate incandescent impulses 200 meters above the crater, and were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,500-4,700 meters asl., dispersing to the west and the southwest for about ten kilometers. Avalanches affecting Barancas Seca, Ceniza, Tanilyua, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda, some reaching the vegetation limit. Fine ashes fall on the surroundings of Panimache, Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Morella and Santa Sofia.As of the 24th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that a high amplitude tremor on the southeast flank has been recorded at the volcano yesterday. According to seismic instruments a moderate to strong lahars (mud flows) were detected towards the El Jute and Las Lajas direction as the heavy rainfalls remobilised the fresh ash deposits. Larger lahars are expected including blocks with diameter between 1-2 m today. As of September 23, INSIVUMEH reported that the pattern of activity remains the same as the previous days, with weak to moderate explosions, at a rate of 12 to 18 per hour, accompanied by columns of ash reaching 4,700 meters asl. Constant avalanches from the edge of the crater are observed in the direction of the many drainages. Ash falls are reported in the areas of Panimache, Morella, Santa Sofia, Porvenir, Yucales, Sangre de Cristo and San Pedro Yepocapa. As of the 20th of September, INSIVUMEH reported that explosive eruption of the volcano continued moderate to high levels. The effusion of the lava flow in Ceniza direction has stopped and is no longer active.Near-constant strombolian explosions are associated with incandescent material that is ejected to an approximate height of 300 m above the crater with moderate to strong avalanches. As of the 12th of September, explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 15000 ft (4600 m) altitude or flight level 150 .INSIVUMEH reported that the activity of the Fuego remained charaterzed by explosions, which generate avalanches of blocks in the direction of the various drainages, which for some reached the limit of the vegetation; the ash plumes that accompany them cause only small fallout of ash and shock waves perceptible up to 8 km from the volcano. Tthe lava flow in the Ceniza barranca was no longer active. Insivumeh reports in its special September 11 bulletin that the effusive activity of Fuego has been on the increase since the 5th of the month. Extrusion does not happen at a constant rate; the length of the lava flow in the Ceniza barranca varies from 100 to 650 meters approximately - the last daily bulletin indicates it at a length of 200 meters -, and the avalanches generated by the flow also affect the barrancas Trinidad and Tanilyua. INSIVUMEH reported that during 31 August-1st of September the first 200 m of the lava flow was active and continued to produce block avalanches. As of the 28th of August INSIVUMEH reported that 5 to 10 Vulcanian explosions, weak and moderate occurred per hour, during the night and early in the morning which expelled plumes of ash to a height of 4400 to 4700 meters above sea level, which dispersed in a north and northwesterly direction, accompanied by incandescent pulses between 150 and 300 meters high above the crater, weak and moderate avalanches channeled towards the barrancas Santa Teresa, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda, some advancing to the limit of vegetation. Low, moderate and up to four loud rumblings were heard, causing sensitive shock waves up to 12 km from the volcano. The lava flow towards the barranca Ceniza remained active, with an approximate length of 400 meters and the detachment of blocks in front. As of the 26th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that that explosions occurrs at a rate of 4 to 6 per hour, accompanied by shock waves, avalanches of blocks in the direction of the Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas drainages, some of which reach the limit of vegetation, and ash plumes at 4,500-4,700 meters above sea level. Ash falls were reported in the villages of Panimaché I, Morelia, Finca Palo Verde and Yepocapa. Incandescent pulses were observed during the night and early in the morning. INSIVUMEH reported that at 2050 on 29 July lahars descended the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on Fuego's SE flanks. There were 6-13 explosions per hour recorded during 29 July-4 August, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 15-20 km NW, W, and SW. Shock waves rattled buildings within a 20-km radius, particularly in areas on the S flank. Incandescent material ejected 100-350 m high caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza (SSW), Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluye (SW), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages; avalanches sometimes reached vegetated areas. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). INSIVUMEH reported that on July 25th that moderate explosions continued at a rate of 8-12 per hour, accompanied by plumes at 4,700 meters asl., Dispersing over a west / north- west sector over 15 km. During the night and in the morning, incandescent pulses were observed at 100-200 meters in height, as well as boulder avalanches in the barrancas Seca, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda, some of which reach the vegetation zone . Ash particles were reported on Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, el Porvenir, Palo verde and San Pedro Yepocapa.As of the 21st of July, INSIVUMEH reported that weak to moderate explosions occurred at a rate of 8-11 per hour, accompanied by plumes of gray ash reaching 4,500-4,700 meters asl. Incandescent projections were observed 100-200 meters above the crater, which generate weak to strong fallout, and avalanches in the direction of the Seca, Tanilyua, Ceniza, lajas and Honda barrancas, with blocks reaching the level of vegetation. The shock waves are perceived at 20 km from the volcanic perimeter, with vibrations of the roofs and windows. Ash falls were reported in the villages to the south, Panimache I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Finca Palo Verde, Sangre de Cristo, Yepocapa. As of the 13th of July, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions still occurs at the rate of 6-9 per hour, accompanied by columns of gas and ash at 4400-4700 meters asl. dispersing west. Ash falls were reported in the areas of Panimache II, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde and El Porvenir. Night glow was reported, 150 to 300 meters high, accompanied by avalanches of boulders towards the Trinidad, Tanilyua, Ceniza honda, Las Lajas and Seca barrancas; some blocks roll to the limits of vegetation. INSIVUMEH reported that around 2:30 p.m. on June 24, a moderate lahar descended the El Jute and Las Lajas barrancas, on its western flank and tributaries of the Achiguate and Guacalate rivers respectively. From 3.30 p.m. local time, a lahar was observed in the Secanca barranca, a tributary of the Rio Pantaleon. As of the 19th of June INSIVUMEH reported that a slight white degassing rose at a height of 4,200 m above sea level, and 7 to 9 light and moderate explosions per hour which expel columns of gray ash at a height of 4,300 to 4,700 m. asl., which dispersed in a west and southwest direction, and which were accompanied by incandescent pulses between 200 and 300 meters above the crater, as well as weak and moderate avalanches in the direction of the canyons of Santa Teresa , Ceniza and Las Lajas, some extending to the edge of the vegetation. A low and moderate rumbling was perceived, causing shock waves causing vibrations in the houses of the villages near the volcano on its southern flank. Sounds similar to train locomotives are heard for periods of 2 to 5 minutes. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 4-13 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 10-16 June, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km NW, W, SW, and S. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Shock waves from explosions sometimes rattled houses in the vicinity of the volcano. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m high and caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza, Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Taniluyá (SW), Santa Teresa (W), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages. A new lava flow traveled 250 m down the Seca drainage on the NW flank in the early hours of 12 June. The lava effusion was accompanied by almost constant summit crater incandescence and gas emissions. Incandescent material was ejected 100 m above the summit. Avalanches of material descended the flanks and reached vegetated areas. Ash plumes rose over 1 km and shock waves from explosions were felt. The lava flow had lengthened to 300 m by 13 June, but was an estimated 250 m long on 14 June. Effusive activity can intensify and even extend to another ravine, presenting block avalanches; it is recommended not to stay near or in the barrancas. A notice of possible dispersion of ash up to 20 km in a south and southwest sector has been issued to civil aeronautics. As of the 8th of June, INSIVUMEH reported that a weak white fumarole rose a height of 4,100 meters with weak and moderate explosions, between 7 to 10 per hour, accompanied by columns of gray ash, at a height of 4,300 to 4,600 meters, dispersed in a north and northeast direction. Weak incandescent pulses were observed at the crater, as are weak and moderate block avalanches, towards the Trinidad, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Las Lajas, Honda and Seca barrancas. The explosions generated low rumblings with shock waves, vibrant roofs and windows in the homes of villages near the volcano. Sounds similar to locomotives are heard for periods of 1 to 3 minutes. As of the 28th of May 2020 INSIVUMEH reported that moderate to strong Strombolian explosions occurred at the rate of 8-12 per hour which raise columns of ash at 4,500-4,700 meters asl., dispersing south and southwest. Moderate avalanches occurred in the Seca, Tanilyua, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas barrancas. Fine ashes fall on the volcano observatory. Lahar has been also reported reported in the Barra Seca, a tributary of the Pantaleon river, located on the southwest flank of the volcano at 1 p.m. A weak to moderate lahar flowed in the Ceniza barranca tributary of the Achiguate river, from 4:20 p.m. Maintaining heavy rains can result in more lahars, carrying tree branches and volcanic material. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 5-12 explosions per hour recorded during 22-26 May, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km in multiple directions. Shock waves rattled buildings within a 20-km radius, particularly in areas on the S flank. Incandescent material was ejected 100-300 m high and caused avalanches of blocks in the Ceniza, Seca (W), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas, and Honda drainages. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Ciudad Vieja (13.5 km NE), San Miguel Dueñas (10 km NE), and Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE). Lava flows in the Ceniza drainage varied in length between 150 and 400 m long. As of the 24th of May, lava flow a hundred meters long towards the Seca barranca was observed in the images of Sentinel-2, as well as avalanches of blocks reaching up to 280 meters in length. The rains on the upper parts of the drainage generate weak to moderate lahars, marked by volcanic material, blocks of 1-2 meters in diameter, and trees. INSIVUMEH reported a lahar on May 25 at 8:15 p.m. local in Barranca Seca, and Rio Pantaleon. INSIVUMEH reported that a change in the type of activity was recorded by the seismic and acoustic networks from May 5, 2020 . On the evening of May 8 a lava flow has been observed since the morning, in the direction of Barranca Ceniza reaching a length of about 400 meters. It was accompanied by almost constant incandescence at the crater and avalanches towards the vegetation zone over 1 km. The explosions remained weak to moderate, with shock waves and ash plumes reaching 4,800 m. asl. There were 5-12 explosions per hour recorded during 22-28 April, generating ash plumes as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim that generally drifted 10-15 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). The two lava flows continued to be active during 25-28 April; the flow in the Ceniza drainage did not advance past 200 m and the flow in the Seca drainage had extended to 800 m long. The ends of the lava flows continued to generate blocks that reached vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that lava began to descend Fuego's Ceniza (SSW) drainage on 19 April. The rate of effusion increased in the evening of 23 April and observatory staff saw a second lava flow in the Seca (W) drainage that was 170 m long. On 24 April satellite data confirmed thermal anomalies from both lava flows. The main part of the lava flow in the Ceniza was 200 m long, but prodced incandescent blocks from the end of the flow traveled an additional 240 m, reaching vegetated areas. Incandescent blocks from the end of the flow in the Seca drainage traveled 520 m. Explosions at the summit crater generated shock waves and ash plumes that rose almost 1.2 km above the crater. Avalanches of blocks from these explosions traveled up to 1 km down all flanks. INSIVUMEH reported that the night of April 18 the seismic and acoustic network of Fuego recorded a change in the type of activity. bad meteorological conditions no permitted observation of the lava flow, but analysis of satellite images helped to obtain its characteristics. The flow to Barranca Ceniza on April 19 was approximately 320 meters long. The activity was accompanied by almost constant incandescence at the crater and avalanches over 1 km, reaching the level of vegetation. There were 5-14 explosions per hour recorded during 7-14 April, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-20 km in multiple directions. Minor ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Quisache, and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within a 25-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 100-600 m high. Lava flows in the Ceniza drainage had variable lengths during the week, from 200 to 600 m long. Avalanches of blocks from the lava flows traveled sometimes long distances, and in some cases set fire to vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that on April 12th, 4 strong explosions occurred with expulsion of incandescent materials on the flanks of the volcano, respectively at 2:42, 2:56, 3:55 and 4:12 Yhis day, the sector was cloudy and the atmosphere is warm, and moderate fallout; a lava flow of 200 meters wide followed the barranca Ceniza. INSIVUMEH reported that on April 8th weak to moderate explosions, 10 to 14 per hour, accompanied by gray plumes at 4,500-4,800 meters asl. scattered west and southwest, as well as incandescent pulses 300-400 meters high and avalanches in the vicinity of the crater, and the various drainages.A change in Fuego's activity since April 6 is reported by the Government in a special bulletin on April 8 at 9 p.m. local, following the change in seismicity: the activity has now become effusive, and forms a flow of lava 400 meters long towards the Ceniza barranca. There is an almost constant glow at the crater and avalanches up to 1 km. reaching the vegetation. The current activity is similar to that recorded from March 16, 2020, which lasted 8 daysThere were 4-12 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 17-24 March, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km S, SW, and W. Almost daily ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and La Cruz. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled nearby houses and were felt in communities within a 25-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 100-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluya (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, Honda, and Las Lajas ravines. Lava flows of variable lengths (400-1,000 m) descended the Trinidad and Ceniza ravines each day but were inactive by the evening of 23 March. INSIVUMEH reported that a new change occurred in eruptive behavior on March 15 from 19:24, with an increase in degassing accompanying the lava flow, well observable at night on about 600 meters long in the Trinanca barranca. An increase in avalanches was reported in Las Lajas, Trinidad and Cenizas barrancas.Effusive activity was accompanied by weak explosions.The seismic activity presented a continuous signal of low amplitude in relation to the expulsion of the materials feeding the lava flow and its degassing. As of the 26th of february INSIVUMEH recorded 5 to 12 moderate explosions of Strombolian type per hour which generated a plume of gray ash which reached approx. 4,500 m-4,700 m asl and derivative W and SW. In addition, a white plume that reached 4,300 m asl and drifted west and southwest is observed.The incandescent material is ejected at an approximate height of 100 m to 200 m above the crater with moderate avalanches around the crater, mainly in the Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Santa Teresa, Trinidad, Las Lajas barrancas, with slight fallout.A lava flow 300 meters long is described in the Ceniza barranca, with moderate to strong avalanches from the flow front.Ash falls have been reported in several leeward areas, including Santa Sofía, Morelia , Panimaché I and II , Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa , Sangre de Cristo and El Porvenir .INSIVUMEH reported that there were 8-16 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 12-18 February, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km SW and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Alotenángo (8 km ENE), and La Soledad (11 km N). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within an 8-km radius. Incandescent material was ejected 150-500 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) ravines lava flows in the Ceniza drainage were 700-800 m long during 13-17 February and lengthened to 1.2 km during 17-18 February. INSIVUMEH reported that on February 5th explosive activity continued at the rate of 5 to 8 episodes per hour, accompanied by ash plumes reaching an altitude of 4,900 meters (flight alt. 160 / VAAC Washington). The ashes move towards the northeast for about twenty kilometers, with fallout on Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja and Antigua Guatemala. Night glow is linked to impulses 200 meters high and avalanches of boulders in the barrancas. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 8-17 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 14-21 January, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and generally drifted 10-22 km SW and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in communities within a 7 km radius, though they were felt up to 25 km away during 19-20 January. Incandescent material was ejected 100-500 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ash plumes drifted 18 km E during 20-21 January. INSIVUMEH reported that low to moderate ash emissions continued at the rate of 11-17 episodes per hour, accompanied by plumes between 4,500 and 4,800 meters asl. moving west and southwest. Night glow was observed at 200-300 m. above the crater; this activity generating weak to moderate avalanches around the crater, and some stronger towards the drainage. Ash falls were reported on Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de cristo, San Pedre Yepocapa, and Panimache. Previous news 2019 - As of the 27th of December, INSIVUMEH reported that activity remained at the same level the last days with 15-18 explosions per hour, weak to moderate, which were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,200-4,500 meters asl., and avalanches in direction of the different barrancas. Nighttime incandescent impulses were observed at 100-200 meters in height and a lava flow in the barranca Seca reached a length of 300 meters. On the other hand following a change of direction of the winds blowing from the southwest, the ash plumes dispersed on December 27 in the morning towards the northeast and the north, with the probability of falls in the areas of Acatenango, Ciudad Vieja and Antigua Guatemala. INSIVUMEH reported that the effusive activity increased; night and early morning glow were visible and according MIROVA moderate thermal anomalies could be observed, included in recent days between 18 and 91 MW.The active lava flow in the direction of the Ceniza barranca was about 600 meters, with avalanches and steam at the head of the lava front. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 6-15 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 20-26 November, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-20 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 100-450 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluya (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Lava flows advanced in the Seca and Santa Teresa (W) drainages during November, and were 300 and 800 m long on 21 and 24 November, respectively. INSIVUMEH following important rain on of the volcano, a weak to moderate lahar was reported on November 17th of November in the Ceniza gorge consisting of ashes and blocks deposited by constant activity, and remobilized. INSIVUMEH reported that since November 6 a lava flow towards the barranca Seca, long on November 13 of about 900 meters. This activity was effusive, according to the OVFGO, despite a notable incandescence in night and hours of low light, as well as a sustained degassing. This activity, similar to that recorded in April, could be prolonged in the following months. Discrete emissions of ash and gas continue, with a plume at 4,700 m. asl., moving west and southwest for 20 km. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 10-18 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 2-8 October, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km S, SW, W, and NW. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 200-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Lava flows traveled 200 m down the Seca drainage on 6 October and were active in the Santa Teresa (W) drainage on 8 October. Lahars descended the Ceniza, El Mineral, and Seca drainages during 3-7 October, carrying tree branches, trunks, and blocks 1-3 m in diameter. As of the 5th of October, INSIVUMEH reported that constant rains over the past few days are likely to cause floods, lahars and landslides. Especially in the area of ​​the Fuego volcano, weak to moderate lahars were reported in different drainages: the Ceniza, Las Lajas, Seca and Rio Mineral barrancas are involved. These lahars were characterized by the transport of ash, blocks 1 to 2 meters in diameter and generate steam columns and shock waves. Previously, INSIVUMEH reported that at night and early June 22 in the morning, incandescence was observed at a height of approximately 350 meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate avalanches in the crater contour, some over long distances to vegetation in the direction of the crater. Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, El Jute, Las Lajas and Honda. Ash fallout is reported from Morelia, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, Palo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, Panimache I and II. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 10-20 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 15-18 June, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km W, SW, and E. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 200-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down Seca (W), Taniluya¡ (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), and Honda ravines. Ashfall was reported in several areas downwind including Santa Sofi­a (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). Previous month, INSIVUMEH reported that there were 15-20 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 16-17 and 19-20 May, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-25 km S, SW, and W. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in nearby communities. Incandescent material was ejected 300-400 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (reaching vegetated areas) down Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). A lava flow on the W flank was 300 m long. On 16 May lahars carrying variously-sized blocks and tree branches and trunks descended the Las Lajas ravine. On 20 May hot lahars with a sulfur odor descended the Ceniza, El Jute, and Las Lajas drainages, carrying blocks 1-3 m in diameter. INSIVUMEH reported that there were 13-24 explosions per hour recorded at Fuego during 9-10 and 12-14 May, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 10-15 km S and SW. Explosions sometimes produced shock waves that rattled houses in areas to the S and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances (and reached vegetated areas) down the Seca (W), Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW).Lava flows were 500-600 m long on the W flank. On 11 May steaming lahars descended the Las Lajas, Seca, Ceniza, and Mineral drainages, carrying variously-sized blocks and tree parts. Lahars on 14 May carried blocks and tree trunks down the Ceniza drainage. INSIVUMEH reported that on 18 April steaming hot lahars descended Fuego's Ceniza (SSW) and Taniluya (SW) drainages, carrying variously-sized material including blocks up to 2 m in diameter. The lahars were 1 m deep, 15 m wide, and had a sulfur odor. During 20-23 April there were 17-22 explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1.1 km and drifted 15-20 km S, SW, and W. Shock waves vibrated local structures. Incandescent material was ejected 300-450 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines. A lava flow, 600 m long, advanced in the Seca drainage. Ashfall was reported in reported in Yepocapa (8 km N), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and Panimache (8 km SW). INSIVUMEH reported that on April 11 between 18 and 22 low to moderate explosions occurred every hour, with ash plumes as high as 4,800 meters asl, before dispersing to the east. During the night, incandescent impulses rose 300 meters above the crater, causing weak to moderate avalanches to the barrancas.A lava flow extends for 500 meters, from the crater to the direction of Barranca Seca. A low ashfall is reported on Alotenango, Ciudad Vieja, and La Reunión; according to the direction of the wind, the ashes could fall back on Antigua Guatemala.Persistent heavy rains on the Fuego volcano in Guatemala resulted in lahars in various drainages on April 11th: the Taniluya, Ceniza and El Jute barrancas were impacted, and thousands of people from surrounding communities were blocked. Previously, a special bulletin from INSIVUMEH was issued on 31 March describing another increase in activity with the number of explosions ranging from 14 to 32 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted W, SW, and S. The explosions vibrated local residences. A lava flow that had emerged in the early morning hours advanced 800 m in the Seca drainage. On 1 April there were 13-16 explosions recorded per hour. Ash plumes rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-15 km S, SE, and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate residential structures. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m high and caused avalanches of material that occasionally traveled long distances down Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines, reaching vegetation. Ashfall as reported in areas downwind including Panimache I, Morelia, Palo Verde Estate, Santa Sofia, La Rochela, and San Andres Osuna. INSIVUMEH reported that on 29th of March, the eruptive activity was characterized by constant periods of increase in its eruptive behavior, with 20 hourly explosions, and plumes of ash reaching 5,000 meters asl. before moving for 15 to 30 km. These explosions generate avalanches in the Seca, Las Lajas and Honda barrancas, which remobilize materials; at night, they were incandescent and visible over 350 meters from the crater. The respect of the instructions is recalled in view of possible new eruptions, accompanied by pyroclastic flows. As of the 22nd in the morning, INSIVUMEH reported an increasing activity of the volcano; between 15 and 20 moderate and strong explosions occurs every hour, columns of ash and degassing rising up to 5 thousand meters above sea level, dispersing at 30 kilometers south, west, south-west, east and southeast, generating moderate and strong crater avalanches that take the direction of Seca, Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda. Ash falls were reported on La Rochela, Ceylon, Osuna, Las Palmas, Siquinalá and Santa Lucía Cotzumalguapa; other communities could be affected up to 30 km from the volcano. INSIVUMEH reported that explosive activity was still contnuing during recent days, with 13 to 16 weak to moderate explosions accompanied by ash plumes at 4.400-4.700 meters asl, scattering over a wide area according to the winds.Incandescence was observed at 200 -300 meters in height, as well as avalanches in the contours of the crater and the barrancas.Ash falls occurred in El Rodeo, El Zapote, Celan, La Rochela, Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, and Sangre de Cristo. INSIVUMEH reported that on the 1st of February, nocturnal glow was observed, and the rhythm of the explosions was13 to 18 per hour at the beginning of the day, with plumes of ashes reaching 4,800 m. asl. The ashfall occurred toward the Northeast on Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja, and the capital Ciudad Guatemala. Avalanches were observed in the barrancas Seca, Tanilyua, Ceniza, Trinidad and Las Lajas. INSIVUMEH reported that 10-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 29-31 January. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted E and NE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE), and Guatemala City (70 km E). Incandescent material was ejected 300 m high and caused avalanches of material that traveled down Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Las Lajas (SE) ravines. During 31January-1 February there were 14-16 explosions recorded per hour, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.1 km and drifting 20-25 km S and SE. Ash fell in the communities of El Rodeo (10 km SSE), El Zapote, Ceilan, and La Rochela. Incandescent material rose 200-400 m high causing avalanches of material to descend the Seca, Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda (E) ravines. Shock wave causing vibration in the communities near the volcano.INSIVUMEH reported that on January 22, the activity was maintained with 15 -25 low to high explosions, per hour, a plume of ash amounting to 4,800 m asl. before dispersing to the west and south-west, and incandescent impulses 100-300 meters above the crater.Ash falls are reported on Panimaché I y II, Morelia, Santa Sofía, Yepocapa. As of the December 5th, few explosions occurred accompanied by plumes of gray ash at a height of 4,500-5,000 meters asl. dispersing to the west and southwest over 25 km. Incandescent impulses are reported at a height of 150-200 meters above the crater, generating fallout in the vicinity of the crater and to the main barrancas. INSIVUMEH repored that heavy rains during 28 and 29 November generated hot lahars, accompanied by the smell of sulfur and degassing columns, towards the Seca, Santa Teresa and El Mineral barrancas. The lahars carried ash and blocks 1 to 3 meters in diameter, volcanic materials deposited during the last eruptions.INSIVUMEH reported that moderate to strong explosions continued at a rate of 12 to 15 per hour, this vulcanian-type activity is accompanied by eruptive columns with ashes rising to 5,000 meters asl. and shock waves and vibrations felt within a radius of 25 km. A change of wind direction, November 26 in the morning from south to north, produced ashfalls on Alotenango, San Miguel, Dueñas, Antigua Guatemala and Ciudad Guatemala. During 24-25 November there were 12-15 weak-to-moderate explosions per hour, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 20-25 km W and SW. Shock waves continued to vibrate local structures, and ashfall was again reported in Panimache, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Palo Verde Estate, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Moderate-to-strong Vulcanian explosions on 26 November generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted N. The explosions were heard, and shock waves felt, mostly within 25 km, though some explosions were audible to residents of Guatemala City (city center is about 40 km ENE). Explosions continued the next day at a rate of 10-15 per hour. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km and drifted 20-25 km W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m high, and avalanches of material descended multiple drainages. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind. As of the 22nd of November, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions accompanied by expulsions of a dark gray plume continued.The avalanches of blocks and ashes, accumulated during the eruption of November 18, continued in the Seca, Ceniza, El Jute, Las Lajas. INSIVUMEH reported that the strong eruption of the Fuego was accompanied on November 19 in the morning by constant explosions, and a sustained ash plume rising to about 7,000 meters asl, before dispersing 50-60 km to the west and southwest.The incandescent source was observed 800-1000 meters above the crater, with ballistic materials scattered for more than one kilometer around the volcano.The main lava flow reached about 3,000 meters in length towards the barranca Ceniza ; two other shorter flows, of about 300 meters, were observed in the direction of Las Lajas and Honda barrancas. The flows was accompanied by avalanches and mobilization of ashes.Pyroclastic flows descended from the Seca, Las Lajas and Honda barrancas. Abundant falls of ash and particles are falling on Panimache, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Paolo Verde, San Pedro Yepocapa, San Juan Alotenango, and Antigua Guatemala.The Conred also reported light ash falls on Mazatenango, San Bernardino, San Antonio, San Miguel Panán, Chicacao, San Juan Bautista, Santa Bárbara Río Bravo and Patulul, and that 2,052 people were safe and 3,000 have been evacuated; 76,145 people would be affected. At about 11h40 AM slight decrease in seismicity was observed, as well as a decrease in the height and extension of the ash plume: height of 6,000 meters asl dispersing over 20-30 km. In the evening (6PM) the seismogram and the RSAM showed a drop in activity, and according to the observatory this 5th eruptive phase of the year was over, after a duration of 32 hours. However, Explosions were always recorded, weak to moderate, accompanied by a plume of ash at 4,800 meters asl, drifting to a west and southwest sector over 15 km.The incandescent impulses were reduced to 100-300 meters, generating weak avalanches mainly in the crater contour; some ejections reach the limit of vegetation towards the main barrancas. A special INSIVUMEH bulletin of 18 November reported that at 10.10 local, the fifth eruption 2018 started. It was characterized by a permanent ash plume at 4,900 meters asl, dispersing to the south for 15-25 km, and generating moderate to strong avalanches in the Ceniza and Tanilyua Barrancas, up to the vegetative limit. The incandescent fountain was observed up to 300 meters high above the crater. A lava flow, 2,000 meters long, in the direction of the barranca Ceniza, has a front generating avalanches and ash rising. A possibility exists of the beginning of lava flow in the Taniluya barranca in the next hours, and of pyroclastic flows.Ash falls have been reported on Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, and Finca Paolo Verde.During the night, the explosions generated a plume rising to 5.200 meters in height before dispersing 20-30 km in a westerly and north-easterly direction; the incandescent fountains rose up to 500-600 meters above the crater and the ballistic ejections reached 800 meters in various directions. The lava flow towards the Ceniza gorge reaches a length of 2,500 meters.At the time of the 0h40 report, a pyroclastic flow descended in the direction of the Seca barranca. Comred declared the red alert and activated the Emergency Operations Center-COE-Municipal to coordinate the response actions. National Highway 14 is closed. Self-evacuation is in progress. Previously, INSIVUMEH reported that on 18th of November, the activity increased again rising: 8 to 14 explosions, low to moderate, per hour are accompanied by emission of plumes of ash to 4,700 meters asl., drifting on 15-20 km to the southwest and west. Incandescent pulsatile emissions at 150-200 meters are observed, as well as moderate avalanches in the crater contour. A lava flow reaches a length of 1,300 meters in the Ceniza barranca, permanently fed.Ash falls are reported on Panimache I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde.INSIVUMEH reported that 7-18 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 8-12 November. Ash plumes from the explosions rose as high as 1.1 km above the crater rim and drifted 8-20 km W and SW. Ash fell in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Panimaché (8 km SW), El Porveni, Finca Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-300 m high and caused avalanches that traveled far, reaching vegetated areas in multiple drainages. Lava flows as long as 1.2 km advanced in the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, though lava-flow activity greatly decreased by 12 November. As of the 9th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that the effusive activity continued; the lava flow in the Ceniza barranca reached a length of 1 200 meters. Avalanches were reported in the direction of Las Lajas and Honda barrancas.Low to moderate explosions occurred ranged from 12 to 18 per hour, with ash plumes rising to 4,600-4,700 meters asl, before dispersing over 10-15 km. towards a western sector, accompaznied with fallout of fine particles on this zone, including Sangre de Cristo, Santa Sofia, Panimaché I and II, Finca Palo Verde, El Porvenir. The explosions were accompanied by outgassing noises for 2 to 5 minutes.INSIVUMEH reported that a new eruptive phase began on November 6 in Fuego, the fourth in 2018.Low-to-moderate steady-state explosions are recorded, accompanied by ash plumes at 4,800 m. asl.,then drifting 20 km westerly and southwesterly, and with shock waves and sounds.Ash falls are reported on Panimaché, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finac Palo Verde, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Incandescences impulses are visible in the crater that rose to about 200-300 meters high, generating avalanches around the crater, impacting the vegetation towards the Seca and Taniluya barrancas, and feeding a 1000 meter long flow, then reaches 1,200 meters in the Ceniza gorge.The effusive activity then continued until the evening, weakening very slightly. As of the 5th of November, INSIVUMEH reported that activity of Fuego increased, with 10 to 15 hourly explosions, which are accompanied by ash plumes at 4,700 meters asl. dispersing 15 km in a westerly and southwesterly direction. Nighttime glow is observed to 200-300 meters above the crater; the explosions generate weak to moderate avalanches, and lava flows 600 meters long towards the Tanilyua and Ceniza barrancas.The ash falls concern Panimaché, El, Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Finca Palo Verde and San Pedro Yepocapa.t INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that on 20 October hot lahars descended Fuego's Las Lajas (SE) and Mineral drainages, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter along with branches and tree trunks. The lahars were 20-30 m wide and 2 m deep. During 20-23 October there were 8-15 weak explosions recorded per hour, producing gray ash plumes that rose 750-850 m above the crater rim and drifted 12 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, Panimaché (8 km SW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). Lava fountains rose 100-200 m high. Avalanches of blocks descended the El Jute (SE), Ceniza (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, with material reaching vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-16 October explosions (8-18 per hour) produced ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 8-12 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, and Panimache I and II (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 150-200 m high, causing avalanches of material within the crater, though some of the avalanches traveled long distances, reaching vegetated areas. The lava flow on the W flank was still visible but by 14 October no longer active. On 13 October a steaming lahar descended the Ceniza (SSW) drainage, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. INSIVUMEH reported that from 3.50 am on October 12, a new phase of the eruption began, effusive: fountains of 400 meters above the crater generated a lava flow that reaches 600 meters long towards the west drainages of the volcano. A possibility of pyroclastic flows is considered towards the seca, Las Lajas and Cenizas barrancas. On the evening of October 12, pyroclastic flows are reported in the Barranca Seca, where the lava flow reaches a length of 1,500 meters. Its advance causes a lifting of materials and some avalanches. A pyroclastic flow is also observed in the Barranca Santa Teresa. The eruptive dynamics is maintained with moderate explosions, which are accompanied by ash plumes at 5,000 meters asl, dispersing to the SW, O and SE over 15-20 km. ; incandescent impulses are observed 200-300 meters above the crater. The fallout of ashes concerns Panimache I, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, El Porvenir, and Finca Palo Verde..INSIVUMEH reported that on October 11, a slight increase in the explosive activity of the Fuego was reported characterized by 10 to 14 hourly explosions, weak to moderate, accompanied by plumes of ash rising to 4,600 meters asl. traveling 15 km to the west and southwest. Incandescent impulses are observed 100-200 meters above the crater, generating the fall of volcanic materials and avalanches towards the Santa Teresa and Las Lajas barrancas. This activity is accompanied by moderate fallout, shock waves and constant outgassing noise.INSIVUMEH reported that on September 29 in the evening an increase of the explosive activity occurred ; tremor and degassing pulses lasting up to 3-4 hours were accompanied by aircraft turbine sounds and block avalanches on the southwestern flank. About Five to nine hourly explosions were accompanied by ash plumes at 4,400 - 4,700 meters.In the evening, 10 to 15 hourly explosions were recorded, weak to moderate, and accompanied by ash plumes at 4,500 meters asl. moving 10 km to the west and southwest, and fallout of volcanic materials that generate small avalanches.Ash falls are reported on San Pedro Yepocapa, Finca Palo Verde, Morelia, and Panimache.The summit is marked by a constant incandescence during the night.INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-21 and 24-25 September explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted 12 km W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material within the crater area. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Finca Palo Verde, Panimache (8 km SW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). On 25 September hot, steaming lahars descended the El Jute (SE) and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, carrying blocks up to 2 m in diameter, and branches and tree trunks. INSIVUMEH reporterd that on 7 September at 7:31 local time, an avalanche occurred on one of the flanks of Fuego due to a fissure in the upper part of the Barranca Las Lajas, the destabilization of materials accumulated during the eruption of June 3, and preceded by a small ash emission from a vent located lower down the slope.During the last 24 hours about 5 to 12 low to moderate hourly explosions occurred , accompanied by ashes and gas reaching 4,700 meters above sea level, before moving west-southwest 15 km INSIVUMEH reported that heavy rain generated lahars during 29 August-1 September that descended Fuego's El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), Cenizas (SSW), Taniluya (SW), Seca (W), Mineral, Honda, and Pantaleon (W) drainages. The lahars were hot, had a sulfur odor, and carried tree branches and blocks (2-3 m in diameter). On 1 September lahars disrupted roads between San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW) and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and from Finca Palo Verde and El Porvenir (8 km ENE). During 2-4 September explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 950 m above the crater rim and drifted 10-15 km W and SW. Avalanches of incandescent material were confined to the crater. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Finca Palo Verde. INSIVUMEH reported that during 18-21 August explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 850 m above the crater and drifted 12 km NW, W, and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m above the crater rim, and caused avalanches of material within the crater area and down drainages on the flanks. According to CONRED, as of 22 August, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 169, and 256 remained missing. On 17th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that volcanic activity remains moderate with 6 explosions, accompanied by ash plumes at a height of 4,100-4,200 meters asl, drifting to the northwest and west; low avalanches are reported towards the Cenizas barranca.The heavy rains remobilized the ashes and caused a lahar in the barranca Honda. INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 August heavy rain triggered lahars that traveled down the Seca drainage on Fuego's W flank and the Mineral drainage, carrying tree trunks and blocks as large a 2 m in diameter. During 12-14 August weak-to-moderate explosions generated ash plumes that rose almost as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 150 m high, and avalanches of blocks descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Santa Teresa (W) SW), Panimaché I (8 km SW), and finca Palo Verde. INSIVUMEH rported that a strong explosion, accompanied by avalanches around the crater, fallout and shockwaves, occurred on August 8 at 21:20 local. Incandescent materials were ejected at 4,800 m Asl., Evening about 1,100 meters above the summit; the ash plume moved 12 km to the west. This is the first strong explosion recorded in the last six weeks.INSIVUMEH reported that during 29-30 July avalanches of material descended the Cenizas drainage on Fuego's SSW flank. Hot lahars generated by heavy rains on 30 July descended the Taniluyá (SW), Las Lajas (SE), El Jute (SE), and Cenizas drainages, carrying blocks 2-3 m in diameter and smelling of sulfur. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported relatively quiet conditions at Fuego during 4-9 July characterized mainly by gas emissions and block avalanches on the flanks. During 7-8 July there was about one explosion detected every two hours, producing diffuse ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted SW. Block avalanches descended the Seca (W), Cenizas (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages, while lahars were present in the El Jute (SE), Las Lajas, Cenizas, Taniluya (SW), Seca, Mineral, and Pantaleon (W) drainages. Seismicity increased on 10 July. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose 2.3 km and drifted 12 km SE, causing ashfall in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimaché (8 km SW). According to CONRED, as of 4 July, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 332 remained missing. INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that 2-7 weak explosions per hour at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 650 m above the crater rim and drifted W and SW during 27-29 June and 1-3 July. Ashfall was reported on 27 June in areas downwind including Sangre de Cristo and Yepocapa. Avalanches of material descended the S, SW, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, El Jute, and Cenizas drainages). INSIVUMEH and CONRED reported that during 20-26 June multiple lahars at Fuego were often hot, steaming, and had a sulfur odor, and were generated from heavy rains and the recent accumulation of pyroclastic-flow deposits from the 3 June events. Lahars remained a significant hazard, and descended the Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), Santa Teresa (W), and Taniluyá (SW) drainages. They were 25-45 m wide, as deep as 3 m, and often carried blocks up to 3 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches. The agencies warned that because the Las Lajas drainage is full of deposits, lahars can continue to descend that drainage or create new channels in San Miguel Los Lotes (one of the hardest-hit areas). Explosions continued, producingash plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde on 22 June. Avalanches of material descended the SE, S, and W flanks (Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages). According to CONRED, as of 26 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows was 113, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 remained evacuated. During 16-19 June as many as seven explosions per hour produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater and drifted as far as 15 km W, SW, and S. Some explosions were heard in areas within a 10-km radius. Avalanches of material descended the Santa Teresa, Las Lajas, and Cenizas drainages during 17-18 June, producing ash plumes, and ashfall in Panimache, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and finca Palo Verde. According to CONRED, as of 19 June, the number of people confirmed to have died due to the 3 June pyroclastic flows remained at 110, and 197 more were missing. In addition, 12,823 people had been evacuated. As of the 15th of June, INSIVUMEH reported that following heavy rains hot lahar traveled down in Santa Teresa Barranca and Rio Mineral, a tributary of Rio Pantaleon. Large of 20 to 25 meters and 2 meters high, and carrying fine and pasty materials, blocks of 3 meters in diameter and trunks. At 17:40, a lahar descended the river Ceniza. Other lahars were reported in Taniluya and Las Lajas barrancas, about 30 to 45 meters wide and 3 meters high As of the 13th of June INSIVUMEH reported that a lahar was observed traveling down in the Ceniza gorge; about 25 meters wide and 2 meters high, it carries fine and pasty materials, blocks one to three meters in diameter and tree trunks. Another lahar has taken the Las Lajas barranca, 30-40 meters wide and 3 meters high, characterized by the transport of similar materials.As of the 12th of June INSIVUMEH reported that at 7 am local an increasing of the explosive activity occurred, characterized by columns of ashes between 4,500 and 5,000 meters height asl., dispersed on 15 to 25 km to the northeast . Ashfall is likely to occur in Antigua Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja and San Miguel Duena. At 7:35 local time, the observatory reported a pyroclastic flow in the Seca barranca, producing a curtain of ashes that reached 6,000 meters asl before dispersing to the north and north-east. The explosive activity causes avalanches that produce thick columns of ash, which disperse along the same axis.These episodes are likely to impact the main drainages in next hours or days.In addition of the danger created by the pyroclastic flows, there are lahars due to the remobilization of the ashes following the heavy rains. On 11th of June at the end of the afternoon, hot lahars descended the barrancas Las Lajas and El Jute, made of fine and pasty materials, blocks of large diameter up to 3 meters, and trunks and branches; his measurements were 35 to 55 meters wide and 5 meters high. Other lahars have been reported in the Seca and Mineral barrancas, with the risk of overflowing rivers.As of the 8th of June,INSIVUMEH reported lahars in Santa Teresa, Mineral, Taniluyá and Ceniza barrancas, tributaries of the Pantaleón and Achiguate rios; these lahars are hot, emit fumes, and carry fine materials, and rocks 2-3 m in diameter, as well as tree trunks. In parallel, pyroclastic flows are reported in El Jute and Las Lajas drainages, accompanied by co-pyroclastic plumes up to 6,000 meters asl.The latest assessment given to 8 June / 8:30 by the Conred, is 109 dead, 197 missing, and 1,713,617 people affected by the climax and its aftermath. As of the 7th of June, at the beginning of the evening, new pyroclastic flows descended the Las Lajas and El jute drainages, accompanied by a co-pyroclastic cloud rising to 6,000 meters asl.CONRED reported that by 0630 on 6 June a total of 12,089 people had been evacuated, with 3,319 people dispersed in 13 shelters. One bridge and two power networks had been destroyed. According to news sources on 6 June, Guatemala's National Institute of Forensic Sciences stated that 75 people were confirmed to have died and 192 were still missing. Many, possibly thousands, received burns and other injuries. Weather conditions, continuing activity at Fuego, poor air quality, hot pyroclastic flow deposits, and rain made rescue efforts difficult. On Tuesday, an explosion forced relief to stop the research. The disaster has affected, to varying degrees, a total of 1.7 million Guatemalans.Details about volcanic event : the strong eruptive phase occurred at the volcano on Sunday 3rd of June). Lasting for about 16-17 hours until the evening, it generated ash clouds reaching up to 10 km, which drifted into westerly directions for more than 40 km, lava flows descending on the flanks, heavy ash fall in nearby areas and secondary mud flows triggered by strong rainfall. Massive pyroclastic flows - fast-moving turbulent avalanches of gas and hot rock material have claimed lives as well. Information from official side at least 69 victims have been confirmed. All fatalities occurred as result of being engulfed in pyroclastic surges, it seems mainly on the eastern flank.The eruption has abruptly decreased after 18:45 local time and returned to small to moderate intermittent explosions and minor rockfalls. Incandescence is visible at the crater, where fresh lava flows begin to cool. Civil protection has declared the highest alert level RED for the areas of Escuintla, Alotenango, Sacatepéquez, Yepocapa and Chimaltenango, while Escuintla is kept at the second highest, ORANGE. More than 3000 people are reported to have been evacuated and ash fall from the eruption has been affecting an area with a population of more than 1.5 million, roughly 10% of the country's population total. Previously, local news reported that a violent eruption occurred on the evening of Sunday, June 3 (local time), leaving at least 25 people dead and injured several other people after pyroclastic flow entered into Rodeo village. Volcanic ash has reportedly covered nearby villages, including San Pedro Yepocapa and Sangre de Cristo, ashfall has also been reported in Guatemala City. Some 100 people have been evacuated from affected areas. Guatemalan President Jimmy Morales has declared that a national emergency response has been mobilized. La Aurora International airport was closed on Sunday due to ashfall. Further eruptions, evacuations, and transportation disruptions are expected in the coming hours and days. INSIVUMEH reported that beginning at 1400 on 17 May a lahar descended the Seca (Santa Teresa) drainage on Fuego's W flank. The lahar was 25 m wide, 1 m deep, and carried trees and blocks 1.5 m in diameter. During 19-21 May explosions occurred at a rate of 5-8 per hour, and generated ash plumes that rose almost 1 km and drifted 10-20 km S, SW, and W. Some explosions were accompanied by rumbling audible more than 30 km away, and shock waves that vibrated structures in Morelia (9 km SW) and Panimache (8 km SW). Incandescent material was ejected 200-300 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material within the Seca, Ceniza (SSW), and Las Lajas (SE) drainages that reached vegetated areas. Ash fell in areas downwind including in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia, Panimache I and II, and Finca Palo Verde. A lava flow 700-800 m long was active in the Ceniza drainage. Small ash explosions at Fuego on 11 and 12 May rose to 5 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. or approximately 1 km (3,280 ft) above the summit. The ash dispersed quickly to the southwest and was visible on webcams. Activity increased on 14 April and remained elevated through 17 April. Moderate-to-strong explosions were detected at a rate of 6-9 per hour, and sometimes produced shock waves that vibrated houses in Morelia and Panimache. Dense ash plumes rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 20 km W and S, though winds also carried the ash to higher altitudes to the SE. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 300 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material in the crater area. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including in Santa Sofía, Morelia, Panimache I and II, El Porvenir, and Finca Palo Verde. The rate of explosions increased to 7-10 per hour on 16 April; explosions sometimes caused structures in Panimache, Morelia, La Reina, and Alotenango (8 km ENE) to vibrate. A lava flow traveled 1.3 km down the Seca drainage. INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-10 April explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 10-15 km SW and S. Sometimes the explosions were accompanied by weak shock waves. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 200 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material in the Seca (Santa Teresa, W), Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Trinidad (S) ravines. During 9-10 April ash fell in areas downwind including in Santa Sofia (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW). (INSIVUMEH) - Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3,763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the N, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene, after which growth of the modern Fuego volcano continued the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

GUATEMALA - Santa Maria - Santiaguito

August 20th, 2022

As of the 19th of August, INSIVUMEH reported that given the strong expulsion of lava from the Santiaguito volcano, which advances on the bed of the San Isidro river, the municipality of Quetzaltenango has imposed a restriction within a radius of 5 kilometers around the volcano. On the 17th of August, the volcano maintained columns of white vapors of gas, 500 meters high, and avalanches of blocks which descend from the crater in a south-westerly and southerly direction.As of the 8th of August, the volcano observatory repored fumaroles with moderate degassing at low altitude above the Caliente dome, as well as suspended ash in the vicinity of the volcanic complex. Avalanches were observed on the western flank of the Caliente dome, as well as constant collapses in front of the active lava flow in the San Isidro and El Tambor channels. These collapses generate loud sounds due to the fall of rock blocks and raise columns of ash up to 1,000 meters high, which are moved by the wind and generate ash falls on the areas surrounding La Florida, Monte Claro, San Marcos Palajunoj and hill. INSIVUMEH reported that on 27th of July, heavy rainfalls on the volcanic complex Santa María-Santiaguito generated the descent of lahars into the Cabello de Ángel river, a tributary of the Nimá I and Samalá rivers, to the south-southwest of the volcano. This lahar was weak in character, carrying a pasty mixture of water, boulders up to 1 meter in diameter, and finer sediments, as well as tree trunks and branches. The lahar on its way produces vibrations in the ground which are recorded in the seismic stations close to the bed of the river, in this case the STG3. INSIVUMEH reported that a period of high extrusive activity in recent months has built up a blocky lava flow, which begins in the upper part of the southwest flank of the Caliente dome and moves along the San Isidro channel. As of the 5th of July,, this lava flow has an approximate length of 3385 meters. The topology or shape of this lava flow is dominated by unstable stacked blocks, both in its upper part and in its lateral edges and frontal part, which, when collapsing, can frequently cause avalanches and flows pyroclastics with weak to moderate characteristics, conducive to incandescence and the emission of fine ash easily moved by the wind. INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex continued during 23-31 May. Incandescence from Caliente crater and the lava flows on the W and SW flanks was visible nightly and during some early mornings. Avalanches of incandescent blocks descended the W, SW, and S flanks of Caliente. The lava flows continued to advance in the San Isidro channel, and produced block avalanches from the ends and sides of the flows that descended the S, SW, and S flanks. Ash from these avalanches fell in areas on and around the volcano. The lava flow was 3.3 km long by 27 May. Cement-like lahars descended the Cabello de Ángel drainage (a tributary of Nimá I on the SE flank) during 27-28 May, carrying tree trunks, branches, and blocks up to 1 m in diameter. As of the 9th of May, INSIVUMEH reported that abundant white outgassing occurred at a height of 700 meters that propagates in a southwesterly direction, incandescence in the crater of the El Caliente dome and in front of the lava flow in a westerly direction and South West. Weak and moderate boulder and ash avalanches continue to be recorded in the middle and front of the lava flow. Suspended ash is reported in the volcanic perimeter and at Finca El Faro and San José. The volcano maintains high activity due to blocky lava extrusion into the Caliente dome in a west-southwest direction and unstable material within the crater, giving a likelihood of moderate to strong pyroclastic flows, with recommendation not to be in the barrancas of the volcano.As of the 1st of MayThe Santiaguito Volcano Observatory / OVSAN reports abundant degassing of white color, with a height of 700 meters above the crater extending in a southwest and south direction. At night, incandescence was observed in the hot dome crater and in the lava flow in a west-southwest direction. Weak and moderate avalanches continue to be recorded at the front and in the middle of the lava flow in a west and southwest direction as well as on the southern flank. The volcano maintains high activity; due to blocky lava extrusion in Caliente Dome in a west-southwest direction and unstable material within the crater, there is a likelihood of moderate to strong pyroclastic flows, so do not stay near or in the riverbeds near the slopes of the volcano. As of the 25th of April, INSIVUMEH reported that abundant and sustained degassing of a white color from a height of 800 meters above the crater which extends in a southwest and south direction. At night, incandescence was observed in the crater of the Caliente dome and in the lava flow in a west-southwest direction. Weak, moderate and strong avalanches continue to be recorded at the front and in the middle of the lava flow in a west and southwest direction as well as on the southern flank.The volcano maintains high activity. Due to blocky lava extrusion within the Caliente Dome in a west-southwest direction and unstable material within the crater there is a likelihood of moderate to strong pyroclastic flows, staying near or in the riverbeds near the slopes of the volcano. INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex continued during 30 March through 5 April. Incandescence from Caliente crater and the lava flows on the W and SW flanks were visible during the night and early morning, accompanied by weak-to-moderate block-and-ash avalanches along its path down the W, SW, and S flanks that reached the base of the dome. The avalanches generated ash plumes that drifted W. Fine ashfall occurred near the volcano on 3 April, including in San Marcos (8 km SW) and Loma Linda Palajunoj (7 km SW). The smell of sulfur was sometimes detected in Las Marias.As of the 16th of March, INSIVUMEH reported that s volcanic activity, with white outgassing 800 meters above the crater extending west and southwest. At night, incandescence was observed in the crater of the Caliente dome and in the lava flows in the west and south-west directions. Weak avalanches of blocks and ash continue to be recorded on the western and southwestern flanks, these avalanches reaching the base of the Caliente dome. The volcano maintains high activity due to blocky lava extrusion in the Caliente dome in a west-southwest direction and unstable material in the crater. There is a likelihood of moderate to strong pyroclastic flows, so do not stay near or in riverbeds near the slopes of the volcano. INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex continued during 1-8 March. Incandescence from Caliente crater and the lava flows on the W and SW flanks was visible nightly. Avalanches generated by both lava effusion and collapsing material descended the W, SW, and S flanks, often reaching the base of the dome. Periodically the avalanches produced ash along their paths that fell on to the flanks or dissipated near the volcano. As of the 28th of February, INSIVUMEH reported that seismic stations and observer reports record prolonged periods of degassing, forming a 400-meter column above the dome of Caliente Dome that moves west and southwest. Weak avalanches affect the southwest and west flanks. This causes fine ash particles to fall into the volcanic perimeter and disperse several kilometers to the south and southwest. Due to the permanent extrusion of boulder lava in the dome of the Caliente dome, in a west-southwest direction, the occurrence of stronger boulder and ash avalanches is not excluded, as well as possible long-range pyroclastic flows in different directions.The 2 lava flows to the west and southwest of the crater reached lengths of 600 and 800 meters on February 27. Ash falls are reported in the villages of San Marcos and Loma Linda Palajunoj..scientific blog about Santiaguito). The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santa Maria has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

GUATEMALA - Pacaya volcano

August 26th, 2021

INSIVUMEH reported that reported that white-to-blue gas-and-steam emissions rose as high as 600 m above Pacaya's Mackenney crater and drifted as far as 2 km S, SW, and N
during 18-25 August. Seismic stations recorded some weak explosion and degassing events on 18 August.INSIVUMEH reported that gas emissions rose as high as 1.1 km above Pacaya's summit and drifted as far as 1 km S and SW during 10-17 August. Two explosions produced ash plumes that drifted S on 13 August.INSIVUMEH reported that explosions at Pacaya were recorded at 0905, 1340, and 1421 on 4 August, a departure from the low levels of activity observed during the previous four months. The explosions produced ash plumes that rose about 1 km above the summit and drifted 12 km N, causing ashfall in Mesa Altas, Mesa Bajas, and Villa Canales. The report noted that the cinder cone in Mackenney Crater had been destroyed during the previous eruption phase and the crater was about 100 m deep. Cracks were seen around the crater indicating areas of instability at the summit. Steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 1 km above the summit and drifted as far as 3 km in multiple directions during 5-10 August. No explosions were heard or visually observed, though the seismic network recorded weak explosion signals during 6-7 August. INSIVUMEH reported that the volcano presents the characteristics of a new phase of activity after almost 4 months of low activity. The volcano could have a continuous explosive behavior, with formation of lava flow and eruptive plumes. On August 4, a constant degassing was observed, and in addition there were 3 moderate explosions (9:05 a.m., 1:40 p.m. and 2:21 p.m. local time), which expelled columns of ash at an altitude of 3,500 m, with a displacement towards the north, at a distance of about 12 kilometers, reporting ash fall in the communities of Mesías Altas, Mesías Bajas and Villa Canales. The Mackenney Cone crater has undergone significant changes since the last eruptive phase, having destroyed the cinder cones and lava flows that filled its interior, showing a crater of 100m depth ; ashes emanate from deep. Around the crater there are a few cracks, so the area is considered unstable.
INSIVUMEH reported that during 15-22 June white gas plumes rose as high as 600 m above Pacaya's Mackenney Crater and drifted as far as 5 km NW, W, and SW. Some weak explosions were recorded by the seismic network during 17-18 June. INSIVUMEH reported that ash plumes rose around 500 m above the summit and drifted 5-10 km N, NW, SW, and S during 18-21 and 24-25 May. Some explosions were recorded by the seismic network during 22-23 May; white-and-blue gas plumes rose 300-700 m and drifted 5 km W during 23-24 May.INSIVUMEH reported that during 12-18 May the cone on Pacaya's N flank (near Cerro Chino) continued to be active, feeding lava flows and occasionally ejecting incandescent material as high as 40 m. The lava flow slowly advanced mainly W, though remained about 2.4 km long. The flow also spread laterally and shed incandescent blocks, especially along the flow margins and where the flow travels down steep slopes. Gas-and-ash plumes visible almost daily rose as high as 900 m above the summit and drifted W, SW, and S. Ashfall was reported in El Rodeo (4 km WSW) during 15-16 May and in El Patrocinio (about 5 km W) during 15-17 May.INSIVUMEH reported that the observation on 7th of May showed of periods of degassing of white and gray color at the Mackenney crater of the Pacaya up to 900 meters above the crater, moving north and northeast. Effusive activity is maintained at the level of the crack on the northwest flank; it feeds a flow which descends the southwest flank for about 2,400 m. INSIVUMEH reported that on 6th of May, the activity remained mainly effusive. A white and bluish fumarole rose from Mackenney crater, moving south. The effusion continues on the new crack of the NE flank; the lava flow descends towards the SW and reaches 2,300 m. long. One of the flows does not move, and another moves slowly. Heavy rains hit Guatemala causing floods, landslides and lahars; A moderate lahar is reported in the Rio Nima and its tributary the Rio Samala, drainages of the Santiaguito. INSIVUMEH reported that a new effusive phase of the Pacaya began on April 29 around 5 a.m. and is maintained, both at the level of the Mackenney crater, with a lava flow towards the south-east 200 meters long, and at the level of a new crack formed this April 29 in the northwest, with a lava flow; at the level of this crack, one observes a continuous degassing and some weak explosions, with noises of train locomotive. This last flow, moving towards the southwest, is only 100 meters from an area called La Brena, affected by the previous flows, and has several ramifications INSIVUMEH analysis 2019 mid 2020 Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone. New Webcam

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COSTA RICA - Irazu volcano

November 6th, 2020

OVSICORI-UNA reported that Irazu's seismic network recorded a significant landslide in the W part of the volcano on 4 November along with a lahar. A small thermal anomaly was detected in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite data. OVISCORI reported that the fissured slope of the Irazú volcano, located on the western flank of the Carthaginian colossus, collapsed on the morning of August 26 at a rate that remains to be determined. The event took place at around 4:10 a.m. when officials who were there began to perceive a seismic movement and vibration which, according to their reports, lasted for about a minute and a half. Ovsicori expert reported that just yesterday there were at least 100 small landslides; and that between Monday and Tuesday, the crack in the slope had moved 40 centimeters. The displaced materials are estimated to be several million cubic meters of rocks. The president of the National Emergency Commission (CNE) reported that this event is only alandslide and has not relationship with volcanic activity. The damage is material, and only concerns telecommunications installations that could not be moved. Irazú, one of Costa Rica's most active volcanoes, rises immediately E of the capital city of San José. The massive volcano covers an area of 500 km2 and is vegetated to within a few hundred meters of its broad flat-topped summit crater complex. At least 10 satellitic cones are located on its S flank. No lava flows have been identified since the eruption of the massive Cervantes lava flows from S-flank vents about 14,000 years ago, and all known Holocene eruptions have been explosive. The focus of eruptions at the summit crater complex has migrated to the W towards the historically active crater, which contains a small lake of variable size and color. Although eruptions may have occurred around the time of the Spanish conquest, the first well-documented historical eruption occurred in 1723, and frequent explosive eruptions have occurred since. Ashfall from the last major eruption during 1963-65 caused significant disruption to San José and surrounding areas.

COSTA RICA- Poas Volcano

August 16th, 2022

As of the 15th of August, OVSICORI-UNA reported that seismic activity remained low amplitude. Gas ratios remain stable. The temperature of the hyperacidic lake was measured remotely at 32°C on August 13. Convection cells continue to be observed. The fumaroles to the east of the lake are between 60 and 90 degrees Celsius.OVSICORI-UNA reported that on April 6, 2022 at 2:42 a.m. local time, an eruption was recorded, with an eruptive column that reached 500 meters above the crater (3208 meters above sea level) . Duration of the activity: 3 minutes.The explosive event formed a crater approximately 45 m in diameter in the north wall of the crater, which caused material to be expelled towards the Laguna Caliente area. A mound of pyroclastic rocks detached reaching a height of 4 meters above lake level and extending for 150 meters, until it reached the center of Laguna Caliente. Fumaroles remained active at this location.It is possible that this material is the mixture of a pyroclastic current of density due to the explosion, as well as the landslide that occurred. The affected area is approximately 7,500 m2. The material ejected, as well as the intensity of the explosion, could correspond to a phreatic type explosion, possibly triggered by the increase in pressure and temperature of the gases coming from the interior of the volcano and which could possibly break a plug of sulphur. This coincides with the appearance of sulfur floating in the Laguna Caliente, as well as a change in the color of the lake, which is grayish. The fumaroles on the north and east walls remain very active, as well as the underwater fumaroles. Frequent earthquakes of low frequency and low amplitude are recorded. The H2S/SO2 ratio and the SO2 concentration remain stable. Geodetic monitoring shows the stability of the volcanic edifice.Previous news on March : following a recent visit of local scientists they found hot springs in the active Poás crater. Laguna Caliente is fed by several streams, quite warm, temperatures reaching 90°C and new fumaroles have also appeared. The acidic Poás Lake has risen three meters in the past year and its temperature has risen from 46 to 36°C. This increase in volume is linked to the formation of various fumaroles, especially in the eastern part of the crater. According to scientists, the last time such a phenomenon was recorded was in the late 1990s. As of the 12th of March, OVSICORI-UNA reported that the CO2/SO2 ratio showed a decrease. Convection cells were observed in the lake, some continuous, others sporadic. The SO2 concentration in the view did not exceed 1 ppm. The temperature of the acid lake was measured with the thermographic camera on March 12, and is 40.1°C. As of the 18th of January 2022, OVISCORI-UNA reported that the fumaroles on the north and east walls remain active. Few low frequency and very low amplitude volcanic earthquakes are recorded. During the last 24 hours, 2 proximal volcano-tectonic earthquakes of low magnitude have been recorded. Magmatic gas concentrations remain below detection thresholds. The summit of the volcano continues to experience a slight extension. Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2,708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7,500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. Web camera from OVSICORI-UNA.

COSTA RICA - Turrialba volcano

Augut 16th, 2022

Park rangers reported a large crater collapse on 15th of August at around 8:50 a.m., which was not enough to be recorded by the seismic network. The air quality monitoring station located in Coronado has recorded an increase in the concentration of SO2 and fine particles (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0) since August 11th. . Activity Level: Warning (2)OVSICORI-UNA reported that passive degassing has continued at Turrialba without eruptive activity since August 11, 2022. A fumarolic incandescence is observed in the crater. Seismicity is maintained with frequent low frequency, low amplitude events. Geodetic monitoring demonstrates a horizontal contraction of the volcanic edifice. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption occurred on July 17th, 2022 at 7:49 a.m. local time, lasting about 1 min or less. A pulse of ash and gas rose 200 meters above the crater, or 3540 m.a.s.l. (meters above sea level). A slight ash fall is reported in the Irazú Volcano National Park.Seismic activity shows no change. The deformation is maintained with a tendency to shrink. Satellites have not detected SO2 in the atmosphere since June 25. OVSICORI-UNA reported that since June 17th, significant degassing of the active crater has been observed, in particular on the SW inner wall. The volcanic edifice is in extension. Fumaroles in the West Crater remain active on June 18. Seismicity with frequent volcanic earthquakes of low frequency and low magnitude. The volcanic building is maintained with a slight deflation. OVSICORI-UNA reported that the Turrialba has emitted gas and steam, and small amounts of ash, since sunrise March 12, 2022; until about 9:30 a.m. before fog obscured it. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a point of incandescence on the SW wall of Turrialba's Crater West was visible on 23 February and was coincident with the area of strongest gas emissions. At 1955 on 27 February an eruption produced a diffuse ash plume that rose 300 m above the summit and drifted NE. Rumbling heard on 28 February was sometimes coincident with minor ash emissions.OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 2/19/2022 at 4:12 a.m. local time, an eruptive episode was recorded, with a column which rises 100 meters above the height of the crater and 3440 meters above the level of the sea. (meters above sea level) (11283.2 feet). Duration of the activity: 1 minute. The winds are blowing west. Ash falls and a smell of sulfur were reported in the Irazú Volcano National Park. After the eruption, passive degassing resumed. The CO2/SO2 ratio showed a significant peak at values ​​of ~50 on February 14 and 15 and then decreased to values ​​of ~20 over the past few days. Another CO2/SO2 peak was observed about 2 hours before the eruption. CO2/SO2 spikes are usually associated with relatively high H2S/SO2 values. On 02/19/2022 at 4:24 p.m. local time, another eruptive episode is recorded at the level of the Turrialba volcano, the height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Duration of the activity: 1 minute. The winds blow from the southwest.This eruption was very small in terms of energy released (based on infrasound data). OVSICORI-UNA reported that a small, short-lived (0.5 min) phreatic eruption occurred  at 12:59 p.m. local time on February 6, 2022. An ash plume rose about 100 meters above the summit to the south- Many low-frequency, low-magnitude LP-type earthquakes continue to be recorded. Magmatic gas concentrations remain around normal values ​​according to readings from the MultiGAS gas monitor located near the western crater, which detects SO2 between 1.9 and 11 ppm and CO2/SO2 ratios between 18 and 29. The GPS network does not record any significant deformation of the volcanic edifice. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 24th of January at 7:06 a.m. local time, an eruption was recorded at the level of the Turrialba volcano, with a column that rises 100 meters above the height of the crater and 3440 meters above from sea level. (meters above sea level) (11283.2 feet). Duration of the activity: 2 minutes. The winds blow from the Southwest. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 17th of January at 9:27 p.m. local time, an eruption is recorded on the Turrialba volcano, in Costa Rica, with a plume that rises 1,000 meters above the height of the crater and 4,340 meters above the sea ​​level. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.INFORMATION from OVSICORI - SVE Volcanic fieldtrip on group request.

COSTA RICA - Rincon de la Vieja volcano

September 20th, 2022

OVSICORI-UNA reported continuing eruptive activity at Rincon de la Vieja characterized by occasional small phreatic explosions. A small explosion at 0147 on 14 September produced a steam-and-gas plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. Low-frequency tremor began at 0900 on 17 September and was possibly associated with small eruptive events, though they were not visually confirmed. A possible emission was recorded at 0219.OVSICORI-UNA reported that exhalations were recorded and a gas pulse could be observed at 5:42 p.m. on 13th of August associated with the seismic signal. A fragmented tremor is recorded. Visibility conditions are variable, generally limited.The seismicity of the Rincón de la Vieja volcano on July 19th is similar to that of the day before. Geodetic measurements do not show any significant deformation of the volcanic edifice. The tremor which showed a frequency of 4 Hz disappeared around 06:00 today. Cloudiness prevents observation of the crater. South-westerly wind (4 m/s).OSICORI-UNA reported that on June 9th at 12:48 p.m., a small hydrothermal eruption was recorded. The column of gas and water vapor reached a height of 200 meters. Seismicity continued with frequent low-frequency volcanic earthquakes, screw-type earthquakes, and low-frequency, short-duration tremors. No significant deformation of the volcanic edifice is recorded. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 28th of May at 1:25 am local time, an eruption was recorded by infrasound; the height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Strong degassing occures in the crater the crater. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a mall eruption was recorded by seismographs and infrasound sensor on May 21, 2022 at 02:51 a.m. The eruption had a duration of 7 minutes and an energy inferred from the infrasound signal of 1400 Joules. Another even smaller eruption lasting 6 minutes was also recorded today at 4:43 a.m., with an energy of 396 Joules. The deformation of the volcanic edifice is stable within the uncertainty of the measurements.On 5 May OVSICORI-UNA reported an average of two daily phreatic explosions during the previous week. The events did not eject material outside of the crater and produced steam plumes that rose no higher than 200 m above the crater rim. A phreatic explosion at 1650 on 6 May produced a steam plume that rose 500 m. A few phreatic explosions and several steam emissions were recorded on 7 May. Several steam emissions were also recorded on 8 May. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 01:56:00 local time on April 26, 2022, an eruption is recorded at the Rincon de la Vieja volcano. The height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Duration of the activity: 2 minutes. Seismic activity is similar, compared to the day before. At the time of this report, the winds are blowing to the southwest. A discontinuous tremor of variable amplitude and dominant frequency is recorded. A probable low amplitude eruption was detected at 01:56 with no visibility.OVISORI-UNA reported that at 06:18:00 local time on April 25, 2022, an eruptive episode was recorded at the Rincon de la Vieja volcano, the height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Duration of the activity: 1 minute.OVSICORI-UNA reported that two eruptive episodes occurred on April 7th, respectively at 11:42 a.m. local and 1:23 p.m. local. The first lasted 1 minute, the second 2 minutes. In both cases, an eruptive column is recorded which rose 500 meters above the crater (2416 meters asl). OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 04/04/2022 at 10:42 a.m. local time, an eruption was recorded at the level of the Rincón de la Vieja volcano, the height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Duration of activity: 1.5 minutes.OVSICORI-UNA reported that several eruptive events at Rincon de la Vieja were recorded during 22-26 March, though none were visible due to weather conditions. A one-minute-long event was recorded at 0350 on 22 March. A series of pulses occurred over a 20-minute period, at 0140, 0146, and 0159 on 23 March, with additional small events at 1045, 1339, 1939, and 2244. According to the Washington VAAC a possible ash emission was visible in satellite images at 1420 drifting W at an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. OVSICORI-UNA noted that a series of small eruptive events were recorded during 0129-0140 on 25 March. A small eruption with possible two separate pulses was recorded on 26 March.OVSICORI-UNA reported that eruptive events at Rincon de la Vieja were recorded at 0405 on 19 March, 1402 on 20 March, and 0350 on 22 March. The events lasted 1-8 minutes each and no plumes were visible due to weather conditions.OVSICORI-UNA reported that the volcano experienced five eruptions in 8 days, according to reports from Ovsicori. These recent eruptions are of the phreatic type. The last date was February 2 at 6:53 p.m. local time, and the emission of gas, steam and ash continued for 2 minutes. Due to poor visibility, the height of the plume could not be estimated. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on January 27, 2022 at 7:16 a.m. local time, an eruption is recorded at the level of the Rincón de la Vieja volcano, the height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Duration of the activity: 1 minute. No ash fall is reported, nor smell of sulfur. A small lahar has been detected. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on January 25, 2022 at 11:40 a.m. Costa Rican time, an explosion was recorded which generated the partial flow of the acid lake on the northern flank. On 2022-01-25 at 11:39 local time, an eruptive column rises 800 meters above the height of the crater and 2716 meters above sea level. (meters above sea level ). Duration of the activity: 1 minute. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 02:25:00 local time on January 23rd, an eruption was recorded at the level of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano, the height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Duration of the activity: 1 minute. Seismic activity was similar, compared to the previous day. At the time of this report, the winds are blowing westerly.The eruption generated lahar(s) to the north of the volcano. A very slight 1-2 Hz frequency tremor was detected after the eruption. This signal has gradually disappeared this morning. In recent days, geodetic observations show no significant change. OVSICORI reported that at 10:27:00 p.m. local time on January 20, 2022 (rectified), an eruption was detected by infrasound and seismic signal at the level of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano, the height reached by the column is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site . After the eruption, no significant tremor is detected. No significant deformation is observed either. Duration of the activity: 2 minutes. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on January 5th, 2022 at 6:33 p.m. local time, an eruption was recorded in the Rincón de la Vieja volcano, the height reached by the eruptive plume is unknown due to the visibility conditions of the site. Duration of the activity: 2 minutes. After the main event, major lahars rolled down the Penjamo, Azufrado and possibly Azul rios. In addition, it appears that other small eruptions have occurred, harmlessly, due to the much lower amplitude. The most important seem to have occurred at 9:08 p.m. and 9:20 p.m., they will be confirmed by a seismologist in the coming days, but there are reports of noises coming from the neighbors of the volcano. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1437 on 1st of January 2022 a small eruption at Rincon de la Vieja produced a plume that rose 50 m above the crater rim. A small eruption was recorded by the seismic network at 0431 on 4 January, though weather clouds prevented visual confirmation. The amplitude of the seismic signal was similar to those recorded for events occurring in the previous few weeks.Rincon de la Vieja, a composite stratovolcano in Northwestern Costa Rica forms a NW-trending ridge consisting of several eruptive centers that have coalesced through time. Elevations of the individual cones range from 1670 to 1920 meters and nine craters are readily identified by their topographic expression. Numerous phreatic eruptions have occurred since 1851 (as recently as November, 1995), all from the Active Crater. The last major eruption involving juvenile magma occurred at ~3,500 ybp, producing the Rio Blanco tephra deposit. Ash, pumice, and lithics ejected during this eruption were deposited in a highly asymmetrical dispersal pattern WSW of the Active Crater, indicating strong easterly prevailing tradewinds at the time of the eruption. Historical descriptions of the summit crater morphology suggest that conditions there have changed little over the past century.
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NICARAGUA - Masaya volcano

December 1st, 2020

As of the 1st of December, INETER reported that Low-level eruptive activity of the volcano continues by near-constant ash emissions recorded during the 30 November. The activity at the crater has been mostly small-to-moderate only, but near-constant a lot in frequency of explosions as INETER surveillance camera observed. According to local news, ashes ejection occurred on October 15th, 2019. Samples were collected and recorded in the municipality of Ticuantepe, which, as a result of the change in wind direction, received the ash particles from the volcano. If The winds continued to blow from south-east to north-west the city of Managua could be affected by gases or falls of pyroclastic material. Previous notable news 2017 - The Washington VAAC reported that on 13 May a west-drifting ash emission from Masaya was identified in satellite images and observed by a pilot. Previously, based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 21 January a possible emission from Masaya with minor ash content drifted almost 25 km NW.Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 5 January a gas, steam, and ash plume from Masaya drifted W. Based on webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that a steam-and-gas plume from Masaya possibly contained some ash on 3 November. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 28 August a gas plume with possible ash rose from Masaya to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km W. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 15 August a possible ash plume from Masaya rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Elevated seismicity and a thermal anomaly detected in satellite images indicated increased activity. In a report posted later that day the Washington VAAC noted that the webcam recorded minor ash emissions. Previously, INETER reported that during 18-19 May RSAM values at Masaya fluctuated between 300 and 700 units which are low-to-moderate values. The lava lake in Santiago Crater continued to strongly circulate and the vent widened through 24 May. INETER reported that between 1700 and 2400 on 3 May volcanic tremor at Masaya increased; RSAM values spiked at 1,000 units and then dropped to 250. Gas emissions at Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels, and the lava lake continued to strongly circulate. On 5 May RSAM values fluctuated between 250 and 500 units which are low-to-moderate values. INETER reported that during 27 April-3 May gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels. Seismic tremor decreased though continued to fluctuate between low to moderate levels. The lava lake continued to strongly circulate. INETER reported that during 20-23 April gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels and RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 22 April the level of the lava lake decreased, though strong lake circulation was reported on 23 April. INETER reported that during 6-12 April the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. (Time-lapse video). Previously on 30 March INETER reported that the lava lake rose in Masaya's Santiago crater and several landslide deposits from the precious few days were visible in the NE crater. RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 4 April SINAPRED noted that tremor continued and the widening of the vent in the SE part of the crater persisted. According to a SINAPRED report on 28 March INETER noted that lava-lake activity at Masaya's Santiago crater was intense and the craters continued to gradually widen. Emissions were at low levels. INETER reported that on 3 March the lava lake on the SW floor of Masaya's Santiago crater was very active. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. Previously, INETER reported that the lava lakes in three vents on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater were active during 20 February-1 March. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. On 23 February small explosions ejected spatter onto the crater floor. During fieldwork volcanologists observed active lava lakes in all three vents on the crater floor, and noted that the inner walls of the crater were being eroded due to the lava lake. A new vent was forming on the SE part of the crater floor. During a second visit on 24 February INETER staff noted that the vents had become larger due to landslides on the crater walls. Small streams of lava sporadically originated from the NE vent. By 1 March the two vents in the SW part of the crater had almost merged. On 17 February INETER reported that the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. During 10-11 February sulfur dioxide emissions at Masaya rose to high levels (1,500 tons per day), and RSAM values were at moderately-high levels due to higher levels of volcanic tremor. This activity coincided with an increase in the size of the lava lake. Gas emissions were at moderate and low levels on 12 and 16 February, respectively. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindiri­ and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage. (GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Telica volcano

March 30th, 2022

Based on webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 29 March ash emissions at Telica rose as high as 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.Based on webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 25 March ash emissions at Telica rose as high as 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.Based on satellite and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that during 21-24 and 27-28 February multiple ash emissions at Telica rose as high as 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km W, WSW, and SW.INETER reported that in the eruptive phase that begins since April 21, 2021, on February 20, 2022 a few episodes of ash explosions occurred, which were deposited on its flanks. These episodes were separated by an outgassing. Mirova reports a moderate thermal anomaly of VRP 34 MW on April 21 at 03:20. Previous news 2021 - INETER reported that at 1650 on 28 October a small explosion from Telica produced an ash plume that rose 150 m above the crater rim and deposited ash on the NW flank. The event was followed by a small series of low-energy explosions that generated ash plumes that rose 300 m high and drifted N and NE. Minor ashfall was reported in Aguas Frias. On October 4, the VAAC Washington reported an ash plume at an altitude of 1,200 meters. INETER reported that at 0525 on 1 September an explosion at Telica produced an ash plume that rose 250 m above the crater rim and drifted N and NW. Emissions periodically continued later that day, without explosions, and caused minor ashfall in areas to the NW, W, and SW including in the communities of Aguas Frias, San Pedro Nuevo, and Las Marias (7 km NNW).INETER reported that at 0500 on 29 June ash-and-gas emissions from Telica rose 200 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. The Washington VAAC noted that ash was emitted during 2-3 July. A few discrete emissions and ash near the crater were visible in webcam images on 2 July, and possible diffuse ash just W of the crater was seen in satellite images. Plumes likely rose to 1.2-1.5 km (4,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l. Another steam-and-ash plume drifted SW and then turned N. On 3 July possible ash plumes rose to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW.INETER reported that a series of 16 small explosions at Telica began at 0508 on 22 May, and produced ash-and-gas emissions that rose 250 m above the crater. Tephra from the plumes fell back down into the crater.INETER reported that volcano recorded gas and ash explosions in the morning of May 8, 2021, according to the images of the webcam.Telica, one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes, has erupted frequently since the beginning of the Spanish era. This volcano group consists of several interlocking cones and vents with a general NW alignment. Sixteenth-century eruptions were reported at symmetrical Santa Clara volcano at the SW end of the group. However, its eroded and breached crater has been covered by forests throughout historical time, and these eruptions may have originated from Telica, whose upper slopes in contrast are unvegetated. The steep-sided cone of 1061-m-high Telica is truncated by a 700-m-wide double crater; the southern crater, the source of recent eruptions, is 120 m deep. El Liston, immediately SE of Telica, has several nested craters. The fumaroles and boiling mudpots of Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica, form a prominent geothermal area frequented by tourists, and geothermal exploration has occurred nearby.(GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Momotombo

July 7th, 2020

SINAPRED reported that a seismic swarm at Momotombo began at 0657 on 6 July and by the next day a total of 51 earthquakes had been recorded. The largest event was an M 2.6 located 9 km SE of the volcano, beneath Lake Managua, at a depth of 3 km. INETER noted that the earthquakes were located along a fault and not directly related to the volcano. INETER recorded small explosions on February 26 at Momotombo; the activity started at 13:55 with an increase in gaseous emissions, then small gas explosions at 14:45 and 15:30, the last accompanied by an earthquake of M1.4. The last eruptions dated from December 2015 and January 2016. 2016 eruption reports - INETER reported that three explosions at Momotombo during 5-6 April ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater. During 6-7 April there were 27 small explosions for a total of 438 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. The explosions ejected some incandescent material, and generated ash plumes that rose 200 m and drifted SW. RSAM values were low during 5-12 April. SINAPRED reported that on 2 April explosions at Momotombo produced gas-and-ash plumes and ejected incandescent tephra. On 28 March SINAPRED reported that 38 explosions were detected at Momotombo over a period of 24 hours, which ejected gas-and-ash plumes and incandescent tephra. The strongest event occurred at 1140 on 27 March and generated a plume that rose 1 km. During 2-3 March INETER reported that 53 small explosions at Momotombo generated low-energy gas plumes that rose 300 m above the crater. On 3 March some of the explosions produced ash plumes that drifted W and SW. RSAM values were at low to moderate levels. SINAPRED reported that during 5-6 March there were 78 explosions for a total of 279 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. One of the most significant explosions occurred on 6 March. The next day gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater. INETER reported that during 19 February-1 March explosions at Momotombo were detected daily; 88 explosions were detected during 1 December 2015-1 March 2016. Explosions produced ash plumes, and ejected incandescent material onto the N, NE, E, and SE flanks. Ash plumes rose 1.7-2.3 km above the crater and drifted SW during 21-22 February; gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.8 km on 24 February; an ash plume rose 1 km on 25 February; and a small gas-and-ash plume rose 300 m on 26 February. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km down the N and NW flanks during 23-24 February. Explosions on 27 February ejected tephra 300 m above the crater. At 0646 on 1 March explosions ejected gas and incandescent tephra; an ash plume rose 1.2 km and drifted W and SW. The gas-and-ash emissions lasted 16 minutes, causing the plume to widen and darken the sky. INETER reported that during 16-17 February two explosions at Momotombo were accompanied by tremor, and produced ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The first and largest explosion (recorded at 0344) ejected incandescent tephra 800 m above the crater. RSAM values were at low-to-moderate levels. Based on webcam views and satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 February ash emissions rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and WSW. The next day ash emissions drifted SW. On 21 February ash plumes drifted about 80 km W and 25 km E. INETER reported moderate levels of gas emissions at Momotombo on 10 February; volcanic tremor and gas emissions increased to moderate-to-high levels the next day. An explosion on 12 February produced small ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the N and SE flanks. An explosion at 1305 on 15 February generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater and ejected incandescent tephra onto the N and NE flanks. INETER reported that during 4-5 and 7-8 February both RSAM values at Momotombo were low to moderate and emissions were at moderate levels. INETER reported that during 26-29 January RSAM values at Momotombo were at low to moderate levels, and gas emissions were at moderate levels. Crater incandescence from high-temperature gas emissions was observed at night during 26-27 January. A Strombolian explosion at 0344 on 30 January ejected tephra onto the E, NE, N, and NW flanks, and produced gas emissions. At 0529 on 31 January another explosion also ejected gas, ash, and incandescent material. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas including the communities of Boqueron, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), and La Sabaneta. Moderate levels of gas emissions drifted SW towards Puerto Momotombo.INETER reported that during 20-21 January both RSAM values and emissions at Momotombo were low. Volcanic tremor increased at 0900 on 22 January, causing RSAM values to rise to high levels. There were no changes to emissions. INETER recommended to the public to stay at least 6 km away from the volcano. INETER reported that at 1209 on 12 January a large explosion at Momotombo ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and generated an ash plume that rose 4 km above the crater. Tephra was deposited on the E, NE, N, and NW flanks. Ash plumes drifted downwind and caused ashfall in the communities of Flor de Piedra, La Concha (40 SSE), Amatistan, Guacucal (40 km N), La Palma, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), La Sabaneta, Mira Lago, Asentamiento Miramar, Pancasan, Rene Linarte, Raul Cabezas, and Betania. At around 0500 on 15 January strong volcanic tremor was accompanied by small explosions in the crater; ejected ash and incandescent tephra were deposited on the W flank. Seismicity decreased during 16-17 January. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, three gas-and-ash explosions on 2 January, at 1333, 1426, and 1434, excavated the remaining parts of the lava dome which was emplaced about a month ago. An ash plume rose 500 m above the crater, drifted S and SW, and caused ashfall in Puerto Momotombo (9 km WSW). Possible ash plumes from an explosion at 2129 were hidden by darkness. At 0420 on 3 January an explosion ejected lava bombs 2 km away and caused ashfall in La Paz Centro (18 km SW). Lava flows had advanced as far as 2 km down the NE flank. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, activity at Momotombo continued through 10 December. Fieldwork revealed a small, incandescent, circular crater halfway up Momotombo's E flank that was fuming during the morning on 6 December. An explosion on 7 December destroyed part of the crater. On 10 December SINAPRED reported that material had been accumulating in the crater since the beginning of the eruption on 1 December. Seismicity during 9-14 December was low and stable. Based on satellite and webcam observations, and seismic data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 2-3 December ash plumes from Momotombo rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-225 km NW and WNW. INETER reported that series of at least 4 small explosions occurred at the volcano on the morning, at 07:49, 08:17, 08:42, and 08:55 local time on 1st of December. The eruptions, in particular the last and largest one, produced steam and ash plumes that rose up to approx. 1 km from the summit. Light ash fall was observed in the community of El Papalonal and near the Momotombo geothermal plant to the SW of the volcano. Later, during the day, It seems that the volcano continues to erupt and have been intensifying its activity with near-continuous strombolian explosions accompanied with hot incandescent material and a small et slowly lava flows went down from the summit crater on the Northeast flank.Ashfall was reported in nearby communities to the W and SW, including La Concha, Los Arcos, Flor de la Piedra, La Paz Centro, and Leon. Some families in La Paz Centro self-evacuated. This is the first eruptive activity of the volcano in 110 years, the last confirmed eruption of Momotombo occurred in 1905 . Momotombo is a young, 1297-m-high stratovolcano that rises prominently above the NW shore of Lake Managua, forming one of Nicaragua's most familiar landmarks. Momotombo began growing about 4500 years ago at the SE end of the Marrabios Range and consists of a somma from an older edifice that is surmounted by a symmetrical younger cone with a 150 x 250 m wide summit crater. Young lava flows from Momotombo have flowed down the NW flank into the 4-km-wide Monte Galán caldera. The youthful cone of Momotombito forms a 391-m-high island offshore in Lake Managua. Momotombo has a long record of strombolian eruptions, punctuated by occasional larger explosive activity. The latest eruption, in 1905, produced a lava flow that traveled from the summit to the lower NE base. A small black plume was seen above the crater after an April 10, 1996 earthquake, but later observations noted no significant changes in the crater. A major geothermal field is located on the southern flank of the volcano. INETER

NICARAGUA - San Cristobal volcano

June 27th, 2022

INETER reported that on June 26th , 2022 around 7:35 a.m. there was an earthquake and then the expulsion of ash and gas from the  volcano. This eruption was visible on the Ineter webcam.Previous news 2021 -The Washington VAAC reported that on 19 March a notable ash cloud from San Cristobal rose at least to 12.2 km (40,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 80 km ENE based on satellite data, ash dispersion models, and weather models. SINAPRED reported that a series of five moderate-to-strong vulcanian-type explosions occurred at the volcano on 9th of March 2021 between 13:06 and 13:32 local time. The strongest eruption at 01:25 local time triggered a dense, dark ash column to an estimated altitude of 8,000 ft (2,400 m) which extended about 17 km to the southwest of the volcano. Ashfall was reported in cities of El Viejo, Chinandega and Chichigalapa. Expected explosions in the near future will not threaten inhabited areas, but volcanological observatory recommends to keep general precautions. Previously, last year INETER reported that a low-energy explosion at San Cristobal was detected by the seismic network at 1550 on 4 March 2019. The event produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.San Cristobal's last such activity occurred three years ago. GVN/GVP

NICARAGUA - Masaya volcano

October 20th, 2019

According to news reports, ash was emitted from Masaya on 15 October, causing very minor ashfall in Colonia 4 de Mayo, 6 km NW. Previously, Ineter, reported that an explosion occurred on Sunday, July 21, in the afternoon in the crater Santiago of Masaya. According to official reports, the ashes released did not cause injuries to people who were near the crater and did not pose a problem for neighboring populations, but the authorities did not rule out any additional activities. The Masaya Park has been temporarily closed.Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindirí and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage. GVN/GVP)

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El SALVADOR - San Miguel volcano

February 16th, 2021

SNET stated that San Miguel's seismic network recorded long-lasting and continuous periods of volcanic tremor that began on 7 February and continued through 14 February. Discrete earthquakes from minor rock fracturing were also detected. RSAM values fluctuated between 25 and 75 units, below normal values around 150 units. Previous news 2020 - SNET stated that during 30-31 March the seismic network at San Miguel recorded a period of increased seismicity characterized by continuous, low-frequency, tremor-type signals.RSAM values were between 90 and 116 units, lower than the normal values of 150, at a seismic station located on the upper N flank. SNET stated that during 28 February-6 March there were no reports of noises or gas emissions at San Miguel from the network of local observers. Seismicity was stable; 50-60 low-magnitude earthquakes were recorded per hour with RSAM values between 40 and 98 units, lower than the normal values of 150. The sulfur dioxide emission flux was 517-808 tons per day. SNET reported that during 23-28 February activity at San Miguel was low. An increase in the number of very small-magnitude earthquakes was recorded by the VSM seismic station located on the upper N flank. RSAM values were between 45 and 75 units, lower than the normal values of 150. SNET report noted an increase in amplitude of microearthquakes and minor gas emissions form the main crater. Sulfur dioxide levels had also increased. Beginning at 1055 on 22 February an ash emission that lasted 10 minutes long resulted in a small gas-and-ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater rim. Minor ashfall was reported in the area of Piedra Azul, 5 km SW. RSAM peaked at 510 units during the period of emissions, above the normal values of 150, as recorded by station VSM located on the upper N flank. The number of low-amplitude tremor events increased after a quiet period of about 11 hours and were associated with gas emissions; RSAM was 33-97 units and minor gas plumes were visible rising 400 m during 23-24 February. SNET reported that starting at 7:00 p.m. yesterday February 20th, 2020 at 7:50 a.m. Friday 21, the Network of local observers reported the occurrence of a series of rumblings from the volcano. Monitoring data indicates that the volcano has exhibited a change in behavior, evidenced by the increase in the amplitude of microseisms and slight gas emissions by its central crater. The seismicity recorded in the volcano shows signs that may be related to fractures and small internal explosions of the volcano, which indicates an increase in its internal pressure, with the possibility of the appearance of a more significant degassing which can be accompanied by small ash fumes, which, if they occur, will preferably be transported to the southwest flank of the volcano. Previous news 2018 - SNET reported a significant increase in the number of low- and high-frequency earthquakes beneath San Miguel's crater beginning on 22 May. RSAM values fluctuated between 142 and 176 units (normal values are 50-150 units) during 30 May-1 June. Webcam images on 30 May showed a small gray gas emission. On 2 March SNET reported that gas plumes rose as high as 400 m above San Miguel's crater rim during the previous week. Ash was in the emissions on 24, 26, and 28 February, and 1 March. RSAM values fluctuated between 70 and 179 units (normal values are 50-150 units) during 1-2 March. At 2200 on 5 March seismic amplitude began to increase, with RSAM values rising to 318 units by 0600 on 6 March. A webcam recorded minor gas emission during 5-6 March. SNET reported that during 0800-1100 on 19 February gas-and-ash emissions from San Miguel rose 350 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Ash fell on the upper flanks of the volcano, and a sulfur odor was reported in La Piedra farm. The symmetrical cone of San Miguel volcano, one of the most active in El Salvador, rises from near sea level to form one of the country's most prominent landmarks. A broad, deep crater that has been frequently modified by historical eruptions (recorded since the early 16th century) caps the truncated summit of the towering volcano, which is also known locally as Chaparrastique. Radial fissures on the flanks of the basaltic volcano have fed a series of fresh lava flows, including several erupted during the 17th-19th centuries that reached beyond the base of the volcano on the N, W, and SE sides. The SE-flank lava flows are the largest and form broad sparsely vegetated lava fields. GVN - (SNET)

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COLOMBIA - Purace volcano

September 20th, 2022

Observatorio Vulcanolo³gico y Sismologico de Popayan, Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC), reported that during 13-19 September the number of earthquakes at Purace was slightly higher compared to previous weeks. A seismic swarm was recorded on 15 September. Events were located about 1.5 km SW of Purace crater, at depths of 3-4 km, and were as large as M 1.3. A total of 904 earthquakes were recorded during the week; 296 of those were volcano-tectonic events, 538 were long-period events, 54 were low-energy pulses of tremor, 11 were tornillo-type events, and five were hybrid events. Data from the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) geodetic network indicated continuing inflation. White gas plumes were visible in
the Anambío, Mina, Lavas Rojas, Cerro Sombrero, and Curiquinga webcams drifting NW. Sulfur dioxide emissions were as high as 2,021 tonnes per day. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest on a four-color scale).From the analysis and evaluation of the information obtained through the monitoring network of the Puracé volcano - Los Coconucos volcanic chain, during the week of June 7th to 13th, 2022, the SGC. - Popayan Volcanological and Seismological Observatory informs us that during this week, the strong occurrence of earthquakes associated with the movement of fluids inside the volcano continues.A total of 1,650 seismic events were analyzed, of which 51 were associated with rock fracturing processes (type VT) and 1,599 with fluid dynamics in volcanic conduits.The geodetic network of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) stations monitoring ground deformation continues to record a process associated with inflation.The sulfur dioxide emission fluxes recorded by the telemetry stations showed a stable behavior, reaching a maximum emitted of 544.25 t/day for June 12.Degassing of the volcanic system is observed, with a white plume oriented preferentially towards the northwest.The activity level remains at III (yellow level), which could progress to higher activity states.
Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Popayán, Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC), reported that during 19-25 April the number and magnitudes of earthquakes at Puracé was similar to the previous week. Signals included 72 volcano-tectonic (VT) events, indicating rock fracturing, along with 207 long-period (LP) events and 14 low-energy tremor pulses, indicating fluid movement. Data from the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) geodetic network continued to show inflation on the centimeter scale. Sulfur dioxide emissions were lower than the previous week, with values of 937-992 tonnes per day, and gas plumes drifted NW. During a field visit on 22 April scientists observed no changes to the crack near Puracé and Curiquinga volcanoes, and no visible gas emissions. Additional cracks, oriented NW-SE, were observed, in addition to volcanic ash deposits that were likely emplaced on 29 March.As of the 13th of April, SGC reported that seismicity continued to be elevated until April 4. The earthquakes were of low magnitude, and located about 800 m SE of Puracé and under Curiquinga, at depths of 2 km on average. The number of events signifying increased movement of fluids. The geodetic network GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) and DInSAR (Differential Interferometry by Synthetic Aperture Radar) showed inflation at the millimeter scale. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide increased, based on satellite and ground sampling data, and a fumarole on the N flank of Purace intensified and produced a strong smell of sulfur.Significant unrest continued from 5 to 11 April. The seismic network recorded a total of 2,077 earthquakes, consisting of 248 VT events, 1,759 LP events, 37 low-energy TR events and 31 hybrid events. Millimetre-scale inflation persisted, and sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 1,800 tons per day. As of the 6th of April, SGC reported that during the period evaluated from 29th of March to 4th of April .2022, the levels of seismic activity associated with rock fracturing (VT type) and fluid dynamics (LP type - Long Period and TR - Volcanic Tremor) remained high in recurrence. VT-type seismicity continued to occur mainly 800 m SE of the crater of the Puracé volcano.As of the 30th of March the volcano observatory Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) raised the alert status to "yellow", as an elevated seismic activity has been recorded over the past two days characterized by picking up both in numbers and strength. A swarm of earthquakes became more frequent on 28 March from 20:00 local time and is still ongoing at the time of this update. 479 volcano-tectonic (VT or high-frequency) quakes have been detected with a maximum magnitude of 3.3 that occurred at 12:14 local time today. High-frequency earthquakes are a sign that magma continues to intrude and push its way into deeper rock layers related to rock fracturing. 183 long-period (LP or low-frequency) and 119 tremor events have been detected so far that indicate elevated fluid movements of gas, water and possibly magma intrusions within the volcano. One of the most active volcanoes of Colombia, Puracé consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with a 500-m-wide summit crater that was constructed over a dacitic shield volcano. It lies at the NW end of a volcanic massif opposite Pan de Azúcar stratovolcano, 6 km SE. A NW-SE-trending group of seven cones and craters, Los Coconucos, lies between the two larger edifices. Frequent explosive eruptions in the 19th and 20th centuries have modified the morphology of the summit crater. The largest eruptions occurred in 1849, 1869, and 1885. (GVN/GVP).

COLOMBIA - Nevado del Ruiz

August 27th, 2022

SGC reported that the volcano continues to show instability in its behavior over the past week. Seismicity related to fluid dynamics inside volcanic conduits showed an increase in both the number of earthquakes recorded and the seismic energy released, compared to the previous week.This week also recorded seismicity related to the processes of ascent, establishment, growth and evolution of a lava dome1 at the bottom of the Arenas crater. Deformation of the volcanic surface continues to show minor changes. The volcano continues to emit water vapor and gases, mainly sulfur dioxide. Servicio Geologico Columbiano recorded in Nevado del Ruiz on August 18th at 5:51 p.m., a seismic fluid circulation signal, associated with an emission of ash that reached a height of 3,200 m, in a vertical direction with a slight dispersion towards the west-northwest. This was visible from most cameras installed in the volcano area and from the city of Manizales. At the time of publication of this note, there are no reports of ashfall.As of the 23rd of June, SGC reported that the recording of seismic signals of low-energy fluids continues, some of them were associated with ash emissions observed through the cameras installed in the volcano area. The dispersion of the column was governed by the direction of the wind, which presented a predominant tendency towards the northwest of the volcano, causing ash fall in the area of ​​influence of the volcano and in the city of Manizales. The phenomenon observed is a recurrent pulsatile phenomenon in the activity of the volcano.As of the 18th of june, sGC reported that the volcano ontinues to show instability in its behavior. Seismicity related to fluid dynamics within volcanic conduits decreased in terms of the number of earthquakes and maintained similar levels of seismic energy released, compared to the previous week. This seismic activity was characterized by the occurrence of continuous volcanic tremors, pulses of tremors, long and very long period earthquakes. In general, these signals exhibited moderate to low energy levels, variable spectral content, and were localized primarily in Arenas Crater.On 10 May Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) reported that during the previous week the number of seismic signals indicating both rock fracturing and fluid movement at Nevado del Ruiz had increased compared to the week before. Several episodes of drumbeat seismicity were recorded on 5 and 8 May, indicting growth of the lava dome. Some low-temperature thermal anomalies were also identified at Arenas Crater. Gas-and-ash emissions were periodically visible in webcam images. A small ash emission on 3 May caused minor ashfall in the municipalities of Manizales (25 km N), Dosquebradas (40 km W), Santa Rosa, and Pereira (40 km WSW). At 0857 on 9 May an ash plume drifted NW, W, and SW, causing ashfall in Manizales, Villamaría (28 km NW), and Chinchiná (30 km WNW) in the department of Caldas, and in Pereira, Dosquebradas, and Santa Rosa de Cabal (33 km W) in the department of Risaralda. The Alert Level remained at 3 (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).SGC reported that ash falls occurred in several sectors of the city of Manizales and the municipality of Villamaría, which is linked to the emissions of gas and ash from the Nevado de Ruiz volcano recorded during the day of April 25, during the night and April 26. These emissions were linked to seismic signals of moderate energy level, associated with the movement of fluids inside the volcanic conduits.SGC reported that explosive activity continues at Nevado del Ruiz, with an ash plume reaching, according to VAAC Washington, an altitude of 7,000 meters / alt. flight 230, moving north 15 km.on April 24th at 05:25ZSGC reported that At 5:13 p.m. on April 11th, 2022, a seismic fluid signal was recorded with an associated ash emission. The column of steam, gas and ash reached a height of 3258 m, vertical direction with a slight dispersion towards the north. Event was visible from most cameras installed in the volcano area and from the city of Manizales. Ash fall occurred in the area of ​​the volcano,SGC reported that on March 1st, 2022 at 2:00 p.m. local time, ash falls occurred in various sectors of the city of Manizales and the municipality of Villamaría, which are linked to gas and ash emissions from the Nevado de Ruiz volcano. recorded during today, March 1, 2022. These emissions were linked to seismic signals of moderate energy level, associated with the movement of fluids inside the volcanic conduits. SGC reported that a strong eruption took place at Nevado del Ruiz from the summit vent around 10:30 a.m. local time on 12th of February as suggested by observers on social media, this detail was also confirmed by Washington's VAAC. An ash plume rose approx. altitude of 7,000 m and drifted north. A satellite image from February 12 shows that elevated surface temperatures in the summit crater were observed. Mirova detected weak thermal anomalies of VRP 4 and 1 MW on February 12. The alert level for the volcano remains at "yellow".Servicio Geologico Colombiano reports that during the last week, according to the analysis and evaluation of the parameters considered in the monitoring of volcanic activity, it has been shown that the Nevado del Ruiz volcano continues to exhibit behavioral instability. Seismic activity, primarily related to fluid dynamics within volcanic conduits, continued to be recorded similarly to the past week. On January 24 and 25, 2022, Mirova reports small thermal anomalies of VRP 5MW.Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers >200 sq km. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the summit caldera of an older Ruiz volcano. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks of Nevado del Ruiz. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption. (GVN/GVP)

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PERU - Ubinas volcano

April 6th, 2021

Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) reported that during 29 March-4 April there were 11 volcano-tectonic earthquakes at Ubinas with magnitudes less than 1.8, and a few seismic signals indicated emissions. Sporadic steam-and-gas plumes rose as high as 200 m above the crater rim. On 5 April the Alert Level was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color
scale).IGP reported that at 1659 on 31 December and at 1746 on 1 January low-volume lahars descended the Volcano mayo drainage on Ubinas's SE flank and damaged parts of the highway linking Arequipa, Querapi, Ubinas, and Huarina. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). IGP continues to record a slight increase in seismic activity at Ubinas during the analysis period from September 28th to October 4th.
Seismicity is characterized by 42 Volcano-Tectonic (VT) earthquakes with magnitudes less than M1.3, which would be associated with rock breaking processes. Likewise, 18 seismic signals were recorded which would be associated with the movement of volcanic fluids (gas, mainly water vapor), within them, 2 earthquakes of the tornillo type. Plumes of volcanic gas and water vapor reaching heights of up to 300 m above the summit of the volcano are recorded by remote monitoring, dispersed towards the eastern sector of the volcano. IGP reported that the volcano continued to record a slight increase in seismic activity between July 27 and August 2, 2020. The occurrence of 83 earthquakes with a magnitude less than M1.7 has been identified, events that would be associated with rock breaking processes that occur inside the volcano. On average, the occurrence of 12 earthquakes per day was recorded. Likewise, 18 seismic signals were recorded which would be associated with the movement of volcanic fluids (water vapor and gas), among them, 5 Screw type (tornillo) seismic signals which would be related to the increase in pressure inside the volcano. and which are considered to be seismic signals precursors of volcanic eruptions, Surveillance cameras recorded columns of gas (water vapor) that reached heights of up to 1000 m above the summit of the volcano. IGP reported that the activity continued to show a slight increase in its seismic activity between July 20 and July 26; twenty earthquakes of magnitudes less than M1.5, associated with rock breaking processes that occur inside the volcano have been recorded; similarly, 6 seismic signals were recorded which would be associated with the movements of volcanic fluids (water vapor and gas); Within these, 2 tornillo-type events were identified which would be linked to the increase in the internal pressure of the volcano. No seismic activity linked to the rise of magma was observed. Surveillance cameras recorded columns of gas and water vapor reaching heights of up to 700 m above the summit of the volcano, dispersed towards the southeastern sector of the volcano. IGP reported that a slight increase in seismic activity occurred, for the period from 15 to 21 June, with 61 earthquakes of magnitudes below M1.7, which are associated with processes of rupture of the rocks inside the volcano. Similarly, 7 seismic signals were recorded associated with the movement of volcanic fluids (water vapor and gas).Slight plumes of gas and water vapor have been observed reaching heights up to 1000 m above the summit of the volcano, scattered towards the northeast and southeast sectors of the volcano. IGP reported that between June 13 and 14, 2020, tthere were the occurrence of 9 earthquakes of magnitude less than M1.9, located 4 km south of the crater and 2.5 km from depth, associated with rock rupture processes in the volcano. Similarly, a seismic signal was recorded which would be associated with the movement of volcanic fluids (water vapor and gas). Surveillance cameras installed in the Ubinas recorded plumes of gas and water vapor that reached up to 700 m above the summit of the volcano, scattered emissions to the southeast sections of the volcano. During 11-18 May the number of seismic events at Ubinas totaled 54 with volcano-tectonic (VT) signals being the most numerous. Sporadic emissions of gas and steam were recorded by the webcam rising to heights less than 300 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 10-km radius. As of the 16th of march, IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remains at low levels. Sporadic emissions of bluish gases and water vapor were recorded. MIROVA satellite surveillance did not record any thermal anomalies.The IGP recommended reducing the level of volcanic alert from orange to yellow. IGP reported that the eruptive activity between March 2 and 8, remained at low levels. To date, the record of earthquakes that would be associated with the rise of magma to the surface is weak. In addition, there are sporadic emissions of bluish gases (of magmatic origin) and water vapor. According to this scenario, the possibility of volcanic explosions and / or low ash emissions remains low. IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remained at low levels. In early January, the energy of earthquakes which would be associated with the rise of magma on the surface has considerably decreased. There are weak and sporadic emissions of bluish gases (of magmatic origin) and water vapor, observed through surveillance cameras. Previously in 2019 IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remained low. From 18th to 24th of November earthquake energy associated with rising magma at the surface has decreased. In addition, there was low and sporadic bluish gas (magmatic) and water vapor emissions observed by surveillance cameras. According to this scenario, it is unlikely that volcanic explosions and / or ash emissions will occur. The alert level remains at orange. IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Ubinas volcano remained low during the period from 11 to 17 November 2019. To date, earthquake energy associated with rising magma at the surface has decreased. The IGP recorded and analyzed a total of 480 seismic events associated with the eruptive process of the Ubinas volcano, with predominant seismicity of the volcano-tectonic (VT) type, related to the fracturing of rocks in the interior. of the volcano. The seismic signals that would be related to the rise of magma (hybrid type) have decreased both in number of events (12 earthquakes daily) and energy generated. In addition, there has been no volcanic explosion since September 12th.Plumes of blue (magmatic) gas and water vapor retain heights less than 500 m above the summit. The monitoring of the deformation of the volcanic structure does not present anomalies. MIROVA satellite monitoring did not record thermal anomalies in the volcano. IGP reported that during the period from 7th to 13th of October, the eruptive activity remained light, and characterized by magmatic gas emissions and steam at less than 1,000 meters above the summit. At the seismicity level, 3533 earthquakes were recorded in relation to the eruptive process, with a predominance of VT earthquakes of M <2.1. No significant signs at the deformation level, and three small thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova. During the period from 16 to 22 September, the IGP recorded and analyzed a total of 4.356 seismic events, with a predominant volcano-tectonic (VT) type seismicity with an average value of 567 events per day, all of a magnitude less than M2.5. Seismic signals that would be related to the rise of the magma (hybrid type) were also recorded, at the rate of 119 events per day.During 10-15 September the number of seismic events at Ubinas totaled 4,093, with volcano-tectonic (VT) signals being the most numerous, averaging 572 events per day, and all having magnitudes under M 2.5. Hybrid events averaged 299 events per day. Continuous emissions of blueish gas and water vapor were recorded by the webcam rising to heights less than 1.5 km above the summit. Two thermal anomalies were recorded by the MIROVA system. An explosion at 0725 on 12 September produced a gas-and-ash plume that rose 1.5 km and affected several districts S and SE in the Moquegua region. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 10-km radius. IGP reported that during 3-9 September three volcanic explosions were detected at Ubinas, all producing eruption plumes that rose to heights less than 2.5 km above the crater rim. The largest, and first, was recorded at 1358 on 3 September and produced significant amounts of ash and gas, affecting areas to the S and SE. After the explosions gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 1 km. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 10-km radius. IG reported that the volcano experienced an explosion on September 3 at 13:58 local, accompanied by an ash plume of 5,500 meters above the crater, then dispersed to the south and southeast in the district of Ubinas. IG reported that during the past week the seismic activity was slightly increased with an average of 118 to 225 episodes per day, with a weekly total of 2828 earthquakes. No explosions were recorded; only a moderate emission of ash is reported on September 1 at 9:45 pm, associated with a tremor signal; On the other hand, the emissions of gas and steam are continuous and reach 1,000 meters above the summit. Three thermal anomalies were reported by Mirova attesting to the proximity of the magma to the surface. Following a few weeks of calm, new ash emissions occurred on August 26 at 10:30, and few later a phreatic activity occurred generating a plume that reached 1,600 meters above the crater, then dispersed to a north and northwest sector (San Juan de Tarucani district). Continuous ash emissions on 27 August were recorded by satellite and webcam images drifting S and SW. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 15-km radius. As of the 23rd of August, IGP reported that the eruptive process continued. A decrease in seismic activity related to the rise of magma was recorded, but the satellite images indicate the presence of a hot magmatic body close to the surface, and emissions of bluish gas (magmatic gas) and steam vapor. water were observed. IGP reported that during 13-19 August blue-colored gas plumes from Ubinas rose to heights of less than 1.5 km above the base of the crater. Seven thermal anomalies were recorded by the MIROVA system. The number of seismic events was 1,716 (all under M 2.4), a decrease in the total number recorded during the previous week. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public were warned to stay outside of a 15-km radius. As of the 14th of August the Geophysical Institute of Peru (IGP) reported that the Ubinas volcano continued its eruptive process. Bluish gas (magmatic gas) and water vapor emissions observed by surveillance cameras continue to be recorded. Satellites detected thermal anomalies which indicate the proximity of the magma to the surface of the crater. As of the 28th of July satellite images by visible infrared radiometers (VIIRS), thermal anomalies observed on the edges of the Ubinas volcano crater corresponding to the presence of a body of lava / lava plug about 180 m. diameter at the base of the crater, which would prevent the emission of gas and ash. At the seismicity level, during the 7-day period, 2,295 earthquakes with a magnitude of less than 2 were recorded, including a percentage related to the rise and movements of fluids. IGP reported a total of 1,522 seismic events between July 20th and 24th, all of a magnitude below 2.2. During the analyzed period, an increase in seismic signals in relation to the rise of the magma (LP & hybrids) causes fear of explosive activity in terms of hours or days; it should be noted that more than 35 hours have passed since the last explosion. Thermic anomalies remain moderate to low, between 11 and 6 MW. Updated information on Ubinas' activity on July 23rd at 8pm. Peruvian autorities and INGEMMET reported that anomalies in the various geophysical parameters are associated with the rise of magma and the increase of seismic energy, LP and hybride, similar to the scenario that preceded the 22 July explosion at 23:25.Due to rainfall in the volcano area, lahars are possible. Ingemmet recommends to the populations of the villages of Querapi, Ubinas, Escacha, Huatahua, Tonohaya, Sacohaya, and San Miguel, to evacuate immediately, before a possible increase of the volcanic activity. IGP reported that new ash emissions occurred between 500 and 1.500 m., during the day of July 22, scattered to the southeast.An explosion on July 22 around 11:25 pm projected incandescent materials. The ashes spread over more than 10 km. to the villages of Ubinas, Lloque and Chojata districts.IGP reported that ash emissions continued to Ubinas on July 21, reaching about 500 meters above the crater, with scattering in a southeast and east sector of the volcano.The I.G.Peru does not notice deformation and probably a continuation of the eruptive process at moderate level. The orange alert level is maintained, moderate explosions can occur, accompanied by consequent emissions of ashes.Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Peru. The upper slopes of the stratovolcano, composed primarily of Pleistocene andesitic lava flows, steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include some of Holocene age. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor explosive eruptions.

PERU - Sabancaya volcano

September 27th, 2022

The Geophysical Institute of Peru reports that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels this week, that is to say with the recording of an average of 50 daily explosions, with columns of ash and gases up to 1.8 km altitude above the summit of the volcano and their consequent dispersion.IGP reported that between August 29 and September 4th, 2022, eruptive activity remained at moderate levels with an average of 58 explosions per day, generating plumes of gas and ash up to 3,000 m. height above the top.I.G.Peru reported a moderate eruptive activity during the week of August 22nd to 28th, 2022, with the occurrence of an average of 48 daily explosions, which are accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching up to at 2,500m. above the top.IGP reported moderate activity  in the week of August 15 to 21, 2022, characterized by a daily average of 33 explosions, generating gas and ash plumes up to 2,600 m. above the top.The eruptive activity remained at moderate levels this week, from August 8th to 14th, 2022, with 25 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,400 m. above the top of the volcano. The IGP detected 366 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of magmatic fluids during this week, as well as VT earthquakes, linked to the fracturing of rocks.According to I.G.Peru, the eruptive activity of Sabancaya remained at moderate levels between July 18 and 24, 2022, with a daily average of 30 explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 1,500 meters above sea level. above the top.I.G.Peru reported, for the week of July 11th to 17th, a moderate eruptive activity at Sabancaya, with an average of 28 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching up to 2,700 meters above the summit. During this period, 260 earthquakes associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids and VT earthquakes, linked to rock fracturing, were recorded. IG reported that between July 4th and July 10th, the eruptive activity of Sabancaya remained at moderate levels, with a daily average of 20 explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,200 m. above the top.IG reported that eruptive activity of Sabancaya, in Peru, has remained at moderate levels this past week (June 27 to July 3, 2022), with an average of 22 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 2,200 meters above Summit.IG reported that activity remained at moderate levels during the week of June 20th to 26th, 2022, with an average of 18 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,000 meters above the summit.IG reported that eruptive activity remained at moderate levels between June 13th and June 19th, 2022. The IGP reports an average of 17 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 2,0000 m. above the top. IG.Peru reported that between May 23 and 29, 2022, Sabancaya volcano maintained an eruptive activity of moderate level, with an average of 15 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 2,000 m. above the top.According to the I.G.P., the eruptive activity  remained at moderate levels in the week of May 16 to 22, 2022, with an average of 21 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,300 M .above the top.Four thermal anomalies, max. 25 MW, are associated with the presence of a lava dome in the crater. The Geological, Mining and Metallurgical Institute (Ingemmet), through its Volcanological Observatory (OVI), detected the formation of a new lava dome in the active crater of the Sabancaya volcano, Arequipa region, which, according to calculations from optical satellite images, on May 17, it reached an area of ​​more than 25,000 m², which is equivalent to almost four football fields. This new lava dome would be the fifth to form in the active crater of the Sabancaya volcano. For the previous week of May 9th to 15th, 2022, I.G.Peru reported that moderate eruptive activity continued with an average of 54 explosions per day, and plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,500 meters above the summit.As of the 9th of May, IGP reported that last week, the eruptive activity  remained at moderate levels, with an average of 53 daily explosions, and plumes of gas and ash reaching up to 3,000 meters above the summit. The IGP detected 324 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the internal circulation of magmatic fluids, and VT earthquakes, linked to the fragmentation of rocks. IGP reported that eruptive activity continued at moderate levels, between April 25th and May 1st. It is characterized by 40 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,500 meters above the summit. IGP reported that between April 18th and 24th, 2022, the eruptive activity of Sabancaya remained at moderate levels, with an average of 37 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,300 meters above the summit.During the week of April 11 to 17, the eruptive activity  remained at moderate levels, with an average of 46 daily volcanic explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 3,400 meters above the summit. IGP reported that between April 4 and 10, 2022, Sabancaya maintained moderate eruptive activity, with an average of 52 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas 2,500 meters above the summit.I.G.Peru reported that activity  between March 28 and April 3, 2022t remained at moderate levels, with an average of 41 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 2,000 meters above the summit.IGP reported that between March 21 and 27, 2022, the eruptive activity of Sabancaya remained at moderate levels, with a daily average of 29 explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,200 meters above the summit.IGP reported that during the week of March 7th to 13th, 2022, Sabancaya was the site of moderate level activity, with an average of 29 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,000 m. above the volcano. The I.G.P. detected during this period 139 earthquakes of volcanic origin, in connection with the internal circulation of magmatic fluids. VT earthquakes, linked to rock fracturing, occur north of Sabancaya. According to I.G.Peru, the activity  remained at moderate levels during the period from February 21 to 27, 2022. An average of 35 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash, reaching up to 2,500 meters above the summit. I.G.Peru reported that activity remained at moderate levels between February 14 and 20, 2022; An average of 23 daily volcanic explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 1,700 m. above the summit, were observed.IGP reported that from February 7 to 13, 2022, that activity  remained at moderate levels, with an average of 15 explosions per day, and plumes of ash and gas reaching a height of 1,700 meters above the summit. During this period, 122 volcanic earthquakes associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids were detected. Volcano-tectonic earthquakes, related to rock fracturing, occurred mainly to the west of the volcano, with max. of 2.7. IGP reported that eruptive activity was maintained, between the end of January and February 6, 2022, at moderate levels, with an average of 25 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 1,700 meters above the summit.IGP reported that the week of January 24 to 30, 2022 was characterized by moderate eruptive activity, with an average of 28 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 2,500 meters above the summit. During this period, the IGP detected 275 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids. The VT earthquakes, in connection with the fracturing of rocks, remain localized to the west of the volcano, of magnitude up to M2.9. No significant deformation anomalies. IGP reported that activity remained moderate in Sabancaya in the week of January 10 to 16, 2022. It was characterized by an average of 41 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching a height of more than 2,000 meters above the summit. IGP reported that the eruptive activity of the Sabancaya volcano remained at moderate levels between December 27, 2021 and January 2, 2022, with an average of 32 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas up to 2,800 m. above the summit of the volcano and their consecutive dispersion. Previous news 2021 - IGP reported that during the period from December 6 to 12, 2021, the eruptive activity of Sabancaya was maintained at moderate levels, with an average of 85 daily explosions, accompanied by ash plumes reaching 2,200 meters above Summit. During this period, the observatory detected 831 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of internal fluids. IGP reported that eruptive activity remained at moderate levels between November 22 and 28, 2021, with an average of 73 explosions per day, and plumes of ash and gas up to 2,000 meters above the summit of the volcano. During this period, I.G. Peru detected 660 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids; VT earthquakes had Ms between 1.9 and 3.7. No significant deformation anomalies, and 2 thermal anomalies, with a max. of VRP 16 MW.The volcanic alert level remains at Naranja, with an inaccessible area of ​​12 km in radius. IGP reported that between November 8 and 14, the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels, with an average of 67 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,500 m. above the summit. During this period, I.G. Peru detected and analyzed 645 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids. The VT earthquakes linked to the fracturing of rocks remain mainly located north of the volcano, with magnitudes between 2.3 and 3.4. No significant deformation. Six thermal anomalies, with a max. of 20 MW, are observed in relation to the presence of a surface lava body in the crater. IGP reported that the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels between November 2 and 7, 2021, with an average of 64 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 2,500 meters above the summit.IGP reported that the eruptive activity of Sabancaya was maintained, between October 25 and November 1, at moderate levels, with an average of 50 explosions per day, accompanied by pa, gas aches and ash at 3,000 meters above the sea. Mountain peak.IGP reported that the volcano maintained moderate eruptive activity between October 18 and 24, with an average of 34 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching 3,500 m. above the summit. During this period, 843 earthquakes associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids were detected. The VT earthquakes, in connection with the fracturing of rocks, concern the north of Sabancaya, with M 2.0-3.5. No significant deformation. Seven thermal anomalies, of max. at 4MW were detected by satellite, in connection with a lava body on the surface of the crater. IGP reported that the eruptive activity of Sabancaya remained at moderate levels during the week of October 18-24, with an average of 34 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 3,500 m. above the summit. The detection of 843 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of internal fluids is mentioned by the IGPeru. VT earthquakes, linked to the fragmentation of rocks, from M2.2 to 3.5, are are produced north of the volcano.No significant deformations; seven thermal anomalies were detected, with a max. of 4MW.The volcanic alert remains in Naranja, with a 12 km inaccessible area around the crater. The explosive eruption  continued at moderate levels, with an average of 27 explosions per day between October 4 and 10. The plumes of gas and ash reached an estimated altitude of 2,000 m., Drifting according to the winds over all sectors. Seismicity is characterized by approx. 754 volcano-tectonic earthquakes of magnitude less than M 3.5, accompanying internal magmatic movements. Lahars (mudslides) could also occur if heavy rains remobilize the fresh ash deposits.The alert remains in Naranja, accompanied by a forbidden zone of 12 km radius around the crater.IGP reported that activity was maintained between September 20 and 26 at moderate levels, with 29 explosions per day, accompanied by ash plumes reaching 2,000 meters above the volcano. The volcanic alert remains in Naranja, along with the non-accessible area of ​​12 km radius. During the week of September 6 to 12, the eruptive activity remained at a moderate level, with an average of 31 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 4,000 meters above the summit.The IGP recorded and analyzed 1,326 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids. The VT earthquakes occurred mainly to the north and north-east of the volcano, with a magnitude between M2.5 and M3.5.The deformation does not show any significant anomalies. Six thermal anomalies were detected by Mirova, with a max. of 56 MW, associated with the presence of a lava body on the surface of the crater. IGP reported that during the week of August 23-30, Sabancaya maintained moderate-level activity, with an average of 36 explosions per day, accompanied by ash and gas plumes reaching 3,500 m. above the summit.I.G.P. recorded and analyzed 1,198 earthquakes of volcanic origin, associated with the circulation of magmatic fluids.No significant deformation anomalies.Mirova detected 10 thermal anomalies, with a max. of 27 MW VRP, associated with the presence of a surface lava body in the crater.The alert level is maintained in Naranja, with an inaccessible area of 12 km in radius. IGP reported that between August 16 and 22, the eruptive activity remained at moderate levels, with an average of 33 daily explosions, accompanied by plumes of ash and gas reaching up to 2,900 m. above the summit. During the week, 822 earthquakes of volcanic origin associated with the circulation of internal magmatic fluids were detected and analyzed. VT earthquakes, linked to rock fracturing, mainly concern a large northern sector, with magnitudes from 2.5 to 3.3. No significant deformation anomalies. Six thermal anomalies, of VRP max. of 9 MW, are associated with the presence of a lava body in the crater. The volcanic alert level remains at Naranja, with an inaccessible area of ​​12 km radius. IGP reported that activity remained moderate between August 9 and 15, 2021, with an average of 29 explosions per day, accompanied by plumes of gas and ash up to 3,000 meters above the summit. During this week, I.G. Peru detected and analyzed 826 earthquakes of volcanic origin linked to the circulation of internal magmatic fluids. The VT earthquakes remain localized to the north and northwest of the volcano. The deformation does not present any significant anomalies. Four thermal anomalies, with a max. de11 MW were identified by Mirova, associated with the presence of a surface lava body in the crater..Sabancaya, located on the saddle between 6288-m-high Ampato and 6025-m-high Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three volcanoes, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. Both Nevado Ampato and Nevado Sabancaya are only slightly affected by glacial erosion and consist of a series of lava domes aligned along a NW-SW trend. The name of 5967-m-high Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua Indian language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750. (GVN/GVP)

PERU - Misti volcano

March 14th, 2020

A lahar was reported by the Instituto Geofisico this March 13th, 2020 at 4:30 p.m. on the southeast sector of the El Misti volcano; of moderate volume, it lasted about 15 minutes and borrowed the southeast quebradas, in the districts of Chiguata and Paucarpata. Previous data 2014 - Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) reported that, during the last 12 months, seismicity at El Misti was dominated by volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. Two seismic swarms (more than 100 events per day) occurred during the last three months, on 19 May and 3 June. An increase in tremor was noted in April, although the total duration did not exceed 10 minutes and was generally low-amplitude. Long-period seismicity was not significant. In the last 15 days, seismicity increased slightly and tremor was recorded daily. Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that seismicity at El Misti increased during January, and a seismic swarm consisting of 119 volcano-tectonic events was detected during 14-15 January. Despite the increase, activity remained at a low level. El Misti, Peru's most well-known volcano, is a symmetrical andesitic stratovolcano with nested summit craters that towers above the city of Arequipa. The modern symmetrical cone, constructed within a small 1.5 x 2 km wide summit caldera that formed between about 13,700 and 11,300 years ago, caps older Pleistocene volcanoes that underwent caldera collapse about 50,000 years ago. A large scoria cone has grown with the 830-m-wide outer summit crater of El Misti. At least 20 tephra-fall deposits and numerous pyroclastic-flow deposits have been documented during the past 50,000 years, including a pyroclastic flow that traveled 12 km to the south about 2000 years ago. El Misti's most recent activity has been dominantly pyroclastic, and strong winds have formed a parabolic dune field of volcanic ash extending up to 20 km downwind. An eruption in the 15th century affected Inca inhabitants living near the volcano. Some reports of historical eruptions may represent in creased fumarolic activity. Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and (GVN/GVP)

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CHILE-ARGENTINA - Copahue volcano

August 10th, 2021

SERNAGEOMIN reported that the surface activity in the Copahue volcano on August 9, 2021 was characterized by water vapor and gas emissions. In the evening, incandescence is visible in the El Agrio crater, as are pulsatile gas emissions. On 08/09/21, TROPOMI detected a strong SO2 signal at a distance of 5.9 km from the Copahue, with 68.25 DU of SO2 at an altitude of about 2 km. Estimated mass within a radius of 300 km: 15.3 kts. SERNAGEOMIN and SEGEMAR reported increased activity at Copahue, starting with minor and sporadic increases in tremors first detected in late May. From June 30 to July 2, the tremors increased and the volume of water in the crater lake decreased significantly. Coincidentally, the crater's glow was visible in nighttime webcam views, and gas emissions increased. Residents reported smells of volcanic gas. The increase in gas and vapor emissions between 11:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. on July 2 contained minor amounts of ash which left visible deposits on the SE and ENE flanks. The alert level remained at green (the lowest level on a four-color scale). SERNAGEOMIN reported that at 1:56 a.m. on Thursday, February 18, a VT earthquake associated with rock fracturing, magnitude 3.4 (Ml), was recorded at a depth of 5.4 kilometers near the Copahue volcano, in the Biobío region. The alert level remains " Verde ". As of the 11th of January, SERNAGEOMIN reported that surface activity of the volcano results in emissions of gas and particulate material of power and dispersion within the standards of the current level. The deformation measurements do not show any noticeable changes in relation to the internal activity of the volcanic system. The sulfur dioxide emissions do not present an anomaly. Two thermal anomalies were noted on January 10, 2021 at 11:45 a.m. / VRP 11MW and at 3:55 p.m. / VRP 18MW, by Mirova. The alert level remains green. Previous news 2020 - SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-15 November activity at Copahue decreased to low levels. Passive gas emissions generally rose 200-300 m above the vent, though on 15 November they rose 760 m. The report also noted no changes to deformation, low levels of sulfur dioxide emissions, low seismicity, partial restoration of the crater lake, and the absence of nighttime crater incandescence since late October. The Alert Level was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale) on 15 November. ONEMI cancelled the Yellow Alert for the Alto Biobio municipality, but declared a Preventive Early Warning ensuring continued surveillance of the area and coordination within the Civil Protection System. As of the 2nd of November, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the activity of the volcano continues at low levels characterized by continuing ash emissions from the crater. Emissions of steam, gases with minor ash content occurred and reached approx. 10,000 ft (3,048 m) altitude. Seismicity continues at low levels. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on October 23, a plume of gas, lightly loaded with ash, blown by the winds rose above the village and Lake Caviahue.According to Sernageomin, the seismic activity of the Copahue remains at a low level, but there are transient increases in the amplitude of the tremor, in relation to the emissions of particulate materials, suggesting the interaction between the magma and the superficial hydrothermal system. On the satellite images, a large area of ​​ash deposits was visible estimated between 6-7 km. In diameter, mainly in the proximal area of ​​the crater. As of the 28th of September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the volcano continues its activity of gas emissions occasionally laden with ash. Night incandescence and these emissions testify to an instability of the volcanic and hydrothermal system. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the activity remained characterized by continuous emissions of gray ash. As of August 5th, the ash plume rises above the summit, and the snows are colored by the fallout of ash and particles. The seismic activity shows low levels, with occasional variations in the amplitude of the continuous tremor. The technical alert remains in Amarilla / change in behavior of volcanic activity; the possible assignment area is set at 1,000 meters radius around the crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the activity of Copahue remained essentially unchanged, and characterized by continuous emissions of gray ash. On August 31, the ash plume is observed 500 meters above the summit, and the snow is colored by the fallout of ash and particles. The seismic activity shows low levels, with occasional variations in the amplitude of the continuous tremor. SERNAGEMIN reported that the monitoring stations recorded on August 6 at 4:25 am local a change in activity, marked by the emission of more colored gas, due to the particle load, accompanied by a "subtle" increase in the tremor and a displacement. reduced. The plume reached a height of max. 1,000 meters above the point of emission and dispersed in a northeastern direction. The emission lasted until 6:50 am local, then decreased to return to a usual white degassing. SERNAGEOMIN raised the technical alert level of Copahue in Amarilla on July 17 at 3.30 p.m. local time. During the previous months, the seismicity was marked by numerous VLP earthquakes, in relation with the rise of magma to more superficial levels; in addition, in recent days, signs have been observed on the surface, with the emission of particulate materials associated with a column of gas from the active crater, and incandescence. The satellite images indicate a decrease in the volume of the crater lake ... all these signs testify to my presence of a volume of magma at a superficial level. An area of ​​1,000 meters in radius around the crater is considered as a possible assignment area. From 1st to 16th of July, the volcano presented a low level seismic activity, but with an increase in the tremor, associated with the emission of particulate materials, and gas; These are signs of an instability of the volcanic system, associated with that of the hydrothermal system and a drop in the level of the crater lake; The technical alert is passed to amarilla, and the possible assignment area to 1 km radius around the crater. As of the 8th of July, SERNAGEOMIN reported that conditions at Copahue had returned to normal levels and seismicity was low. The Alert Level was lowered to Green (second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 7 July. SERNAGEOMIN reported that over the past few days, Copahue's volcanic activity has evolved to show visible signs on the surface. It is important to mention that very low frequency (very long period VLP) seismicity has been recorded in the previous months, generally linked to the rise of the magmatic material to more superficial levels. Likewise, on May 20, a series of volcanic seismological events located south-southwest near the volcanic building were recorded. On June 16, there was an increase in energy from the seismic tremor with subsequent stabilization and decrease in the following hours. At the same time as this decrease, the incandescence and the emission of particles were detected from cameras installed by OVDAS. The latest sulfur dioxide recordings obtained by the equipment installed for its detection indicate average flows of 592 tonnes / day for June 15, considered as usual values ​​for this activity. On the other hand, the monitoring stations which measure the deformation in the volcanic sectors do not show changes related to this activity. In addition, the images available on the Planet satellite platform indicate a decrease in the volume of the lake housed in the active crater. In summary, the changes in seismological behavior, the anomalies in the surface assessments and the decrease in the volume of the crater lake suggest the presence of a volume of magma at superficial levels. Volcan Copahue is an elongated composite cone constructed along the Chile-Argentina border within the 6.5 x 8.5 km wide Trapa-Trapa caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.4 million years ago near the NW margin of the 20 x 15 km Pliocene Caviahue (Del Agrio) caldera. The eastern summit crater, part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters, contains a briny, acidic 300-m-wide crater lake (also referred to as El Agrio or Del Agrio) and displays intense fumarolic activity. Acidic hot springs occur below the eastern outlet of the crater lake, contributing to the acidity of the Rio Agrio, and another geothermal zone is located within Caviahue caldera about 7 km NE of the summit. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Copahue since the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions from the crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Lonquimay volcano

March 22nd, 2020

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during the month of March, the recording of an unusual hybrid-type (HB) volcanic seismicity was recorded at Lonquimay, accompanied by long-period (LP) seismicity, the two signals generally associated with fluid dynamics in vents. volcanic. To a lesser extent, volcano-tectonic (VT) seismicity has been observed, linked to the rupture of rock material in volcanic systems. Although their sizes and magnitudes are low to date, their assessment is distinguished by an incisive appearance during the first half of March, especially from March 9. Due to their low magnitude, only some of the HB and VT earthquakes were located near the main volcanic edifice, with distances between 2 and 7 km, and depths varying between 4 and 11 km from the summit of the volcano. Analysis of data associated with surface deformation, and surface manifestations, sulfur dioxide levels, thermal and geomorphological anomalies, show that they remain stable.The appearance of anomalous and low-magnitude seismicity, associated with superficial manifestations, justifies the precautionary change of the technical alert in Amarilla / “changes in the behavior of volcanic activity”.(SERNAGEOMIN) - Lonquimay is a small, flat-topped, symmetrical stratovolcano of late-Pleistocene to dominantly Holocene age immediately SE of Tolguaca volcano. A glacier fills its summit crater and flows down the S flank. It is dominantly andesitic, but basalt and dacite are also found. The prominent NE-SW Cordón Fissural Oriental fissure zone cuts across the entire volcano. A series of NE-flank vents and scoria cones were built along an E-W fissure, some of which have been the source of voluminous lava flows, including those during 1887-90 and 1988-90, that extended out to 10 km.

CHILE- ARGENTINA border - Planchon-Peteroa volcano

March 8th, 2019

As of the 8th of March, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the cameras always showed a constant degassing of gray color, marked by a plume at a height of less than 2,000 meters, indicating the presence of particles, moving mainly towards the southwest.The seismicity of the last days was characterized by VT earthquakes, associated with the fracturing of rocks, and a large number of LP earthquakes, in relation with the dynamics of the internal fluids.The superficial activity of Peteroa suggests that we are dealing with an open system. Alert level remains at Amarillo / change in behavior of volcanic activity. SERNAGEOMIN surface activity has continued since the beginning of February. The gray plumes, with a maximum height around 2,000 meters above the crater are still observed this 23 February. The alert level remain Yellow. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the superficial activity of Peteroa has continued since the beginning of February. The gray plumes, with a maximum height around 2,000 meters above the crater shows with the presence of ash a volcanic system open in the superficial part of the volcano. On February 22, plumes, more or less laden with ashes, were observed throughout the day. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 6th of February, the intense eruptive activity was still continuing, marked by a change of wind direction, which blows the ash plume to the northeast and the Vergara international pass, between Chile and Argentina. On the morning of February 3, Sernageomin recorded a continuous increase in the column of gas and particles at about 1,600 meters above the crater, dispersing to an eastern secto. An episode at 10:33 local, was associated with tremor and a low displacement. The energy of the seismic signal has been rising since February 1st. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 1st February from 5 pm local time, the cameras recorded a steady and continuous increase in particulate matter emissions, with a column of 2,000 meters and a dispersion towards the east. This episode was accompanied by VLP earthquakes between 17 and 19h local, in connection with the injection of magma from a greater depth, and tremor.The increase in ash emissions and seismicity suggest an open system, and possible new minor eruptive episodes affecting the area of ​​active craters. The alert is maintained in yellow level. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on January 15 at 9h56 PM local an explosion accompanied by a greyish ash plume at about 600 meters, moving mainly northwest.In a previous bulletin, the Sernageomin specified that according to the observations and the recorded measurements, a new eruptive cycle of phreatomatic characteristics develops, following the possible contact of a magmatic body with a part of the hydrothermal system. which would facilitate the fragmentation of a minor volume of magma and the expansion of steam and the emission of ashes.The alert level remains in Amarilla. Previously, Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS)-SERNAGEOMIN and ONEMI reported increased activity at Planchon-Peteroa beginning in the morning of 16 December. Low-intensity pulses of tremor were detected by the seismic network and associated with pulsating grayish gas emissions which rose no higher than 800 m above the vent rim. Webcams recorded crater incandescence during the night of 15-16 December. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the volcano, and ONEMI maintained Alert Level Yellow for the communities of Molina (66 WNW), Curica (68 km NW), Romeral (75 km NW), and Teno (68 km NW). The OVDAS / Sernageomin reports an explosive emission of ashes and gas this December 14 at 9:57 local to the complex Planchón Peteroa located on the border Chilio-Argentina, associated with a seismic signal LP and tremor, which remained after the emission .The gray plume rose to 800 meters before dispersing to the east. The alert level remains in Amarillo. Planchón-Peteroa is an elongated complex volcano along the Chile-Argentina border with several overlapping calderas. Activity began in the Pleistocene with construction of the basaltic-andesite to dacitic Volcán Azufre, followed by formation of basaltic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Planchón, 6 km to the north. About 11,500 years ago, much of Azufre and part of Planchón collapsed, forming the massive Río Teno debris avalanche, which traveled 95 km to reach Chile's Central Valley. Subsequently, Volcán Planchón II was formed. The youngest volcano, andesitic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Peteroa, consists of scattered vents between Azufre and Planchón. Peteroa has been active into historical time and contains a small steaming crater lake. Historical eruptions from the complex have been dominantly explosive, although lava flows were erupted in 1837 and 1937. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Nevado de Chillan

August 30th, 2022

SERNAGEOMIN reported that the Nevados de Chillán volcanic complex presented an eruptive episode during the morning of Monday 29th of August. The column of gas and ash was visible several kilometers away. On 11 August SERNAGEOMIN reported that the lava dome on the floor of Nevados de Chilân's Nicanor Crater had grown taller in the previous few days based on webcam views. The portion of the dome that was visible with the webcam was reddish and rocky. The report noted that an increase in sulfur dioxide emissions and more intense explosions had been detected since 18 July. Similarly, an increase in the intensity and occurrence of thermal anomalies in the crater had been noted since 18 July, though anomalies had further intensified during the recent period of dome extrusion. An explosion at 1041 on 10 August was followed by the most intense thermal anomaly recorded during the last month.SERNAGEOMIN reported that a significant above-average eruption occurred at about 22:47 local time on 31st of March . A vigorous explosion following a partial eruption column collapse resulted in culminated pumice-and-ash flows around the summit, so-called Soufrière-type flow. These currents are not necessarily related to lava domes, but to collapse of vulcanian eruption plumes due to higher pyroclastic material density than ambient air. A tall and dense ash plume rose 5,577 ft (1,700 m) above the summit and drifted north.SERNAGEOMIN reported that lava in Nevados de Chilan's Nicanor Crater was observed in satellite images on 1 March and coincided with elevated thermal temperatures also identified in satellite images. A higher resolution satellite image acquired on 15 March showed the extrusive lava feature in more detail; it was about 33 x 57 m elongated E-W, and had irregular edges. The emplacement of the lava was contemporaneous with nighttime crater incandescence and moderate explosive activity. Steam plumes with occasional tephra content rose to heights less than 1.5 km above the crater rim. Seismic activity had steadily declined since January. During the first half of March sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 454 tons per day, peaking at an anomalously high value of 2,348 tons per day on 13 March. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI stated that Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, noting that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater.SERNAGEOMIN reported that Vulcanian activity at the volcano continues. The explosive eruption generated a small pumice-and-ash flow (gravity-driven mass flow caused by partially eruption column collapse) on 13 February that traveled over the slope reaching length of 1.8 km.SERNAGEOMIN reported that since December 3, 2021, a significant increase in failure seismicity (VT earthquakes) has been observed in Nevados de Chillan. It continues on 6th of December with several VT earthquakes reported to date. Volcanic activity continues in a phase of low fluid seismic energy, but with sporadic explosive events, with a greater presence of particulate matter. A vulcanian explosion was recorded on January 6, 2022 at 7:44 p.m. The ash plume grew to a height of 2,200 meters. Previous news 2021 - SERNAGEOMIN reported continuing explosive and effusive activity at Nevados de Chilan's Nicanor Crater during 1-15 November. Explosions generated both plumes with moderate ash content and white steam-rich plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim. Explosions occasionally ejected incandescent material onto the N side of the crater and the N flank.The monitoring stations installed near the Nevados de Chillan Volcanic Complex recorded on Saturday, October 9 at 07:06 local time, an earthquake associated with the dynamics of fluids inside the volcanic system (LP earthquake).A plume of gas and ash rose 240 meters above the point of emission on October 9 at 10:06 UTC, lying in a northwesterly direction.As of the 30th of September, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the growth of the two domes located in the Nicanor crater continues with a ratio of 0.03 m³ / sec., similar to that of the domes prior to this cycle. A collaboration agreement between Sernageomin and the French Space Agency, made it possible to visualize via satellite images two new domes of the Volcanic Complex (satellite image Pleiades 18,09,2021) The dome1 has grown from 40x27m. the 15.09 to 64x39 m. on 24,09,2021. Dome 2 has grown by 17x10 m. the 15.09 at 50x36 m. 24.09. ( according to Skysat and Pleides satellite images ) The growth of the domes is visible on the Portezuelo webcam, as well as the new L7 lava flow, and the reactivation of the L5 flow. From the photo-interpretation of a very high-resolution SkySat image dated September 15, 2021, the growth of an effusive body attributable to a dome-shaped morphology inside the Nicanor crater of chillan's Nevados complex is identified. Ellipsoidal in shape, it has a large axis of 40 m and a small axis of 27 m. It has an elongated shape in a northwest-southeast direction. From the analysis of the Sentinel 2 L2A satellite images of the same date, it is confirmed that it has abnormal thermal radiation. In terms of surface activity, the appearance of this new morphology is preceded by a considerable decrease in the extrusion rate of L5 and L6, disappearance of thermal anomalies that explain a decrease in the temperature of these lava flows, as well as the disappearance of nocturnal incandescence episodes during most of the first half of September.The RSAM of the continuous seismic signal, calculated every 6 hours, shows a gradual rise since yesterday, September 14, coinciding with a greater record of volcanic seismic signals, especially LP and tremor. SERNAGEOMIN reported that monitoring stations installed near the Nevados de Chillán volcanic complex, detected on August 12 two earthquakes associated with fluid dynamics inside the volcanic system (Long Period), respectively at 01:53 local time (05:53 UTC ) and at 03:28 local (07:28 UTC). The effusive-explosive eruption of Nevados de Chillan continues at unchanged moderate levels. Two lava flows remain active, L5 and L6, and continue to spread on the NE slopes. A new lava flow formation began to emerge from the summit vent on July 27 and continues to descend on the NE flanks adjacent to the already known L5 / L6 flows. An almost constant glow visible from the summit crater at night indicates the rise of a batch of magma. The volcano continues its intermittent moderate explosions from the summit vent. An ash plume rose 1,800 feet (560 m) above the summit and drifted northeast. SERNAGEOMIN reported that an earthquake occurred on 29th of July at 5:10 a.m. local, 4 earthquakes at 5:23 a.m. local, an earthquake at 8:33 a.m. local / 12:33 UTC which was accompanied by a plume at 780 meters above the point of emission, and another at 9:01 a.m. local . The alert level remains at amarilla. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on Tuesday July 20, at 4:38 p.m. local time (8:38 p.m. UTC), monitoring stations installed near the Nevados de Chillán volcanic complex recorded an earthquake associated with fluid dynamics (long period type) in the volcanic system. A plume of ash and gas was emitted up to 560 m above the point of emission. On July 21, a similar earthquake occurred, with the emission of a plume 300 m high. above the crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported that on Sunday, July 18 at 7:17 p.m. local time (11:17 UTC), the monitoring stations installed in the vicinity of the Nevados de Chillán volcanic complex recorded an earthquake associated with fluid dynamics in the volcanic system (Long Period). The explosive activity continues; a VAAC Buenos Aires advisory mentions a plume of ash and gas at an altitude of 4,300 meters moving north for 10 km. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the monitoring stations installed near the NevadosDeChillán CV recorded this Saturday, July 3, at 1:51 p.m., 2 explosive events associated with the dynamics of fluids inside the volcanic system (LP).SERNAGEOMIN reported continuing explosive and effusive activity at Nevados de Chillan's Nicanor Crater during 16 May-2 June, and increased sulfur dioxide emissions and thermal anomalies. Explosions partly destroyed the dome, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 1.4 km above the craterrim and pyroclastic flows that traveled as far as 1.1 km down the NE flank. Satellite images indicated that the L5 lava flow did not lengthen, remaining at 966 m, though the distal part of the flow widened. The L6 lava flow advanced at a rate of 1.16 m per hour to over 890 m long. The average temperature was 101 degrees Celsius with a maximum of 264 for L5 and an average of 121 degrees Celsius with a maximum of 293 for L6. A new lobate flow emerged just to the N of L6; measurements on 2 June indicated that the temperature of the flow was similar to that of L6. Data indicated that the lava dome in Nicanor Crater did not get larger. The largest stratovolcano, dominantly andesitic, 3212-m-high Cerro Blanco (Volcan Nevado), is located at the NW end of the group, and 3089-m-high Volcan Viejo (Volcan Chillan), which was the main active vent during the 17th-19th centuries, occupies the SE end. The new Volcan Nuevo lava-dome complex formed between 1906 and 1945 between the two volcanoes and grew to exceed Volcan Viejo in altitude. The Volcan Arrau dome complex was constructed SE of Volcan Nuevo between 1973 and 1986, eventually exceeding its height by 20 m. (GVN/GVP)

Chile - Villarica

May 31st, 2022

POVI reported that an incandescent glow overcoming the Villarica volcano could be seen with the naked eye on the morning of May 30, 2022. Intense fumaroles and the absence of wind at height favored the phenomenon. Two active lava pits are reported near the bottom of the crater. The Volcanological Observatory of the Southern Andes (Ovdas) in Temuco - reported that on Sunday 22nd of May at 5:04 p.m. the monitoring stations installed near the Villarrica volcano recorded a long-period earthquake associated with fluid dynamics inside the volcanic system. No acoustic signal was noticed nor that there was a possible maximum height of a column as the direction of dispersion. The latter because the prevailing cloudiness in the area prevents direct visibility of the massif. Technical alert remains green. SERNAGEOMIN reported that after a period of increasing activity noted by the instruments, an overflight of the summit of Villarica was carried out on April 14, 2022, attesting to the presence of a small lava pit inside the chimney of the volcano. Activity remained at levels considered low, suggesting stability of the volcanic system. The technical alert level remains green, with a danger zone within 100 meters of radius around the crater. Previous news 2021 - SERNAGEOMIN reported that the volcano presented in September a decrease in monitoring parameters compared to previous months, suggesting a stabilization of the internal dynamics of the volcanic system. The decrease in LP earthquakes, less detection of thermal anomalies, and the absence of acoustic signals suggest that the lava lake remains at a deep level. The open duct situation and the fluctuating behavior of the lava lake could cause explosions to affect the surroundings of the crater within a radius of 100 meters. SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-15 April gas-and-steam emissions with no or very small amounts of ash rose from Villarrica to heights less than 1.2 km above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was not visible at night and sulfur dioxide emissions were low. Observations from multiple sources suggested that the lava lake level was lower, decreasing the likelihood that material ejected by minor explosions would reach beyond 100 m from the crater. The Alert Level was lowered to Green on 23 April, the lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI declared a Preventative Early Warning for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucón (16 km N), Curarrehue, and the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 100 m around the crater. SERNAGEOMIN reported that a dense white degassing at 300 - 500 m. rose above the summit crater on February 1st. The seismic parameters remain stable and at low levels. The origin of the phenomenon is fundamentally atmospheric. The small lava pond in the summit crater, first observed in Nov last year, has remained essentially unchanged. POVI reported that during an overflight of Villarrica on 2 January scientists observed an incandescent vent at the bottom of the crater that had a solidified lava bridge connecting across a partially crusted-over top. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipalities of Villarrica, Pucon (16 km N), Curarrehue, the commune of Panguipulli, and the exclusion zone for the public of 500 m around the crater. Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km-wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot the flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano were produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 km2 of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Laguna del Maule

May 8th, 2022

SERNAGEOMIN monitoring stations, located near the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex, recorded on Saturday 7th of May at 10:34 p.m., a seismic swarm of 650 volcano-tectonic events (VT) associated with rock fracturing. The green alert is maintained. Previous news 2021 - SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-15 March the seismic network at Laguna del Maule recorded a total of 123 volcano-tectonic earthquakes. The largest event was a local M 2.4 located 8.2 km WSW of the lake, at a depth of 4.4 km. One tremor event was also recorded. Recent carbon dioxide emission measurements showed an upward trend and that the area of anomalous emissions had expanded. Deformation rates were higher than maximum averages. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained a Yellow Alert for San Clemente and recommended restricted access within a radius of 2 km from the center of elevated carbon dioxide emissions.As of the 22nd of February, SERNAGEOMIN reported that during the past two weeks at the Laguna del Maule Volcanic Complex, the Southern Andes Volcanological Observatory (OVDAS) has detected 533 volcano-tectonic (VT) seismic events, associated with a rock fracture within the volcanic system, and rates deformation of 2.3 cm / month, higher than the average since 2012. Therefore, SERNAGEOMIN decided to change the technical alert from green to YELLOW, which was reported in the volcanic activity report for the last fortnight. Moreover, it was observed that the type of VT events were persistent in time and increased in size. Its establishments are concentrated in the Las Nieblas sector, south of the lagoon, a place where carbon dioxide anomalies have been detected since 2019. Finally, a hazard zoning with a radius of 2 km is reported around the site of the CO2 anomaly, in which it is recommended not to access.The 15 x 25 km wide Laguna del Maule caldera contains a cluster of small stratovolcanoes, lava domes, and pyroclastic cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age. The caldera lies mostly on the Chilean side of the border, but partially extends into Argentina. Fourteen Pleistocene basaltic lava flows were erupted down the upper part of the Maule river valley. A cluster of Pleistocene cinder cones was constructed on the NW side of the Maule lake, which occupies part of the northern portion of the caldera. The latest activity produced an explosion crater on the E side of the lake and a series of Holocene rhyolitic lava domes and blocky lava flows that surround it. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Callaqui volcano

January 28th, 2022

SERNAGEOMINreported the appearance of nocturnal incandescence in the southwestern sector of the crater of the Callaqui volcano, at 9:55 p.m. local time on January 26, 2022.It is interpreted as a sign of an increase in temperature of uninterrupted emissions. On the day of January 27, the degassing is observed with great intensity, coinciding with the incandescent focus, reaching a height of 380 meters usually recorded. The volcanic technical alert is maintained for the moment at Green.The Callaqui volcano is a volcanic center located in the Biobío region whose volcanic edifice was built by successive fissure eruptions. The oldest volcanic units have been dated to around 500,000 years old, while later units cover a wide range in the Late Pleistocene-Holocene. Morphologically, the Callaqui volcano is an elongated center in a NE-SW direction due to the presence of notable dyke complexes and chains of pyroclastic cones of this orientation. The magmas emitted by the Callaqui volcano are mainly basalts and basaltic andesites occurring mainly during Hawaiian and Strombolian eruptions.

CHILE - Lascar volcano

February 3rd, 2022

SERNAGEOMIN reported minor increases in surface activity.The nocturnal incandescence of the crater began to be visible at least since January 11. A total of 14 thermal anomalies were identified in satellite data from January 13-28; anomaly intensity increased on January 17 and peaked on January 22. Gas and steam emissions were more frequent and robust compared to previous months, with the highest plume rising more than 1 km above the crater rim on January 22. Sulfur dioxide emissions were identified in satellite data on January 8 and 17; instruments at the EMU station, 6 km ESE, recorded increased emission rates from 17 to 19 January with an average peak of 1,787 tonnes per day on 18 January. Seismicity was at normal levels throughout January 12-28. Low numbers and magnitudes of volcano-tectonic (VT) and long-period (LP) earthquakes were recorded by the seismic network, although 27 low-magnitude (M 1 or less) VT events were recorded on January 22 . Satellite images acquired on January 26 showed no recent morphological changes at the crater or deposits around the crater area.The alert level remained at green (the lowest level on a four-color scale).Láscar is the most active volcano of the northern Chilean Andes. The andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano contains six overlapping summit craters. Prominent lava flows descend its NW flanks. An older, higher stratovolcano 5 km E, Volcán Aguas Calientes, displays a well-developed summit crater and a probable Holocene lava flow near its summit (de Silva and Francis, 1991). Láscar consists of two major edifices; activity began at the eastern volcano and then shifted to the western cone. The largest eruption took place about 26,500 years ago, and following the eruption of the Tumbres scoria flow about 9000 years ago, activity shifted back to the eastern edifice, where three overlapping craters were formed. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the mid-19th century, along with periodic larger eruptions that produced ashfall hundreds of kilometers away. The largest historical eruption took place in 1993, producing pyroclastic flows to 8.5 km NW of the summit and ashfall in Buenos Aires.. (GVN/GVP)

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Colima volcano (Mexico)

 

Japan - Suwanosejima volcano

September 20th, 2022

JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 12-19 September. A total of 11 explosions produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks 600 m from the vent. Volcanic tremor was occasionally recorded. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the
crater.The eruption on Suwanosjima continues, with an explosion on August 28th at 2:36 p.m. local time at Mitake crater; it was accompanied by a plume of gas 1,100 meters above the crater, before dispersing to the southwest.JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 15-22 August. There were six explosions, producing eruption plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim and ejecting large blocks 600 m from the vent. Crater incandescence was observed nightly, and volcanic tremor was occasionally recorded. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that on August 7th, at 00:12 an explosion, accompanied by a plume of ash and gas at 1,700 meters, and another, with a plume more than 2,000 meters above the crater. The eruptive columns are reported rising straight above the crater.JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 27 June-4 July and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Emissions rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and tephra was ejected 200-600 m from the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that the eruption at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater continued during 13-20 June. Crater incandescence was visible at night. Emissions rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and material was ejected as far as 300 m from the vent. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.Explosive activity continues at Suwanosejima. On 3rd of June an ash plume was reported at 1,600 m. above the crater, drifting southwest. The JMA reported 13 explosions between May 30 and June 3 / 3 p.m., accompanied by plumes of gas and ash reaching 1,600 m. above the crater, as well as large bombs at 300 m. from the center of the crater.
JMA reported that eruptive activity continues. The episode which occurred on May 22d at 01:47 local time (21 16:47 UTC) was accompanied by a plume at 1,600 meters above the crater, the highest altitude since the start of the eruption. An ash fall is reported on the village of Toshima, 5 km away. JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 2-9 May. Eruption plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim; no explosions were recorded. Crater incandescence was occasionally visible during 2-6 May and ash fell in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 25 April-2 May. Eruption plumes rose as high as 800 m above the crater rim and crater incandescence was occasionally visible. One explosion, recorded in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW), generated an ash plume that rose 1.3 km and into weather clouds. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 11-18 April. One explosion produced an eruption plume that rose as high as 2.7 km above the crater rim. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW) and in other areas as far as 5 km away. No explosions were recorded during 15-18 April, though emissions rose 1.1 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 4-8 April. Two explosions produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 3.3 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks as far as 500 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). No eruptive activity was noted during 9-11 April, though emissions rose 700 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. As of the 4th of April, JMA reported that active eruptive activity continues from Otake crater. The number of explosions increased to 34 times per day, then 76 times per day, and up to 122 times during the last observation period. The eruptive plume rose a maximum of 2,800 m above the crater rim. The ash falls were confirmed 5 km away, on the village of Toshima. The large volcanic bombs disperse on a trajectory up to about 900 m from the center of the crater. Volcanic tremors occurred throughout the period, and inflation is measured. JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 21-28 March. As many as 42 explosions were recorded, and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Eruption plumes rose as high as 2.3 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks as far as 800 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 14-21 March. As many as 27 explosions were recorded, and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Eruption plumes rose as high as 1.9 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks 300-500 m away from the crater. Ashfall was reported as far as 5 km away, including in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW) during 18-21 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. A new eruptive episode occurred at Suwanosejima (Mitake crater) at 10:01 p.m. on March 16, 2022, and the eruption plume rose 1,400 m above the crater rim. Volcanic ash was carried east from the crater, and within an hour there was a fairly large amount of ash falling in Toshima village. The eruptive phase continues. As of the 11th of March, JMA reported that active eruptive activity continues at Otake crater on Suwanosejima. The eruptive plume accompanying the episodes rose to a maximum of 1,700 m above the crater rim. The large volcanic bombs disperse up to about 400 m from the center of the crater. Volcanic earthquakes occurred throughout the period.JMA reported that eruption plumes at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater rose as high as 2.4 km during 28 February-7 March and blocks were ejected as far as 800 m from the crater. Three explosions were recorded and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Ashfall was reported in areas as far as 5 km from the vent including in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that active eruptive activity continues at Otake crater on Suwanosejima. Eight explosions occurred during the period from February 25 to February 28, 2022 / 3:00 p.m. local time. The eruptive plume rose 2200m above the crater rim. The large volcanic bombs reached about 400m from the center of the crater, and they can reach a range of about 2 km from the vent. According to the Suwanosejima branch of the Toshima Village Office, located south-southwest of the Mitake 3 crater. Ash fall was confirmed at 5 km. JMA reported that five explosions were recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 7-14 February. The explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and ejected large blocks 300-400 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW) during 11-14 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that explosive activity continues, with this January 25, 2022 at 6:17 p.m. local time an explosion, accompanied by a plume of ash at 1,200 m. or more above the Mitake crater. The dispersion of the ashes was made towards the south.JMA reported that incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible nightly during 3-10 January and 368 explosions were recorded. The explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and ejected material up to 1.1 km away from the crater. Eruption sounds were heard in Toshima village (4 km SSW) and ash fell there during 7-10 January. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible nightly during 27 December 2021 to 3 January 2022. The number of explosions totaled 124. The explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2.2 km above the crater rim and ejected material up to 1.1 km distance from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. Previous news 2021 - JMA reported that between December 24 and 27, 2021, the number of explosions at Ontake Crater on Suwanosejima increased, with a provisional figure of 361 episodes. The projections reached up to 1,500 meters above the crater rim, and large bombs were thrown up to 800 meters from the center of the crater. Deformations have marked the western flank since November 22, and also concern the western flank since December 18. The alert level is 3 / entry restrictions on the volcano. As of December 16th, the JMA reported an explosion, accompanied by a white plume at 400 m. above Mitake crater, drifting west. LeVAAC Tokyo issued a northeastbound volcanic ash advisory on December 15 at 6:05 p.m and ash could reach Kyushu. JMA reported that during 29 November-6 December about 47 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks 600-700 m away from the crater. Plumes from non-explosive events rose as high has 2.3 km. Crater incandescence was visible nightly and ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that plumes from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater rose 180-200 m above the crater rim during 15-22 November. Large blocks were ejected 300 m from the crater and were deposited in a ballistic pattern during 15-19 November, and ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that seven explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater were recorded during 1-8 November. The explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim and ejected material 300-600 m from the carter. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW) during 1-5 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. JMA reported that aan eruptive episode occurred in Suwanosejima, at Mitake crater on October 31, 2021 at 08:10 local time. The white plume rose straight to 2,400 meters above the craterJMA reported that a new eruption occurred at Suwanosejima (Mitake Crater) at 1:17 p.m. on October 26, and the eruption plume rose 3,300 m above the crater rim. Volcanic ash flowed south from the crater, and within an hour there was a large amount of ash in the village of Toshima. In the beach from the crater about 5 km to the south, there is a risk that small fountains will be blown away by the wind. As of the 18th of October, JMA reported that eruptive activity continues. Four explosions occurred, accompanied by an ash plume which rose to 2,700 m. altitude. Pyroclasts are scattered up to about 500m from the center of the crater. Ashfall is confirmed at Toshima, about 4 km SW of the crater. The volcanic tremors mainly occurred with the eruption. On the inclinometer of the Nabetao station, slight variations to the west are detected. JMA reported that 52 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim during 4-11 October. Large volcanic bombs were ejected as far as 1.1 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that 129 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 3 km above the crater rim during 27 September-4 October. Large volcanic bombs were ejected as far as1 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. JMA reported that the number of explosions per day at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater had increased on 16 September and remaine elevated through 27September. A total of 105 explosions were recorded during 20-27 September. Eruption plumes mainly rose as high as 2.9 km above the crater rim and material was ejected as far as 800 m away from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). Notably, an explosion at 2349 on 20 September ejected material as far as 1.2 km SE. At 0711 on 26 September an eruptive event produced a plume that rose 5.4 km; weather clouds prevented confirmation of ejected bombs, but a large amount of ash fell in Toshima village. The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.On September 27 at 9 p.m., the JMA announced the incandescence accompanying an eruption 700 meters above Mitake crater. JMA reported that the number of daily explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater increased on 16 September and remained elevated through 20 September. Eruption plumes rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and material was generally ejected 300 m away from the crater. Notably, explosions at 2014 on 16 September and at 0212 on 17 September ejected material almost 1 km S and SE, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that four explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 3.3 km above the crater rim during 3-10 September. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 500 m from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that three explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 4.8 km above the crater rim during 27 August-3 September. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 700 m from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible nightly and ashfall was often reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that a new eruptive episode occurred at 9:22 p.m. on August 30, and the eruption plume rose 2,800 m above the crater rim. The volcanic ash drifted towards the southwest of the crater, and within an hour there was a fairly large amount of ash in the village of Toshima,Another eruptive episode occurred at 10:22 a.m. on August 31, and the plume rose 1,800 m above the crater rim. Volcanic ash was carried westward from the crater, and at 4:00 p.m. on the 31st, there was a small ashfall in Toshima Village, and Kagoshima Prefecture. JMA reported that a new eruption occurred at Suwanosejima (Mount Ontake Crater) at 12:31 p.m. on August 28, and smoke from the eruption rose 4,800 m above the crater rim. The ashes scattered north, and a large amount fell on the village of Toshima. An area 2 km north of the volcano is considered at risk. As of the 27th of August, JMA reported that volcanic activity continues at high levels. Moderate to strong vulcanian explosions are again in progress at the crater at the top of On-take volcano NE.Similar activity occurred in early August as a series of violent eruptions sent ash up to 3 km above sea level. A spectacular ash plume rising to 2,600 m. above the summit could be observed around 9:10 a.m. local time today and dispersed in a northwesterly direction, in accordance with the ash scattering advisory issued by VAAC Tokyo. Explosions generated pyroclastic bombs and blocks ejected up to 400 meters from the crater. An almost constant glow is visible at the summit at night, detected by surveillance cameras. JMA eported that explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake crater were detected on 19, 20, and 21 August. The first explosion at 0137 on 19 August produced an ashJMA reportede that a strong eruptive episode occurred at Suwanosejima (Mitake crater), in the Ryukyu arc, at 1:37 a.m. on August 19, and the plume of the eruption rose 3,000 m above the edge of the crater, crossed by lightning. Volcanic ash was observed northeast of the crater and at 8 a.m. on the 19th there was a fairly large amount of ash in the village of Toshima. They should reach the city of Nishinoomote, Kojima prefecture. Slightly large quantity Kagoshima Prefecture: Toshima Village Small quantity Kagoshima Prefecture: Yakushima Town, Nishinoomote Town, Nakatane Town. another explosion at 1613 that generated an ash plume 2.2 km above the crater and drifted N. A small amount of ashfall was reported in Yakushima, Nishinoomote, and Nakatane. A third explosion at 2059 that day produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km above the crater and drifted N; ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). Explosions at 0628 and 0713 on 20 August generated ash plumes that rose 2.5-3 km above the crater and drifted N, resulting in ashfall in Toshima village, with smaller amounts of ash in Yakushima, Mishima, Ibusuki, Minamikyushu, and Makurazaki. On 21 August at 0617 an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 3.2 km above the crater and drifted N. A large amount of ashfall (over 1 mm) was reported in Toshima village and smaller amounts (less than 0.1 mm) were reported in Makurazaki, Minamisatsuma, Minamikyushu, Kagoshima, Ibusuki, and Hioki. A second explosion followed at 0906 that produced an ash plume 3.2 km above the crater that drifted N.  As of the 9th of August, JMA reported that volcano activity continues at moderately high levels, with moderate to strong explosions at the summit crater of On-take (Otake) NE of Suwanosejima. The volcano sent pyroclastic material to about 1,700 m. above the crater. The volcanic ash is scattered in various directions, particularly to the west. Explosions generated pyroclastic bombs and blocks ejected up to 500 meters from the crater. An almost constant glow is visible from the summit crater at night detected by surveillance cameras. Short-term electronic tilt monitoring recorded ground deformation on the western flank on July 15. The JMA indicates that the ballistic impacts of the volcanic bombs could affect an area approximately 1 km away from the main crater. As of the 29th of July JMA reported an explosion at 4:46 p.m., with a plume at 3,300 m. above the crater. An explosion at 5:16 p.m. was accompanied by a plume at 1,100 m. above the crater. Another, at 10:27 p.m. was accompanied by a plume at 2,900 m. above the rim of the crater; the ashes fell on the northwest of the volcano, including a large quantity on the village of Toshima. On the morning of the 29th, the eruption alert level was lowered from 3 to 2 / with restrictions in the crater area. However, large volcanic bombs are likely to fall within a radius of about 1 km from the crater. The activity continues. JMA reported that explosions continued at the Ontake crater of Suwanosejima from July 19 to 26, as well as visible incandescence on certain nights at the crater. There were 31 explosions recorded on July 22, after two days without an explosion. An explosion at 3 p.m. on July 23 produced an ash plume that rose 1.6 km and ejected bombs 200 m. The eruption plumes from July 23 to 26 reached 2.3 km; it was not known if any bombs had been thrown from the crater due to the weather conditions. The alert level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km from the crater. JMA reported that a new explosion occurred at Suwanosejima at 7:58 a.m. on July 17, and the eruptive plume rose 3,400 m above the crater rim. Volcanic ash disperses northwest of the crater and a large amount of ash fell on the village of Toshima In addition, in the area from the crater about 4 km to the north, small volcanic bombs are blown away.JMA reported that on July 15 at 1:56 p.m. local time, an explosion was accompanied by a plume of gas and ash 2,200 meters above the Ontake. The alert level remains at 3, with a danger zone of 2 km radius. JMA reported that on July 12 a plume of gas and ash at 3,000 meters rose above the active crater, and on July 14 at 2:18 p.m., a plume at 2,800 meters above the crater.The ashes are scattered northwest of the crater, with falls over the village of Toshima. JMA reported that surveillance cameras from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) observed a volcanic-type explosion at 11:44 a.m. local time on July 11. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 6,900 feet (2,100 m). Volcanic ash has scattered northeast of the crater, and within an hour a fairly large amount of ash is reported in Toshima village, as is ashfall in Kagoshima Prefecture. An almost constant glow in the Ontake crater suggests that the flow of magma is increasing inside the building. The explosions continue to generate pyroclastic bombs and boulders which are ejected up to 800 meters from the crater towards the northwest. JMA reported that 35 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim during 28 June-5 July. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 400 m from the crater and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Eruption sounds were heard in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that Ontake Crater, eruptive activity has become more active as the eruptions are repeated over a long period of time. The volcanic alert level went from 2 to 3 (mountain entry regulation), with a danger notice within a radius of 2 km. due to projections of volcanic bombs. The explosions have multiplied since the 20th at the Otake crater: ... 9 times on the 20th, 10 times on the 21st, 15 times on the 22nd, 8 times on the 23rd. On June 24th at 3:00 pm, the observatory counted 6 explosions (provisional number) . At 10:54 p.m. on June 21 and 12:04 a.m. on June 22, the explosions ejected ballistic projectiles. Large volcanic bombs scattered about 900 m. from the crater in the northwest and southeast directions, respectively. On top of that, multiple volcanic bombs were scattered from the crater several hundred meters away. A new explosion occurred at 10:54 p.m. on 06/21/2021 from Ontake crater. Volcanic bombs were emitted, the largest reached 900 m. northwest of the crater.On June 22, the explosions became more frequent: 5 explosions were counted between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m., accompanied by an ash plume up to 1,200 m above the crater.The alert level is at 2 / regulation of the crater area. The activity on Suwanosjima has been the subject of numerous notices from the VAAC Tokyo since the beginning of June.JMA reported that 15 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.8 km above the crater rim during 11-18 June. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 500 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater. JMA reported that 28 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim during 4-11 June. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 500 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that on June 7 at 2:38 pm, an explosion accompanied by a plume entering the clouds at an altitude of 1,500 meters; the plume is heading northeast. JMA reported that 47 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2.1 km above the crater rim during 21-28 May. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 700 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). Crater incandescence was visible nightly. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that intermittent eruptive activity at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced plumes that rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim during 14-21 May. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 300 m from the crater. Crater incandescence was visible overnight during 18-19 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that six explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the crater rim during 7-14 May. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 400 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that 45 explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim during 23-30 April. Large volcanic bombs were ejected 400 m from the crater. Nighttime crater incandescence was visible during 24-25 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater. Continuous Vulcanian activity continues characterized by occasional ash emissions from the Ontake Summit Crater. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) reported eruption plumes that rose up to 1.7 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs up to 600 m from the crater. The incandescence of the crater was visible at night on satellite images. The alert level remained at 2 (on a scale of 5).JMA reported that incandescence from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible at night during 9-16 April. Seven explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 400 m away. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater. JMA reported that incandescence from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater was visible at night during 5-9 April. Four explosions generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 600 m away. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (4 km SSW) during 8-9 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that during 30-31 March large volcanic bombs were ejected at least 41 times from Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater as high as 800 m above the crater rim and to distances as far as 1 km. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a 5-level scale) at 0330 on 31 March and the public was warned to stay outside a 2 km radius of the crater. The increased activity prompted an overflight that same day where scientists confirmed several hundred high-temperature bomb deposits with a thermal camera within a 1 km radius. Explosions at 2205 on 30 March and 0257 on 31 March ejected bombs onto the S and SE flanks, respectively. Grayish-white emissions rose from the crater. After 1500 eruption plumes rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater rim. The number of explosions decreased; two per day were recorded during 1-2 April and one was recorded on 3 April. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 on 5 April and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.JMA reported that the seismic network for Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater detected a total of 17 explosions during 19-26 March. These events produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim, drifting S, W, and SW, and ejected bombs as far as 500 m away from the crater. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally visible at night. On 30 March at least 18 explosions were detected, generating ash  plumes that rose 600-1,500 m above the crater drifting E, SE, and NE and ejecting material as far as 800 m S of the crater. On 31 March the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that the seismic network for Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater detected a total of 11 explosions during 12-19 March. These events produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs up to 700 m away from the crater. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows

JAPAN - Kirishimayama volcano group - Shinmoedake Peak - (Kyushu)

March 10th, 2022

JMA reported an increase in volcanic earthquakes just below Shinmoedake (Shinmoe Peak, a stratovolcano in the Kirishimayama group of volcanoes). A total of 17 events were recorded from March 1-2, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) on March 2. No changes were observed on the volcano during a field visit the same day. Volcanic earthquakes persisted, with 5 to 12 events per day recorded until March 7. Emissions had not risen more than 30 m above the crater rim since January 1, and fumarolic plumes continued to rise within 100 m of a fissure on the western flank. During a field survey conducted on March 4 at the base of the volcano, sulfur dioxide emissions were below the detectable limit and no changes in hot springs in the area were observed. Previous news 2021 - As of the 2nd of February, JMA reported an increase in seismicity with the epicenter below the crater, with 107 in the past 10 days of volcanic earthquakes. No changes in inclinometer observations, but continuous GNSS observation shows an accumulation of magma in the deep part of Kirishima. A small white plume, about sixty meters high, surmounts the crater. The alert level is at 2 / do not approach the crater. Previous news 2020 - JMA reported that the number of volcanic earthquakes at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak, a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group) began to increase on 18 December and remained elevated. A total of 300 earthquakes were located beneath the summit crater during 16-25 December. No changes were detected in deformation and emission data. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) on 25 December, and the public was warned to exercise caution within a 2-km radius of the crater. JMA noted that no eruption had occurred at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak, a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group) since 28 June 2018. Volcanic earthquakes with hypocenters just below Shinmoedake had increased around 17 November 2019, fluctuated afterwards, and then began a decreasing trend in mid-October 2020. Sulfur dioxide levels were generally low, deformation data showed no changes, and both fumarolic and geothermal area activity remained stable. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) on 11 December. JMA raised alert on January 2, 2020 at 10:40 p.m. JST to level 2 / do not approach the crater; The change is due to a series of volcanic earthquakes recorded from 4 p.m. on January 1, with their epicenter just below the crater. Kirishimayama is a large group of more than 20 Quaternary volcanoes located north of Kagoshima Bay. The late-Pleistocene to Holocene dominantly andesitic group consists of stratovolcanoes, pyroclastic cones, maars, and underlying shield volcanoes located over an area of 20 x 30 km. The larger stratovolcanoes are scattered throughout the field, with the centrally located, 1700-m-high Karakunidake being the highest. Onamiike and Miike, the two largest maars, are located SW of Karakunidake and at its far eastern end, respectively. Holocene eruptions have been concentrated along an E-W line of vents from Miike to Ohachi, and at Shinmoedake to the NE. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 8th century. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Aso volcano (Kyushu)

February 26th, 2022

JMA reported that after Aso's alert level was raised to 3 (restrictions near the volcano) on February 24, an overflight at an altitude of about 3,000 meters on February 25 at 10 a.m. by a researcher from the National Institute of Research for Earth Sciences and Disaster Prevention shows a consistent gas and vapor plume. A danger zone is defined with a radius of approximately 2 km around the Nakadake crater n°1, due to the large volcanic stones and possible pyroclastic flows in the event of an eruption. JMA reported that the amplitude of volcanic tremors increased from about 05:00 on February 24th, 2022. A white plume rose from the highest crater at 700m above the edge. Previous news 2021 - JMA lowered the Alert Level for Asosan to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) at 1100 on 18 November and decreased the restricted area to a radius of 1 km, noting that no eruptions had been recorded since the 21 October eruption. The sulfur dioxide emission rate remained elevated in November and was 2,100 tons per day on 16 November. The amplitudes of volcanic microtremors fluctuated for a period after the eruption, though they were generally small beginning on 1 November. JMA reported that on October 20, a strong phreatic explosion occurred at Nakadake Crater at around 11:43 a.m. local time. During a phase of intense vapor emissions, an explosion suddenly occurred, with the emission of a large column of ash several kilometers high, as well as a dense circular base wave close to the ground - base surge - which has almost reached the visitor center. Large ballistic projectiles can be seen ejected from the center of the explosion and also landing several hundred meters away. Tropomi has detected a Sulfur Dioxide signal with 3.54 DU of SO2. Tours of the crater have been canceled and the park has been closed under security restrictions. The warning bulletin states that ballistic impacts from volcanic bombs and pyroclastic flows could affect an area about 1 km from the main crater. Alert is at level 2 / do not approach the crater. JMA reported that Mount ASO erupted early on October 14, 2021. The explosion occurred in the volcano from its Nakadake crater at 4:43 a.m. local time on the morning, according to the JMA. A column of gas vapor containing a quantity of ash rose 600 meters (1,900 feet) above the crater. The event was preceded by a gradual increase in the volcanic tremor starting at 3:30 p.m. local time yesterday. It reached a sharp peak of tremor during the eruption, then decreased again to medium-low values. According to the webcam images, it seems likely to be a phreatic or hydrothermal explosion, although this detail has yet to be confirmed by the volcano observatory. JMA reported that volcanic tremor amplitude increased at Asoson at around 2100 on 2 May 2021 prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) at 2255. The public was warned to stay at least 1 km away from the crater. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low, at 200 tons per day on 3 May, and white steam plumes rose as high as 300 m above the crater rim. The 24-km-wide Asosan caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. The last of these, the Aso-4 eruption, produced more than 600 km3 of airfall tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Nakadake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 CE. The Nakadake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 CE. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. (GVP/GVN)

JAPAN - Asama volcan (Honshu)

August 8th, 2021

On 6 August JMA lowered the Alert Level for Asamayama to 1 (on a scale of 1-5), noting that the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes had been decreasing, sulfur dioxide gas emissions had been low, and deformation on the W flank had stabilized. JMA reminded the public to stay 500 m away from the crater.On 23 March JMA raised the Alert Level for Asamayama to 2 (on a scale of 1-5), noting slight inflation on the W side of the volcano since 15 March and an increase in the number of daily volcanic earthquakes that have occurred since 20 March (36 recorded on 20 March and increasing to 77 events by 1500 on 23 March). After 23 March the number of daily volcanic earthquakes began to fluctuate, decreasing to 15 on 28 March and then 23 by 1500 on 29 March. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 800 tons per day (t/d) on 22 March, 400 t/d on 24 March, and 700 t/d on 25 March, compared to the previous measurement of 200 t/d on 25 February.On 5 February JMA lowered the Alert Level for Asama to 1 (on a scale of 1-5) noting that no deformation or crater incandescence had been detected since late November 2020, sulfur dioxide emissions had trended downward beginning in December, volcanic earthquakes were recorded only occasionally since mid-December, and the number of small-amplitude volcanic tremors were recorded occasionally and had not increased. Previous news 2020 - JMA reported that since June 20th, 2020, the number of volcanic earthquakes increased, then fluctuated downward. The number of volcanic earthquakes is 59 on June 24, 113 on June 25, 120 on June 26, 80 on June 27, 24 on 28.06 and 2  at 3:00 p.m. today (29 - preliminary value). Observation by a surveillance camera showed that the white plume remained below 200 m above the edge of the crater, and no particular change was observed. JMA raised the alert level to 2 / do not approach the crater, on June 25 at 3 p.m. JST. It is advised not to enter the danger zone in the municipalities of Gunma: Tsumagoi-mura, Nagano: Komoro-shi, Karuizawa-machi, Miyota-machi. Since June 20, seismic activity on the western flank of the volcano has continued at fluctuating levels. On June 24 and 25, the seismic station recorded 59 and 69 volcano-tectonic earthquakes respectively. An eruption could occur without warning. The warning bulletin indicates that the ballistic impacts of volcanic bombs and pyroclastic flows could affect an area about 2 km away from the main crater. Asamayama, Honshu's most active volcano, overlooks the resort town of Karuizawa, 140 km NW of Tokyo. The volcano is located at the junction of the Izu-Marianas and NE Japan volcanic arcs. The modern Maekake cone forms the summit and is situated east of the horseshoe-shaped remnant of an older andesitic volcano, Kurofuyama, which was destroyed by a late-Pleistocene landslide about 20,000 years before present (BP). Growth of a dacitic shield volcano was accompanied by pumiceous pyroclastic flows, the largest of which occurred about 14,000-11,000 BP, and by growth of the Ko-Asama-yama lava dome on the east flank. Maekake, capped by the Kamayama pyroclastic cone that forms the present summit, is probably only a few thousand years old and has an historical record dating back at least to the 11th century CE. Maekake has had several major plinian eruptions, the last two of which occurred in 1108 (Asamayama's largest Holocene eruption) and 1783 CE. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Kuchinoerebujima ( Ryu-Kyu islands)

July 8th , 2021

JMA reported that deformation data at Kuchinoerabujima had shown a deflationary trend since February and the number of volcanic earthquakes had been decreasing since May. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) on 5 July, and JMA reminded the public to stay 1 km away from Shindake Crater in general and 2 km away from the W flank.JMA reported that the number of volcanic earthquakes located at shallow depths beneath Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater increased on 21 February and remained elevated. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5) on 28 February. No other monitoring data showed upward trends and no surficial changes were visible; sulfur dioxide emissions remained low at 60 tons per day on 24 February.JMA lowered the Alert Level for Kuchinoerabujima to 2 (the second lowest level on a scale of 1-5) on 19 January, noting downward trends in activity data since mid-2020. Specifically, after May 2020 no volcanic earthquakes were detected, inflation slowed to baseline levels, and sulfur dioxide emissions began decreasing though remained slightly high. Additionally, crater incandescence had not been visible after July and no eruptions were recorded after August 2020. Previous news 2020 - JMA reported that t activity continued at the Shindake crater of Kuchinoerabujima, with an eruption that occurred at 11:05 a.m. on April 29, characterized by a plume of ash and gas 1,000 meters above the crater. The plume flows north, then northeast.JMA reported that very small eruptions are still occuring intermittently in the crater of Shindake. On April 24 at 11:15 p.m., a plume was reported 300 meters above the crater. No volcanic block collapse or pyroclastic flow was observed. A field study from April 21-23 revealed a crack on the west side of the Shindake crater, where a slight increase in temperature in the nearby geothermal field was reported. JMA also reported an increase in activity level on April 24. JMA reported that during 13-20 April very small eruptive events at Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater produced grayish-white plumes that rose 600 m above the crater rim. An event at 0147 on 20 April generated a grayish-white plume that rose 800 m and drifted SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that currently on level 3 alert, activity continued, with the emission of a white-gray plume on April 16 at around 3 p.m. local. The activity was in progress. Previously, JMA reported that activity continues, according to the JMA with plumes of gas and ash observed this April 6 at 8:10 a.m. JST, from a height of 400 meters, and at 3 p.m. JST, with a plume reaching 700 meters. Ash and lapilli falls are expected. The alert level is 3 / do not approach the volcano. As of the 23rd of March, JMA recorded a white plume 400 meters above the crater of the volcano. Seismicity is characterized by increasing volcano-tectonic earthquakes, the number of which reaches 25 / day. Sulfur dioxide emissions are around 1,300 tonnes / day. The latest bulletin of March 23 also reported bombs and pyroclastic flows likely to affect an area up to 2 km from the crater. JMA reported that very small eruptive events recorded at Kuchinoerabujima's Shindake Crater during 20-21 February generated whitish plumes that rose 200 m above the crater rim. No changes were observed during field visits on those two days. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 400-600 tons per day during 20-23 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that at 1211 on 13 February a very small eruption at Kuchinoerabujima’s Shindake Crater produced a grayish white plume that rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5).JMA reported that a small explosion occurred on February 9 at 9:50 a.m. local, with an ash plume rising 500 meters above the crater, before dispersing to the southeast.As of the 4th of February, JMA reported that a pyroclastic flow extending for about 900 meters was observed on the southwest side of Mount Shindake, accompanied by a co-pyroclastic plume 626 meters high, on Kuchinoerabu Island, in the Kagoshima prefecture. However, it did not reach the residential areas and no injuries or damage to the residences were confirmed, according to the local government. The height of the ash plume could not be assessed by the VAAC due to the cloud cover. According to JMA, the eruption occurred around 5.30 a.m. on February 3, 2020. Large deposits of ash were found scattered in areas about 600 meters from the crater. Very small eruptive events recorded at Kuchinoerabujima on 20, 23, and 24 January produced grayish-white plumes that rose 500 m above the crater rim. Ashfall 2 km NE of the crater was confirmed during aerial observations on 23 January. The number of volcanic earthquakes increased during 25-26 January. An eruptive event was recorded at 0148 on 27 January, though weather clouds prevented visual confirmation; volcanic tremor, changes in tilt data, and infrasound signals accompanied the event. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were 200-1,000 tons per day during 20-27 January; JMA characterized emissions of 600-1,000 tons per day as high. JMA reported trhat white plumes from Kuchinoerabujima rose 600 m above the crater rim during 14-17 January. Minor eruptive activity from 1659 on 17 January through 1030 on 20 January generated grayish-white plumes that rose 300 m. Sulfur dioxide emissions were high at 800 and 1,600 tons per day on 15 and 16 January, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 3 (the middle level on a scale of 1-5). VAAC Tokyo reported that an eruption took place on January 11th at 3:05 p.m. and continued at 3:30 p.m., producing a thick plume of ash and gas rising to 2,000 meters before entering the clouds. The ash is dispersed in an eastern sector.The alert level is 3 / "do not approach the crater" since 28th of October.2019. A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyu Islands, 15 km west of Yakushima. The Furudake, Shindake, and Noikeyama cones were erupted from south to north, respectively, forming a composite cone with multiple craters. The youngest cone, centrally-located Shintake, formed after the NW side of Furutake was breached by an explosion. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shintake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furutake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shintake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions. (GVN/GVP) - NHK webcam

Japan - Iwojima (Izu islands)

August 2nd, 2022

According to JMA news, a small underwater eruption is ongoing offshore of Iwo Jima. The eruption had started before 15th of July. An island might be formed but disappeared for now. Venting of steam and intermittent water dome formations were observed by fishermen. Satellite imageries today indicate the formation of small dark-coloured pumice rafts. Researchers are already in Iwo Jima. Details are to be released in the coming days. Loto in the central Volcano Islands portion of the Izu-Marianas arc lies within a 9-km-wide submarine caldera. Ioto, Iwojima, and Iojima are among many transliterations of the name. The volcano is also known as Ogasawara-Iojima to distinguish it from several other "Sulfur Island" volcanoes in Japan. The triangular, low-elevation, 8-km-long island narrows toward its SW tip and has produced trachyandesitic and trachytic rocks that are more alkalic than those of other Izu-Marianas arc volcanoes. The island has undergone dramatic uplift for at least the past 700 years accompanying resurgent doming of the caldera. A shoreline landed upon by Captain Cook's surveying crew in 1779 is now 40 m above sea level. The Motoyama plateau on the NE half of the island consists of submarine tuffs overlain by coral deposits and forms the island's high point. Many fumaroles are oriented along a NE-SW zone cutting through Motoyama. Numerous historical phreatic eruptions, many from vents on the west and NW sides of the island, have accompanied the remarkable uplift.

JAPAN -Kita Loto - Funka Asane - (Izu - Marianas arc)

March 29th, 2022

The JMA reported that following observation from a wheather satellite recorded volcanic material erupting from the Funka Asane (Kita-Ioto) area in the Ogasawara Islands around 6 p.m. on Sunday, March 27, 2022. Funka Asane is located north of the island of Ioto, also known as Iwojima, and 130 km from the underwater volcano Fukutoku The column stood about 5,500 meters above sea level. An image taken by the satellite shows it swelling to the northeast above the waters. The eruptions continued thereafter. The volcanic plumes reached 7,000 meters above sea level around 11:30 p.m. on Sunday 27.03 and 2:20 a.m. on Monday 28.03. - No historical eruptions have occurred from the deeply eroded Kita-Ioto stratovolcano, which forms a steep-sided basaltic cone rising about 800 m above the sea. However, eruptions have been recorded since the 18th century from Funka Asane, a submarine vent 4-5 km NW of the island. Kita-Ioto is the northernmost of the Kazan Retto (Volcano Islands), located in the middle of the Izu-Marianas arc.GVN/GVP).

JAPAN - Azuma volcano (Kyushu)

March 29th, 2022

The Japan Meteorological Agency's seismic instruments (JMA) recorded an internal volcanic tremor at the volcano at 06:11 local time on 29th of March. Compared to the latest detected tremors so far, the duration is short with a large amplitude. Earthquakes have picked up in numbers at shallow level beneath the Oana crater. The electronic tiltmeter detected a slight inflation (uplift) on the western-northwestern flank, but it stagnates for now. The Azumayama volcanic group consists of a cluster of stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, lava domes, and pyroclastic cones. The andesitic and basaltic complex was constructed in two E-W rows above a relatively high basement of Tertiary sedimentary rocks and granodiorites west of Fukushima city. Volcanic activity has migrated to the east, with the Higashi-Azuma volcano group being the youngest. The symmetrical Azuma-Kofuji crater and a nearby fumarolic area on the flank of Issaikyo volcano are popular tourist destinations. The Azumayama complex contains several crater lakes, including Goshikinuma and Okenuma. Historical eruptions, mostly small phreatic explosions, have been restricted to Issaikyo volcano at the northern end of the Higashiyama group. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Sakurajima volcano (Kyushu)

September 24th, 2022

JMA reported 4 explosions on September 19, 27 on September 20, 4 explosions on September 21, 1 explosion on September 22 and 2 on September 23 at 3 p.m.; they concern the Minamidake crater, with plumes of gas and ash up to 2,400 meters above the edge of the crater, and expulsion of large blocks up to 700 m. from the crater. In the field survey conducted on 22.09, the release of volcanic gas (sulphur dioxide) is 1,900 tons per day (previous measurement on September 12: 2,400 tons).JMA reported that two eruptive events were recorded during 19-22 August. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that nighttime incandescence at Minamidake Crater was visible during 8-15 August. The seismic network recorded 33 eruptive events and 12 explosions. Volcanic plumes rose as high as 2.5 km above the crater rim and material was ejected large ballistics as high as 1.7 km above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reported that a new eruptive episode occurred on August 05, 2022 at 8:46 a.m. local, and another at 12:19 p.m., accompanied by a plume of ash and gas 1,100 m above the crater, drifting to the southeast.As of the 2nd of August, JMA reported that The intense vulcanian activity at the volcano continues over the past few days. Near-constant vigorous explosions take place from the Minamidake Crater at roughly regular numbers of 2-3 per day. Dense and dark ash plumes rose to estimated heights in the range between 8,000 ft (2,400 m) and 13,000 ft (4,000 m). Glowing bombs are being ejected up to 800-1100 meters away from the crater to shower the edifice with incandescent avalanches rolling down the slope.JMA reported that explosive activity continued on 27th of July. JMA reported that a new eruption occurred at Minamidake Crater at 10:53 a.m. local time on July 26, with a plume of gas and ash that rose 2,200 m above the crater rim. Volcanic ash flows east from the crater (towards Kihoku, Kanoya city), and a "significant small amount" of ash (0.1-1mm, requiring traffic precautions) falls in the city from Kagoshima in one hour.Activity continued at Sakurajima, where the observatory sent a survey team on July 25 to determine exactly where the volcanic rocks landed and to assess the damage. A new report from the JMA informed of another eruptive episode on July 25 at 06:31, accompanied by a plume of ash at 2,200 meters above the crater, and entering the clouds. JMA reported that around 8:05 p.m. on the 24th, a strong explosive eruption occurred at the Minamidake Crater of Sakurajima (Kagoshima Prefecture), and large volcanic bombs dispersed about 2.5 km from the crater. The Japan Meteorological Agency has raised the eruption alert level from 3 (mountain entry restrictions) to the highest level 5 (Evacuation from hazardous residential areas is required). Kagoshima City issues an evacuation order to areas within 3 km of Minamidake's summit crater for 33 families in Arimura-cho and Furusato-cho. Previously, JMA reported that the inflation of the volcano was gradually observed from July 18 by tiltmeters and extensometers, and eruptions were observed once on the 22nd and four times on the 23rd. Both were full-scale eruptions rather than explosive eruptions.JMA informed about the activity status of Sakurajima from July 18 to July 22 15:00. large volcanic bombs and debris are observed scattered over 1 km of Mount Takeyama crater and Showa craterJMA reported that nighttime incandescence at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was visible during 28 June-4 July. Two eruptive events and one explosion produced plumes that rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater rim. An explosion, the first recorded since 28 January, was detected at 1221 on 27 June and ejected tephra 600-900 m above the crater rim. The sulfur dioxide rate was 800 tons per day on 30 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.JMA reporte that an eruptive episode occurred on June 27, 2022 12:21 (27 03:21UTC), accompanied by a white plume at 1,500 m. above the crater, and dispersed to the northeast. According to VAAC Tokyo, the cloud of ash and gas is expected to the NE, detached from the volcano.JMA reported that a very small eruptive event was recorded at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 23-30 May. Crater incandescence was visible at night during 23-27 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. The Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of SakuraJima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76. Sakurajima webcam

Japan - Fukutoku-Oka-no-ba submarine volcano

March 17th, 2022

Japan Coast Guard carried out aerial observation on March 15, 2022, and confirmed hot water outlet is given by a zone of turbulent discoloration. The trachyandesitic volcano is part of an elongated edifice with two major topographic highs oriented NNO-SE. Previous news 2021 - The Japan Coast Guard reported that during a 27 December overflight of Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba, observers noted that the island formed in mid-August had become smaller since 14 December, and had almost eroded below the ocean surface. No eruptive activity was observed, though brownish water spouted from the E end of the island. Yellowish-green water and a string of floating pumice, 400 m long, was circulating 5 km E. Discolored water was visible around almost the entire coast of Minami-Ioto (5 km SSW). The Japanese Coast Guard's Maritime Information Service observed the surroundings of Fukutoku-Okanoba on November 11 during an overflight.Compared to the observation results of November 1, the Niijima plateau has shrunk slightly. A white fumarole rising from the northern end of Niijima has been confirmed. In addition, a small white circular bubble-like gush was observed on the sea surface on the north side of Niijima.Dark yellow-green discolored water was observed in an area approximately 3 km in diameter centered on Fukutoku-Okanoba. About 20 km southeast of Fukutoku-Okanoba, yellow-green discolored water with a diameter of about 2 km and floating material believed to be pumice was observed.The Japan Coast Guard reported that floating pumice from the mid-August Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba eruption had arrived at coastlines more than 1,000 kilometers away in early October. The pumice first arrived at Kitadaito Island (1,035 km W) on 8 October. In late October pumice circled Okinawa and Maejima islands (1,422 km W) and several ports in the Kagoshima prefecture (1,322 NW). The pumice damaged hundreds of boats and ships, clogged harbors, and impacted the fishing and tourism industries in several areas. Several local governments began the process of removing the pumice from the water.The island of Fukutoku-Okanoba, formed after the eruption of August 13, 2021, has been suffering from a marine erosion forest. An overflight on October 12 by the Japan Coast Guards allows to see the current state of West Niijima and the areas of discolored water, which testify to an activity in progress.Pumice stones are found several hundred kilometers from the eruptive site, in the Ogasawara Islands.The Japanese Coast Guard reported that during an overflight of Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba on September 12, observers noted that the West Island was unchanged, while the East side had been completely eroded and submerged. The yellow-green to yellow-brown discolored water extended from the ventilation zone to the SW, S and SE, suggesting continued eruptive activity. Another area of ​​discolored water was approximately 2 km in diameter and was about 2 km ENE of the volcano, attesting to still ongoing activity. The discolored water prompted JMA to issue a navigation warning to nearby vessels.An overview of the eruptive site of Fukutoku Okanoba on August 26, 2021 by the Japanese coast guard shows a strong erosion of the eastern crescent of Niijima. Niijima on the west side has not changed significantly and remains as land for some time. A gray substance that appears to be volcanic ash erupts from the center of the crater, causing a brownish-brown color. The colored waters are also distributed on a large scale and active volcanic activity is still ongoing.The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan analyzed satellite images observed by the NASA / US Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat-8 earth observation satellite at 10:00 a.m. (Japan time) on the 17th, and the shape of Niijima / Fukutoku Okanoba.The West Island measures 2.5 km for an area of ​​0.3 km²; the eastern crescent measures 1.5 km for an area of ​​0.1 km². They can see an erosion on the east side, with an advantage for the west side, compared to the first photos. As of the 18th of August, JMA reported that following the phreatomagmatic eruption of August 13, 2021 (see previous news), an island was formed; it is crescent-shaped with a bay pierced above the underwater vent, and is composed of unstable materials, ashes and blocks. The sustainability of this new island will depend on future activity: if lava flows are produced which will seal the first materials, its probable survival is likely to increase. The Niijima, formed with a diameter of about 1 km, is already changing due to marine erosion.The danger in the immediate vicinity is linked to the production of volcanic bombs, or even to a possible base surge. The ash emitted at the start of the eruption disrupted aviation, but this activity has stopped for the moment. Previous news - Observation overflights were carried out in Fukutoku-Okanoba by the Japan Coast Guards teams on August 13 and 15, 2021. They make it possible to specify that the initial eruptive plume of gas and vapor rose to an altitude estimated at 16 km. and unfolded as an umbrella. Several international flights between Japan and the Philippines were canceled on August 15 due to possible ash emissions.On August 15, black jets of the "surtseyen" type were visible in the plume of gas and steam, above the horseshoe structure on the Coast Guard video. The eruption of the submarine volcano Fukutuku - Okanoba, in the Ogasawara Islands, which began on August 13, 2021 continued on 14th of August.The eruptive plume of white vapor, traversed by lightning caused by the friction of the pyroclasts expelled at high speed, continues to be emitted and to drift in a west-southwest direction.The Sentinel-5P / Tropomi satellite recorded a strong plume of sulfur dioxide 35 km from the volcano and 3 km. of altitude, with 18.53 DU of SO2. The estimated mass at 300 km is 6.5 kilotons. Previously, According to the observation of the Himawari meteorological satellite, an eruption was observed from around 6:20 a.m. on August 13, 2021 at the submarine volcano Fukutoku Okanoba (about 50 km south of Iwo Jima - Bonin islands). A volcanic cloud spreads westward, without affecting any population. Fukutoku-Oka-no-ba is an underwater volcano located 5 km NE of the pyramidal island of Minami-Ioto. Water discoloration is frequently observed from the volcano and several ephemeral islands formed in the 20th century. The first of these formed Shin-Ioto ("New Sulfur Island") in 1904, and the most recent island was formed in 1986. The volcano is part of an elongated edifice with two high oriented topographic peaks. NNW-SSE, and is a trachyandesite volcano geochemically similar to Ioto. The last eruption dates from February 3, 2010 to April 8, 2010 (GVN/GVP)

Japan - Nishinoshima volcano - Izu Island

May 18th, 2022

New aerial images of the current volcano activity have been shown by the Japan Coast Guard (JCG) on 17th of May. No significant changes occurred since the last observations on 18 April 2022 have been observed, the volcano continues with little or no activity as emissions of water vapor and gases are venting from the craterAn overflight by the Japan Coast Guards using an aircraft from the Haneda base on March 29, shows intense degassing at all the cracks in the lava field, which hide the crater. This activity seems to be linked to a rise in magma.An overflight was carried out by the Japan Coast Guards on March 14, 2022. Observation showed gas and steam emissions and high temperatures persisted in the summit crater and reported that the sulfur deposits on the rims and inner walls of the crater. A brownish to yellowish discoloration is visible in the water along the coasts of the island, and extends into the surrounding area. Previous news 2021 - As of the 15th of August, JMA reported that Explosive activity has resumed and continues in Nishino-shima. VAAC Tokyo has warned of a volcanic ash plume rising to an estimated altitude of 2100 m., or flight level 070 and moving at 10 kts in the NE direction. JMA reported that ash plumes from Nishinoshima in the Ogasawara Islands were visible on satellite images on August 14, rising about 1,900 meters and drifting north. The Japanese Coast Guard carried out an overflight the next day and did not observe any eruptive activity or new deposits the day before. The central crater is well open and occupies a large part of the island. Previous news 2020 - An overflight of Nishinoshima was carried out on November 24th in the afternoon. No emission was confirmed, on the other hand the inner wall of the cone exhibited high temperatures, and vapor emissions were observed in several places of the inner wall and on the edge of the crater. Discolored waters are distributed from the west shore to the east shore. In the south of the island, there is a quantity of acidic and brown water. Experts have reported a recent change in the composition of volcanic ash emitted by Nishinoshima. The magma seems to come from a greater depth, and future developments could include a collapse of the central cone, leading to subsidence of the whole island, and a possible tsunami. The large volumes of lava emitted made the island grow by 40%, increasing it from 2.89 km² in May 2019 to 4.1 km² in August 2020, based on satellite images. There was also a change in the mode of eruption. Nishinoshima was only emitting lava until June, but began discharging large volumes of ash in late July, covering the entire island under several meters of this brown ash. Ash analysis in July showed that its silica dioxide content has dropped from 60 to 55%. The magnesium and calcium content has increased, resulting in a greater density of magma. An overflight of Nishinoshima was carried out by the Japan Coast Guards on August 19 between 1:25 p.m. and 2:15 p.m. Despite the veil of clouds, it was possible to observe a consequent widening of the crater of the pyroclastic cone, already partly noticed on the satellite images of August 14 ; a strong diffusion on the infrared images testifies to the activity in the crater, and on a large delta at the edge of the sea .Degassing generates a rather white plume, generous but not very high confirmed by the satellite images, on which the ash clouds are not identifiable.JMA reported that a small explosion occurred on August 16 in Nishinoshima, visible in a NASA image. The VAAC Tokyo reported the continuation of the ash emissions, up to an altitude of flight 130. GSI has uploaded the SAR intensity images of the Daichi-2 satellite taken of Nishinoshima between July 31 and August 14, 2020. The interference zones were considerably reduced over almost the entire surface of the island, covered with ash. The image taken on August 14 showed an expansion of the pyroclastic cone crater. On August 15, gas and ash emissions continue, with the emission of a plume in a southwesterly direction, dissipating in a western sector. JMA reported that explosive activity continues, with an ash plume estimated at an altitude of 4,000 meters / alt. Flight 130, by VAAC Tokyo. On August 11, Nishinoshima was at the center of the cyclonic system formed in southern Japan by Tropical Storm SIX, weakened into a tropical depression while it carried the plume of ash and sulphate aerosols emitted by the current eruption.JMA reported a colorful plume at 3,800 meters asl. on Nishinoshima, south-eastbound, on August 9 at 2:20 p.m. local time. The eruption continues and a strong signal of sulfur dioxide is reported by Tropomi. JMA reported that activity of Nishinoshima continues, with ash emissions, reported by the VAAC Tokyo, partially obscured in its western part by clouds. A strong sulfur dioxide signal is noted by Tropomi. The Taiwan News reports that volcanic dust from an eruption on the Japanese island of Nishinoshima was responsible for a sudden deterioration in air quality on Taiwan's sparsely populated East Coast on Thursday evening (August 6), according to Taiwan News. meteorological experts. JMA reported that activity remained on Nishinoshima, where VAAC Tokyo reported ash plumes reaching up to 5,800 meters in early August. Their dispersion takes place in multiple directions. The Sentinel-5P / Tropomi Satellite still reports strong signals of sulfur dioxide around Nishinoshima, with this August 06, 98.45Du of SO2 at an altitude of 6 km. JMA reported for this August 4 that Sentinel-5P / Tropomi recorded 20.88 DU of sulfur dioxide at an altitude of 10 km. AIRES has analyzed these SO2 emissions over the last 40 days and estimates them between 50 and 100 kilotons per day, or about 2-4% of the annually global anthropogenic SO2 emissions. JMA reported that on July 30th, an observation was made of the gray plume emanating from the crater which reached a height of about 3,000 meters, passing through thin clouds in the sky and progressing south from the aircraft. Until now, the rugged black lava has spread over the surface of the island, but during the day it is covered in brown volcanic ash several meters thick. Scoria hill seems to remain in its old configuration (Video). AIRES analyzed the plumes emitted by the volcano, and noticed differences in spectrum between the Himawari & Modis photos of July 8 and July 30, 2020, suggesting changes and a higher silicate content. Previously, JMA reported that the activity continued on July 30th with at 9 p.m. a new eruption, accompanied by an ash plume at 5,300 meters above the crater. The dispersal was to the south, then to the west. JMA reported that on July 27th, the plume was drifting NW, then N according to VAAC Tokyo and Nasa Worldview images. An area of ​​water discoloration extends NE for a few kilometers. JMA reported that the eruptive activity continued on Nishinoshima with on July 25, 2020 at 3 p.m. a plume of brown ash at 4,400 meters above the crater, drifting north. On the Nasa worldview satellite image a discoloration of the water was visible. Sentinel-5P / Tropomi detected a strong sulfur dioxide signal near Nishinoshima, with 24.16DU of SO2 at an altitude of 8.12 km. Based on satellite data and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 16-21 July ash plumes rose to 3.7-6.4 km (12,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E. Satellite data showed a sulfur dioxide plume reaching the western USA on 18 July, after traveling over 9,000 km from Nishinoshima. JMA scientists observed Nishinoshima from a ship on 11 July. They reported that a large amount of ash was emitted from the summit crater; plumes rose about 1.7 km and drifted W, dropping ash into the sea. Deposits of large blocks at the foot of the cone were visible. Lava fountains that rose 200 m above the crater were observable at night, along with lightning in the ash plumes. The cone had grown to about 200 m, about 40 m higher than an estimate on 1 December 2019. The report stated that ships should stay at least 2.5 km away from the cone. VAAC Tokyo and Mirova reported that a slight thermal anomaly remained , but has decreased considerably since July 10th, when it was noted at VRP 1340 at 473 MW, against VRP 91 at 8 MW on July 11th. The extension of the plume is centered around the island, with a moderate drift towards the northeast. Eruptive activity is still continuing with an ash plume and sulfur dioxide emissions, seen by satellites, and reported by the VAAC Tokyo. Mirova always reported high to very high thermal anomalies between July 8th and 10th, between VRP 304 and 1811 MW. As of the 8th of July, Thermal anomalies always remain very high to high according to Mirova. External activity is characterized by the emission of ash plumes and vapors / gases as in the previous days. On the Sentinel-5P / tropomi satellite images, a strong sulfur dioxide signal can be detected, with 16.84 DU of sulfur dioxide at an altitude of 9.73 km.VAAC Tokyo continues to issue ash dispersal notices (According to VAAC. 1FL = 100 feet = 30.5 meters). JMA reported on July 4, 2020 at 3 p.m. a plume of gas and ash rose to 7,100 meters asl., drifting towards the west. Satellite images showed a strong sulfur dioxide signal which can be detected, with 16.04 DU of sulfur dioxide at an altitude of 8.02 km. The thermal anomalies noted by Mirova have remained intense in recent days. The JMA announced on July 4 a volcanic plume of 8,300 meters high in Nishinoshima, against the more than 3,400 meters observed by the Japan Coast guards on June 29.In the SAR intensity image of July 3, changes in the topography, which would be caused by lava, etc., were observed on the southwest and west sides of the pyroclastic cone, and the coastline changes on the south-west side of Nishinoshima.In addition, the diameter of the pyroclastic cone increased approximately 1.5 times from June 19, and topographic changes on the southern slope are visible. From the north side to the east side of the pyroclastic cone, there is a decrease in the intensity of reflection, which would be due to the fall of the ashes. NASA images show that SO2 emission from the Nishinoshima volcano eruption still cover much of the North Pacific on July 3. Part of the SO2 has dispersed through the Aleutian Islands and Alaska to the Chukchi and the seas of eastern Siberia, above 70 ° North.An overflight of the island by the Japan Coast Guards on June 29 revealed an activity that remained significant, with explosions of incandescent materials, a plume of black ash rising to more than 3,400 meters, and significant modifications at the top and on the southwest flank of the slag cone / Scoria hill. Following the current activity, part of the cone has collapsed and oxidized projections are visible along the coast. In addition, the lava now flows to the southwest.VAAC Tokyo reports this June 26th at 12h Z that ash emissions continue in Nishinoshima. Confirmed at an eastward flight altitude of 100 / Himawari-8 satellite data. A strong sulfur dioxide signal was detected on June 26 from 38.72 DU of SO2 at an altitude of 7.1 km northeast, via Sentinel- 5P / Tropomi. Activity on Nishinoshima remains significant; very high thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova between VRP 1437 and 2479 MW on June 24, 202. VAAC Tokyo has issued a new ash dispersion advisory to the northeast. The ongoing activity on Nishinoshima continues, more intense in June than in May. Thermal anomalies are reported by Mirova and Himawari-8, described as high to very high from June 21 to 23. On June 16, an ash cloud was observed heading east. On June 21 and 22, a plume of sulfur dioxide was spotted by Sentinel - 5P / Tropomi, associated with the effusive eruption. It extended in the troposphere over 5,000 km on June 22. The effusive activity modifies the morphology of the island, as indicated by the SAR images put online by GSI. VAAC Tokyo reported that on June 16, with a brown-black plume emitted at about 2,000 meters, doubled with plumes of gas and vapor emitted by lava flows and their entry into the sea. JMA reported that the activity of Nishinoshima does not weaken, with many high thermal anomalies on June 11 and 12, 2020, listed between 46 and 578 MW. The last overview by the Japan Coast Guards on June 7 shows an intense gas and ash emission activity at the crater of the pyroclastic cone, as well as the plumes of gas and vapor emitted by the arrival of lava at sea. An overview was conducted by the Japan Coast Guards on May 18, 2020. When approaching the island, the summit activity was accompanied with degassing due to the arrival of lava at sea.Strombolian explosions produced a plume of ash, and ejected materials on the blanks of the pyroclastic cone. On the thermal image, It was possible to see that the lava flowing from the effusive vent on the southwest flank of the cone is divided into two arms, one of which formed a delta at the entrance to the sea. Activity appears to be continuous, slightly up on April 29, 2020 overview The japonaise Coast Guard carried out an overview by the Japan Coast Guards on April 29, 2020. The surface of the slag cone has been renewed and deposits of sulfur can be seen in places on the northeast surface of the cone. Although it cannot be seen from the front of the image, it appears that the collapsed crater southwest of the summit that appeared on April 19 has been buried again. Between April 29 and the previous sighting on April 19, there was obviously a good activity. Thermal images are also interesting. Although the exit is the same, you can see the lava flow move clockwise through the pyroclastic cone and head south. A beautiful fan of lava in the north direction, and a flow to the east coast consists of three arms. The Japanese Coast Guard flew over Nishinoshima (Ogasawara Islands) on March 9, confirming that the gray plume emitted reached an altitude of about 1,000 meters. The lava flows on the northeast flank of the crater for about 1 km to the north shore before flowing into the sea, where a plume of gas and vapor was visible. Mirova has noted thermal anomalies, when the cloud cover does not prevent measurements, between 79 and 314 MW, for the period from 09 to 11.03.2020. As of the 3rd of March, GSI site reported topographic changes due to lava were observed on the north and east sides of the pyroclastic cone, and changes in the coastline are observed on the side North of the island. In addition, a new topographic change was observed on the southwest side of the pyroclastic cone, which would be caused by lava. The thermal anomalies transmitted by Mirova between February 29 and March 2 range from 47 MW on March 1 / 4:15 a.m. and 338 MW on March 2 / 12:45 p.m. As of the 17th of February, JMA reported that the activity that resumed since December 20, 2019, continued actively with thermal anomaliestnoted by Mirova and SAR images testifying to flows which enlarge its surface.Eruptive activity continues on Nishinoshima, with thermal anomalies noted by Mirova, and reaching 425 MW on February 2 at 3:50 a.m. Regular GSI reports show the topographic changes caused by lava flows from the northeast to the east of the island between January 17 and 31. On January 26, 2020, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 captured this image of a plume of ash and vapor emanating from volcanic island of Nishinoshima. In this image, the infrared data is superimposed on a natural color image to highlight the active flows of the volcano. According to the Global Volcanism Program, the lava flows traveled northeast and entered the ocean, generating plumes of vapor near the shore. The Japan Coast Guards reported a continued increase in emissions from January 15 to 21 from the central crater. The Japan Coast Guard (JCG) reported that during an overflight of Nishinoshima conducted from 1335 to 1412 on 17 January surveyors observed continuous gray emissions rising from the central crater of the pyroclastic cone to 1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E and NE. The central crater was open to the ENE; lava flows traveled NE and entered the ocean, producing steam plumes at the coastline. GSI reported that Synthetic Aperture / SAR Radar images on board the Japanese satellite DAICHI-2 (ALOS-2) provided by the GSI, show changes in the coastline to the NNE of Nishinoshima Island (Ogasawara Islands), between 3 and January 17, 2020, in connection with a lava flow from the cone.The thermal anomalies reported by Mirova oscillated between 7 and 268 MW on January 15-17, 2020 (note that they can be masked by cloud cover and interpreted accordingly). The eruptive episodes therefore continue well, with relative enlargement of the emerged part.According to recent news he morphological evolution of the cone and the contours of the island continues.The GSI reported a modification on both the NW and SSE coast on December 20, 2019, and a significant increasing on the NNE side on January 3, based on ALOS-2 satellite images.Moderate to high thermal anomalies were observed by Mirova.The small island of Nishinoshima was enlarged when several new islands coalesced during an eruption in 1973-74. Another eruption that began offshore in 2013 completely covered the previous exposed surface and enlarged the island again. Water discoloration has been observed on several occasions since. The island is the summit of a massive submarine volcano that has prominent satellitic peaks to the S, W, and NE. The summit of the southern cone rises to within 214 m of the sea surface 9 km SSE. (GVN/GVP)

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Suwanosejima volcano (Japan)

USA - Kilauea volcano ( Hawaian islands)

September 27th, 2022

HVO reported that the eruption continued on 26th of September. The active part of the lava lake has remained stable over the past 24 hours. Flyby measurements from September 12, 2022 indicated that the crater floor had experienced a total elevation of about 143 meters and 111 million cubic meters of lava had been emitted since this eruption began on September 29, 2021.As of the 22nd of September, HVO reported that increased seismicity, ground deformation, and surface lava flows at Kīlauea's summit occurred between 3 p.m. and 6 p.m. HST on September 20. All activity was restricted to the summit region and there is no indication of activity migrating into either rift zone. Beginning at 3:00 p.m., seismic activity below the summit of Kīlauea Volcano began to increase, followed by summit inflation beginning around 4:20 p.m., coinciding with a 7-meter drop in the level of the lava lake. The crater floor surrounding the lava lake also subsided several meters at 4:30 p.m. New surface lava eruptions occurred on the western and northern margins of the crater floor. Seismic activity returned to near-bottom levels from 6 p.m.As of the 6th of September, HVO reported that the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continued over the past 24 hours. All recent eruptive activity has been confined to the crater. No significant changes have been observed at the summit or in either rift zone.As of the 30th of August, HVO reported that lava eruption from the west vent into the active lava lake and floor of Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater has continued over the past 24 hours. The active part of the lava lake showed continued surface activity. Surface activity, outside the lava lake, sometimes occurs from eruptions along the crater margins.As of the 23rd of August, HVO reported that the eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit in Halema'uma'u Crater has continued for the past 24 hours. All recent eruptive activity has been confined to the crater. No significant changes were observed at the summit or in either fault zone.As of the 15th of August, HVO reported that lava eruption from the west vent into Kilauea's active lava lake, and on the crater floor has continued over the past 24 hours.The active part of the lava lake showed continued surface activity. Surface activity, outside the lava lake, occurs from eruptions along the crater margins on the northeast, east, south, and west sides. As of the 7th of August, HVO reported that over the past week, lava has continued to erupt from the western vent of Halema'uma'u Crater. All of the lava is confined within Halema'uma'u Crater in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high and were last measured at around 1,900 tonnes per day (tpd) on August 1. As of the 1st of August, HVO reported that the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued over the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater and current data indicate that this scenario is likely to continue. No significant changes have been noted at the summit or in either rift zone.As of the 22nd of July, HVO reported that lava eruption from the western Halema'uma'u vent into the active lava lake has continued over the past 24 hours. The lava level of the active surface of the lake remained at the level of the boundary dykes. Seeps were active along the northern rim of the crater floor as of about 4:00 p.m. HST yesterday afternoon and are continuing at this time. Measurements from an overflight on July 19, 2022 indicated that the crater floor has risen about 133 meters in total and 98 million cubic meters of lava have been shed since this eruption began on September 29, 2021. Summit tiltmeters started a deflationary trend around 9am HST yesterday morning and are transitioning to a flat trend now. A sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate of approximately 1,300 tonnes per day (t/d) was measured on July 21, 2022. The summit tremor is stable for the long-term baseline of this eruption. As of the 16th of July, HVO reported that over the past week, lava has continued to erupt from the western vent of Halema'uma'u Crater. All lava is confined within Halema'uma'u Crater in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high and were last measured at around 1,300 tonnes per day (tpd) on July 11.As of the 7th of July, HVO reported that eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit in Halema'uma'u Crater has continued for the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and current data indicates that this scenario is likely to continue. No significant changes were noted at the summit or in either fault zone.As of the 2nd of July, HVO reported that Lava eruption from the western  Halema'uma'u vent into the active lava lake at Kilauea's summit has continued over the past 24 hours, with weak seeps along the northern crater floor. The height of the lava lake fluctuated yesterday with changes in summit tilt and is currently on a downward trend.As of the 27th of June, HVO reported that eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit in Halema'uma'u Crater has continued for the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater. Lava eruption from the West Halemaʻumaʻu vent into the active lava lake and seeps on the crater floor have continued over the past 24 hours. Lava seepage activity continued along the eastern and southern edges of the crater floor. Flyby measurements on June 17, 2022 indicated that the crater floor had experienced a total elevation of about 120 meters (394 feet) and that 93 million cubic meters (24 billion gallons) of lava had been effused since the start. of this eruption in September. 29, 2021. As of the 18th of June, HVO reported that eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit in Halema'uma'u Crater has continued for the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and current data indicates that this scenario is likely to continue.As of the 13th of June the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continued over the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and current data indicate that this scenario is likely to continue. No significant changes have been noted at summit or in the East Rift Zone.As of the 2nd of June, HVO reported that lava eruption from the western vent in the active Halemaʻumaʻu lava lake and seeps on the crater floor have continued over the past 24 hours. The active lava lake has shown continued surface activity, although the level of the active lake has dropped 5 meters (16 feet) since the day before afternoon. Lava seepage activity occurred along the eastern, northeast, northwest, western, and southern edges of the crater floor. As of the 27th of May, HVO reported that lava eruption from the western vent of Halema'uma'u into the active lava lake and crater floor has continued over the past 24 hours.The active lava lake showed continued surface activity, with the lake level remaining relatively high, with some minor level fluctuations. Lava seep activity continues with nearly continuous seeps along the western and northwest edges of the lava lake. Flyby measurements on May 10, 2022 indicated that the crater floor had seen a total elevation of about 106 meters (348 feet) and that 77 million cubic meters (20 billion gallons) of lava had been effused since the start. of this eruption on September 29. , 2021. Summit tiltmeters returned to long-term trends overnight. A sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate of approximately 2,300 tonnes per day (t/d) was measured on May 22, 2022. As of the 17th of May ,HVO reported that he summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued over the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and current data indicate that this scenario is likely to continue. No significant changes have been noted in the summit or East Rift Zone.As of the 7th of May, HVO reported that the effusive activity within Halemaʻumaʻu crater continues at stable levels. The lava continued to effuse over the past 24 hours near the northwestern margin of the crater floor at reduced levels compared to previous days. A new lava flow started to spill out from the western fissure vent onto the crater floor around 07:00 local time this morning, but it seems to have stopped already.As of the 5th of May, HVO reported that eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit in Halema'uma'u Crater has continued for the past 24 hours. All recent activity has been confined to the crater and current data indicates that this scenario is likely to continue.As of the 26th of April, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continued over the past 24 hours. All recent activity has been confined to the crater and current data indicate that this scenario is likely to continue. No significant changes have been noted in the summit or East Rift Zone.As of the 24th of April, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Surface activity continues in the active lava lake and in sporadic breakouts. Tilt is currently steady after showing a deflationary trend through the night and breakout activity is minimal. Lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening. As of the 21st of April, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Surface activity continues in the active lava lake and in sporadic breakouts. Summit tilt is very slightly inflationary, but still indicates that the summit is in the deflationary phase of a summit Deflation-Inflation event. As such, lava flow activity (breakouts) on the surface of the crater will likely be minimal until summit tiltmeters indicate significant inflation has resumed. Nonetheless, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 20th of April the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Surface activity continues in the active lava lake. Tilt is on a deflationary trend. Lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 18th of April, The summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Surface activity continues in the active lava lake, and lava is flowing on the crater floor from the west vent region. In addition, lava is flowing from breakouts along the margins of the crater: north to the northeast, and a smaller one to the south. Tilt is currently on a flat trend. Lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening. As of the 16th of April, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Surface activity continues in the active lava lake, and lava is flowing on the crater floor from the west vent, and from breakouts along the northeast, east, and southern portions of the crater. Tilt is currently on a flat trend. Lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 13th of April HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Surface activity continues in the active lava lake and tilt continues to show an inflationary trend. Lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 9th of April, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Surface activity continues in the active lava lake and tilt has changed to an inflationary trend since this morning. Lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 8th of April, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. The level of the active lava lake within Halema‘uma‘u has dropped by several meters since 6:00 p.m. yesterday, in association with summit deflation and a decline in volcanic tremor. However, the lake surface has continued to circulate today. This activity resembles that of other summit deflationary periods in recent weeks, so lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening. As of the 7th of April, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Summit tremor remains elevated and steady. The level of the active lava lake within Halema‘uma‘u crater has not changed significantly. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 6th of April HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Summit tilt flattened around midday and remains stable. Summit tremor remains elevated and steady. The level of the active lava lake within Halema‘uma‘u crater has not changed significantly. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 2nd of April HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. Starting at approximately 10:00 am HST today, summit tilt began a small deflationary trend. The deflationary tilt signal continues at the time of this report, but the rate is starting to slow down and may flatten out or reverse overnight. Summit tremor remains elevated and steady and the level of the active lava lake within Halema‘uma‘u crater has not dropped significantly. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 31st, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has remained nearly constant since the HVO Daily Update issued this morning. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 25th of March, HVO reported that eruption at Kīlauea Volcano's summit in Halema'uma'u Crater has continued for the past 24 hours. All recent activity has been confined to the crater, and there is no indication of migrating activity elsewhere on Kīlauea. Eruption of lava from the west vent into the active lava lake (approximately 2.5% of the crater floor area) and on the crater floor has continued over the past 24 hours. There were also numerous sustained seeps along the margins of the crater floor. The summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has remained nearly constant since the HVO Daily Update issued t21th of March in the morning. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.Since the HVO Daily Update issued on the morning 20th of March, the summit of Kīlauea is neither deflating nor inflating, and summit tremor remains above background levels. Lava continues to enter and circulate within the main area of the active lava lake within Halemaʻumaʻu crater. Based on previous observations over the last week, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening, but activity will likely be less dynamic than last night.The inflation at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano that was mentioned on 19th in the morning’s HVO Daily Update has slowed down, while summit tremor has increased. The level of the active lava lake within Halema‘uma‘u crater has greatly increased since this morning. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 18th of March, HVO reported that deflation at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano resumed around 9:30 a.m. H.S.T. this morning, and now appears to be neither deflating nor inflating. Summit tremor has also decreased but is fluctuating on short time scales. The level of the active lava lake within Halema‘uma‘u crater has dropped significantly, although lava continues to enter and circulate within the main area of the active lava lake. Based on previous observations over the last week, lava will likely be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening, but activity will likely be less rigorous than earlier this week.As of the 15th of March, since this morning's update, the slight inflationary tilt at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano has leveled off and remains flat/stable. The level of the lava lake remained low after yesterday's drop, and was measured as 8 m (26 ft) below the rim of the active lava lake margin by field crews this morning. The surface is currently crusted over. Based on previous observations, lava will likely not be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening. As of the 15th of March, HVO reported that teep deflationary tilt at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano began around 10:00 am HST on morning and continues at this time. The level of the active lava lake has dropped significantly throughout the day. Based on previous observations, lava will likely not be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 13th of March, HVO reported that .the volcano is still erupting. Over the past week, lava has continued to erupt intermittently from the western vent of Halema'uma'u Crater. All lava is confined within Halema'uma'u Crater in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain elevated and were last measured at around 2,200 tonnes per day (tpd) on March 8, 2022, during eruptive activity. Summit tiltmeters show several patterns of deflation and inflation over the past week. Seismicity is high but stable, with few earthquakes and ongoing volcanic tremors. As of the 2nd of March HVO reported that deflation at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano that was mentioned on the morning’s HVO Daily Update continues and has led to significantly diminished activity at the time of this notice. The level of the active lava lake has dropped significantly, and the surface is currently about 50% crusted over. Based on previous observations, lava will likely not be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 1st of March, HVO reported that the Kīlauea Volcano eruption remains fully paused at the time of this notice. Tremor remains low and steady. Since 8 am HST this morning, tilt has gradually increased. Based on previous observations, lava will likely not be on the surface of the active lava lake until later tonight or tomorrow morning.As of the 28th of February HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continues at this time. HVO reported that lava effusion resumed at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano beginning at approximately 10:00 a.m. HST on February 27 and continues.The summit tremor increased around 9:30 a.m. HST this morning and remains elevated and stable. The high inflation at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano mentioned in this morning's daily HVO update has slowed. The level of the active lava lake has risen approximately 30 feet since 8 a.m. HST on the 27th. As of the 26th of February, HVO reported that deflation at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano that was mentioned in this morning’s HVO Daily Update has slowed and has led to a near pause of the eruption at the time of this notice. The level of the lava lake has dropped significantly and the surface is currently about 70-80% crusted over. Based on previous observations, lava activity will likely be greatly diminished or paused at the active lava lake this evening.The summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has remained nearly constant since the HVO Daily Update issued 25th of February on morning. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be at the surface of the active lava lake this evening.Kīlauea Volcano eruption remains fully paused on 24th of February . The level of the lava lake has dropped significantly, and the surface is completely crusted over. Tremor remains low and steady with very slight fluctuations. Since 8 am HST this morning, tilt has increased approximately 0.8 microradians with a rapid increase in inflation occurring at 2:45 pm HST today. Based on previous observations, lava will likely not be on the surface of the active lava lake until later this evening or tomorrow. Based on past activity, it will likely be at least 6 hours until the eruption restarts.As of the 23rd of February, HVO reported that deflation at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano that was mentioned in the morning’s HVO Daily Update has slowed and has led to a near pause of the eruption at the time of this notice. The level of the lava lake has dropped significantly, and the surface is currently about 50% crusted over. Based on previous observations, lava will likely not be on the surface of the active lava lake this evening.As of the 22nd of February, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has remained nearly constant since the HVO Daily Update issued this morning. Based on previous observations, lava will likely be visible in the active lava lake this evening.As of the 21st of February ,HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued with minor fluctuations in lava output over the past 24 hours. All activity remains confined to the active lava lake within the western part of Halemaʻumaʻu with no ooze outs along the margins of the Halemaʻumaʻu crater floor. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.Lava effusion continues on February 17, 2022  morning at Kilauea, but the effusion rate has dropped as of 6 p.m. HST.  During this period, the level of the western lava lake has dropped by approximately 10 Meters.The active lava lake is now about 89 meters deep compared to when the lava emerged on September 29, 2021. Measurements on January 25, 2022 indicated that the total volume of lava effused since the start of the eruption was about 45 million m³ at that time.The summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano resumed approximately 2:30 am HST on 17th of February within the western part of Halemaʻumaʻu. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 16th of February, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued with slight fluctuations in lava output over the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of 8:00 a.m. HST on February 11, HVO reported that lava continues to erupt from the western vent into Halemaʻumaʻu Crater at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there is no indication of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea. Since approximately 6:00 p.m. HST on February 10, outflow to the active lava lake in the western portion of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater has decreased significantly. This drop in activity is associated with a period of continued deflation at the top that began around the same time. The surface of the lava lake has dropped 10 m (33 ft) since the start of this period of deflation.As of 7 a.m. HST, February 10, Lava continues to erupt from the west vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the summit of Kīlauea. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 8th of February, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has paused as of yesterday evening. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of the eruption migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 7th of February, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued with slight fluctuations in lava output over the past 24 hours. Lava activity remains confined to the crater, and there are no indications of the eruption migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea. As of the 6th of Februry, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued over the past 24 hours. Lava activity remains confined to the crater, and there are no indications of the eruption migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea. As of the 3rd of February, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, resumed late yesterday afternoon following a pause that lasted less than one day. Lava activity—which resembles that observed prior to the pause—remains confined to Halemaʻumaʻu crater, and there are no indications of the eruption migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 2nd of Fevruary, HVO reported that The summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has diminished in vigor this morning. Lava effusion has slowed in association with summit deflation that began just before midnight. These trends suggest that the summit eruption is heading into another pause. All recent lava activity has been confined to Halemaʻumaʻu crater, and there are no indications of the eruption migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea. As of the 1st of February, HVO reported that eruption of lava from the west vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the summit of Kīlauea, has continued over the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.Eruption of lava from the west vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the summit of Kīlauea, resumed at approximately 9:30 p.m. HST on January 30. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 30th of January, eruption of lava from the west vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the summit of Kīlauea, remains essentially paused, though a small amount of active lava may remain visible at the surface. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea. As of the 28th of January, eruption of lava from the west vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the summit of Kīlauea, paused at approximately midnight, though a small amount of active lava remains at the surface. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 27th of January, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued over the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 25th of January, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, resumed at 5:52 a.m. HST this morning with a lava flow from the top of the west vent cone. This followed several days of minor progressively intermittent activity confined to a small pond north of the west vent cone. The lava lake began rising at about 6:30 a.m. HST this morning, and by 8:20 a.m. HST had risen 11 meters (36 feet). All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 24th of January, HVO, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, is greatly diminished. Activity has been confined to a small pond north of the west vent cone. Since yesterday afternoon, lava input into the small pond has been intermittent, with several hours between short-lived periods of new lava input. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 23rd of January HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, greatly decreased in output starting yesterday morning, with a 9 meter (30 feet) drop in lava lake level between 7 am and 9 pm yesterday January 22, 2022. The lake level is now 10 meters (33 feet) lower than yesterday morning. Since yesterday afternoon, activity has been confined to a small pond north of the west vent cone. There were several long-lived oozeouts on the eastern and northwest margins of the crater. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea. As of the 17th of January, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, remains paused. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 16th of January, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has entered another pause. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 15th of January, the summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, continued over the past 24 hrs. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, resumed at approximately 6:40 p.m. on January 11, following a short pause. All lava activity is confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.As of the 10th of January, HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, has continued over the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.HVO reported that lava returned to the western vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater at about 9:30 p.m. on January 7. The surface of the lava lake remains active in the western side of the crater. The lake has seen a total rise of about 70 meters (230 feet) since lava emerged on September 29. Measurements on December 30 indicated that the total lava volume effused since the beginning of the eruption was approximately 40 million cubic meters (10.5 billion gallons) at that time.As of the 7th of January in the morning , HVO reported a new pause. Lava is not erupting from the western vent in Halemaʻumaʻu. Crust covers most of the lake with occasional small foundering events north of the vent. The lake has seen a total rise of about 70 meters (230 feet) since lava emerged on September 29. Measurements from a helicopter overflight on December 21 indicated that the total lava volume effused since the beginning of the eruption was approximately 38 million cubic meters (10.0 billion gallons) at that time. As of the 6th of January, HVO reported that lava returned to the western vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater at about 4:00 a.m. yesterday morning, after a 3-day pause. The surface of the lava lake is active in the western side of the crater. The lake has seen a total rise of about 70 meters (230 feet) since lava emerged on September 29. Measurements from a helicopter overflight on December 21 indicated that the total lava volume effused since the beginning of the eruption was approximately 38 million cubic meters (10.0 billion gallons) at that time.As of the 4th of January HVO reported that summit eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, remains paused. Similar pauses in recent weeks have ranged in duration from 1 to 3 days. Inflationary trends began around 2 AM HST this morning and recovery of tilt suggests the eruption will restart within the next 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.Kīlauea Volcano entered another paused around 1 AM HST yesterday. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater, and there are no indications of activity migrating elsewhere on Kīlauea.HVO reported that on January 3, 2022, the Kīlauea volcano entered a pause. Lava is still erupting, but at a greatly reduced rate, from a single vent near the western wall of Halema'uma'u Crater, in the volcano summit area and in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 'i. The decrease in lava outflow from the West Halema'uma'u Vent into the active lava lake is indicated by the formation of a cooler crust over most of the lake except at the vent and Decreasing lava velocities measured on the thermal camera. The active lake began to crumble around 2 a.m. at the same time as the tremor was diminishing. No overflow from the active lake has been observed in the past 24 hours, but there has been a significant breakout along the northern margin of the largest crusted lava lake that was still active this morning.Lava returned to the western vent of Halema'uma'u crater at 2:45 p.m. on 31.12.2021 The eruption atop Kīlauea volcano continued for the past 24 hours. All recent lava activity has been confined to the crater. The lava lake surface is active again, with several large overflows on the older lake crust in the evening. A strong glow was visible in the evening sky from the volcano to Lower Puna. As of the 22nd of December, HVO reported that the summit eruption of the Kīlauea volcano has stopped. Depending on the size and length of recent breaks, the current break should last for several days. All recent lava activity remains confined to Halema'uma'u Crater in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, and there is no sign of migrating activity elsewhere on Kīlauea. The rapid deflationary trend began on December 20, 2021 around 11 a.m. and subsided early on December 21. The volcanic tremor associated with the eruption has practically ceased and the seismic activity remains below the background noise. The surface of the lake became crusted after a sequence of partial overturns last night. The lake has experienced a total elevation of around 69 meters since lava emerged on September 29. The total erupting volume since the start of the eruption was estimated to be around 30 million cubic meters on November 16.Kīlauea volcano is still erupting on 20th od December from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. The lava lake remains active in the western portion of the crater, with reduced activity over the past day. All recent lava activity remains confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park.Kīlauea volcano is still erupting from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater as on the morning, December 10, 2021. The vent continues to supply lava to a lava lake in the western portion of the crater. All recent lava activity remains confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park.HVO reported that lava resumed erupting from a single vent in the western wall of Halema'uma'u Crater on Kilauea after a 3-day break in activity. On Friday afternoon, the West Vent lava eruption rate declined sharply with a dramatic reduction in tremors and the start of a deflationary tilt. Lava reappeared at the vent around 6:00 pm on the night of December 6 and covered the anterior expanse of the active lava lake around 3:00 am this morning on December 7, 2021. The eastern edge of the lake jutting out onto the lowest area of ​​the caldera collapse blocks remains stagnant.Kīlauea volcano is erupting from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. As of this morning, December 5th, 2021, lava is erupting at the summit. All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismic activity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated. .The total volume of the eruption since the start of the eruption was estimated to be around 30 million cubic meters on November 16. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high, with an emission rate for November 23, 2021 of around 6,400 tonnes per day. The average SO2 emission rate for the past few weeks is around 3,000 tonnes per day. As of the morning, November 18, 2021, lava is erupting at the summit. Activity has returned to levels observed prior to the brief decrease in activity. Most notable is the formation of a pond perched on the surface of the lava lake, stretching from the vent cone to the edge of the large island floating in the middle.All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismic activity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated.Kīlauea volcano is still erupting from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. On the morning, November 9, 2021, lava continues to erupt but at a significantly diminished rate after the onset of summit deflation yesterday. All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismic activity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated.Kīlauea volcano is erupting. On the morning, November 6th, 2021, lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismic activity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated.As of the afternoon of October 27, 2021, lava continues to emerge from a single vent in the western wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. The western end of the lake showed a maximum altitude of about 794 meters above sea level by the HVO permanent laser rangefinder on October 27, 2021, or 1m. more than yesterday, and a total increase of about 50 meters since lava emerged on September 29.On the morning of October 29, an arch formed over the cone's discharge channel, adding an interesting formation to the ever-changing caldera. As the morning, October 23rd, 2021, lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismic activity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated.HVO reported that on the morning, October 20, 2021, lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismicity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated.Kīlauea volcano is still erupting. On morning, October 18, 2021, lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismicity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated.HVO reported that Kīlauea volcano is still erupting. As of this morning, October 17, 2021, lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. All lava activity is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Seismicity and volcanic gas emission rates remain elevated. At the Summit,  Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates remain high, with a measured emission rate of approximately 1,600 tonnes per day on October 16, 2021. Summit tilt was slightly deflationary yesterday, October 16.As of the 14th of October, HVO reported that lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. The western end of the lake showed a maximum elevation of approximately 785 meters (2575 ft) above sea level when measured by field crews on October 13, with a total increase of about 42 meters (138 ft) since lava emerged on September 29. The total erupted volume since the beginning of the eruption was estimated to be about 15.9 million cubic meters (4.2 billion gallons) on October 8. The western vent had intermittent fountain heights of 5 m (16 ft) with occasional bursts up to 10 meters (33 ft) observed by field crews on October 13. The fountain has built a spatter cone with an approximately 10 meter (33 ft) wide opening facing east towards the lake. Lava is flowing into the lake through the spatter cone opening. The central island and several of the smaller eastern islets from the 2020 lava lake are still above the lake surface along with an island of the 2020 western vent rampart in the northwest part of the lake. TAs of the 13th of October, lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. The western end of the lake showed a maximum elevation of approximately 785 meters (2575 ft) above sea level when measured by field crews on October 12, which is a 2 meter (7 ft) increase over the past day and a total increase of about 42 meters (138 ftAs of the 12th of October, HVO reported that lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. The western end of the lake showed a maximum elevation of approximately 783 meters (2569 ft) above sea level when measured by field crews on October 11, which is a 2 meter (7 ft) increase over the past day and a total increase of about 40 meters (131 ft) since lava emerged on September 29. As of the 11th of October, HVO reported that lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. The western end of the lake showed a maximum elevation of approximately 781 meters (2562 ft) above sea level when measured by field crews on October 10, which is a 1 meter (3 ft) increase over the past day and a total increase of about 38 meters (125 ft) since lava emerged on September 29. The total erupted volume since the beginning of the eruption was estimated to be about 15.9 million cubic meters (4.2 billion gallons) on October 8. The lava fountain of the western vent has a sustained height of about 4 meters (13 ft) decreasing from about 15 meters (49 ft) in the previous days. The fountain has built a spatter cone with an approximately 10 meter (33 ft) wide opening facing east towards the lake. Lava is flowing into the lake through the spatter cone opening. The central island and several of the smaller eastern islets from the 2020 lava lake are still above the lake surface along with an island of the 2020 western vent rampart in the northwest part of the lake. The lava lake is not level across its surface due to the location of the vent in the western end. Areas closer to the vent are about 2-3 meters (7-10 ft) higher in elevation compared to the north and south part of the lake and 5 meters (16 ft) higher than the east end of the lava lake. Lava surface activity such as crustal foundering is seen on the western end of the lake and north and south of the central island but is no longer observed on the east end of the lake. As of the 9th of October, HVO reported that lava continues to erupt from a single vent in the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu crater and lava fountains from the vent have sustained heights of about 15 meters (49 ft). The western end of the lake shows a maximum elevation of approximately 779 meters (2556 ft) above sea level as measured by field crews on October 8, which is a total increase of about 36 meters (118 ft) since lava emerged on September 29. The lava lake is above the base of the vent and the fountain has built a spatter rampart around it with an opening to the east. The fountain is feeding lava to the lake by a flow through the rampart opening. The previously active vent in the south part of the lake is no longer visible. The central island and several of the smaller eastern islets from the 2020 lava lake are still above the lake surface along with an island of the 2020 western vent rampart in the northwest part of the lake. The lava lake is not level across its surface due to the location of the vent in the western end. Areas closer to the vent are about 3 meters (10 ft) higher in elevation compared to the north and south part of the lake and 8 meters (26 ft) higher than the east end of the lava lake. Active lava and crustal foundering is now mainly focused on the western part of the lava lake. HVO reported that since the morning of October 7, 2021, lava continues to emerge from two vents: one along the floor and one in the western wall of Halema'uma'u crater. All lava activity is confined to this crater. Over the past 24 hours, the level of the lava lake has risen by about 1 meter with a total rise of about 32 meters since the lava emerged on September 29. The total thickness of the lava filling Halema'uma'u is now 258 meters with an elevation of the lake surface of about 775 meters above sea level. The western vent continues to have the fountain the most vigorous with sustained lava fountain heights of about 12 meters. Due to the location of the vents, the lava lake is not the same level over its entire surface. Areas closer to the vent in the western part have an elevation about 2m higher than the northern and southern parts of the lake and 4m higher than the eastern end of the lava lake. HVO reported that on 6th of October, lava continues to erupt from two vents within Halemaʻumaʻu crater. Over the past 24 hours, the lava lake level rose approximately 2 meters (7 ft) with a total rise of about 31 meters (102 ft) since lava emerged on September 29. The total thickness of lava filling Halemaʻumaʻu is now 256 meters (840 ft ) with a lake surface elevation of approximately 774 meters (2539 ft) above sea level. The west vent continues to have the most vigorous fountain with sustained lava fountain heights of about 14–15 meters (49 ft). The lava lake has risen above the base of the vent and the fountain has built a spatter rampart around most of it. Another vent continues to be active in the southern part of the lake with lava fountain heights averaging 3 meters (10 ft). Due to the location of vents, the lava lake is not level across its surface. Areas closer to vents in the west and south part are about 1–2 m (3–7 ft) higher in elevation compared to the north and east end of the lava lake. Crustal foundering, a process by which cooled lava crust on the lake surface sinks into the hot underlying lake lava, is observed on the active surface of the lava lake. The active lava lake surface is perched 1 meter (3 ft) above a 20-meter-wide (66 ft) ledge that extends outward to the Halemaʻumaʻu crater wall.As of the 4th of October, HVO reported that vigorous fountains - with gusts up to 50-60 meters (164-197 feet) - produced significant amounts of pumice stone, Pele's hair and fragments of volcanic glass which deposited in areas downwind along the rim and beyond Halema'uma'u Crater. Over the past few days, a thick layer (about 27 meters or 89 feet) of molten lava has accumulated as a lava lake at the base of the crater, partially drowning the vents, resulting in a moderate fountain. At the same time, the amount of sulfur dioxide emitted has increased from 85,000 tonnes per day to 12,000 tonnes per day. Although the amount of gas and volcanic particles have decreased since the start of the eruption, they both remain significant local hazards in the plume. Vent SO2 concentrations remain high (probably over 100 parts per million or ppm) and significantly high (5-10 ppm) at stations a few kilometers (miles) southwest of Halema'uma'u. The eruption is currently confined to Halema'uma'u Crater in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. The HVO sees no indication of migrating activity elsewhere on the Kīlauea volcano and expects the eruption to remain confined to the summit region. HVO reported that lava continues to emerge from several vents along the floor and western inner wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Since this morning of October 3, 2021, all lava activity has remained confined to the Halema'uma'u crater. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high and were around 14,750 tonnes per day on October 2, 2021, which is higher than the previous day. Seismicity is high but stable. Summit tiltmeters continue to record a deflationary tilt. Over the past 24 hours, the level of the lava lake has risen by more than 1 meter. In total, the surface of the lava lake has risen by about 27 meters since the start of the eruption. The west vent continues to be the most vigorous source, with lava fountain heights sustained from 10 to 15 meters. Other vents, including a 35-meter-long crack, continue to be active in the central and southern parts of the lake, with lava fountain heights sustained from 5 to 10 meters. As of the 2nd of October, HVO reported that lava continues to emerge from several vents along the floor and western wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high and were estimated at around 12,900 tonnes per day as of October 1, 2021. Seismicity is high but stable. Summit tiltmeters continued to register a slowdown in deflationary tilt over the past 24 hours. In total, the surface of the lava lake has risen by about 26 meters since the start of the eruption. Localized and discontinuous crustal collapse continues (a process by which the cold lava crust on the surface of the lava lake is replaced by a less dense liquid from below, causing the crust to sink into the lava underlying the lake). Field teams this morning measured fountain heights of around 7 meters from the main vent and 1 to 2 meters from the southernmost vents. Occasional fountain height gusts have been observed over the past 24 hours, including a gust this morning with estimated heights of 50 to 60 meters. As of the 30th of September HVO reported that volcano was erupting. Lava emerge from several vents along the floor and west wall of Halema'uma'u Crater. As of this afternoon, all lava activity has been confined to Halema'uma'u crater. Seismicity and volcanic gas emission rates remain high. The volcanic alert is at Warning and the aviation code is Red. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high and were estimated at around 85,000 tonnes per day just after the eruption began yesterday afternoon at 3:21 pm. HST. Seismicity is high but stable, with few earthquakes and an ongoing volcanic tremor. Summit tiltmeters continued to register a slowing deflationary tilt this afternoon. The lava lake has increased by about a meter per hour since the eruption began. The lava lake did not exhibit widespread circulation overnight, with localized and discontinuous areas of crustal sinking (a process by which the cold lava crust on the surface of the lava lake is replaced by a liquid less dense from below, causing the crust to sink into the underlying lava of the lake). The maximum height of the fountain so far, seen yesterday, has been estimated to be 25-30m in height, although most fountains are currently only a few meters in height. The dimensions of the new lava lake are 980 m in the E-W axis and 710 m in the N-S axis. The estimated area of ​​the lake is approximately 52 hectares. As of the 29th of September, HVO reported that an increase in seismic activity and changes in soil deformation patterns at the top of the volcano began to occur around noon on September 29, 2021, indicating movement of magma in the subsoil. Around 3:20 p.m. HST on September 29, 2021, the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) detected a glow in the Kīlauea summit webcam images indicating that an eruption had started in Halema'uma'u Crater in the summit caldera of Kīlauea.  Webcam imagery shows cracks at the base of Halema'uma'u crater generating lava flows to the surface of the lava lake which was active until May 2021. As of the 14th of September, HVO reported that following the recent intrusion of sub-surface magma in the area south of the Kīlauea caldera, which slowed significantly on August 30, earthquake rates and soil deformation in this area have remained close to levels of before the intrusion. Over the past week, 13 low-magnitude earthquakes, all less than M2.5, have been detected under the Kīlauea summit region. These earthquakes occurred approximately 1 to 3 kilometers (0.6 to 1.9 miles) below ground level near Halema'uma'u. There has been no noticeable seismic activity in the vicinity of the recent intrusion; since August 30, inclinometers have not detected any substantial ground deformation in the summit region. These observations suggest that the supply of new magma to the intrusion slowed or stopped. As of the 30th of August HVO reported that in the past 24 hours, around 98 earthquakes have been recorded at the top of Kīlauea and south of the Kīlauea caldera. Most of the earthquakes were below magnitude 2 and occurred about 1-4 km (0.6-2.5 mi) below the surface. These small earthquakes occurred up to 8 earthquakes detected per hour. These earthquake rates are significantly lower than those seen during pulses of activity last week.HVO reported that from the evening of August 26, soil deformation in the southern summit region of Kīlauea resumed at the highest rates seen during the first intrusive pulse spanning August 23 to 25. On the other hand, the current seismic activity remains low compared to the previous impulses of this intrusive activity. The East Rift Zone remains calm. The rate of soil deformation under the southern portion of the Kīlauea Summit region in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park began to increase again on the evening of August 26 and continues to this time.HVO has detected a resumption of seismic activity and soil deformation below the southern portion of the Kīlauea Summit Caldera in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. The rate of soil deformation started to increase again around 6:00 p.m. HST on August 26 and was followed by an increase in seismic activity after 8:30 p.m. The resumption of activity occurred at roughly the same location as the earthquake swarm of August 23-25, inside and south of the Kīlauea caldera. The combination of these observations indicates a second pulse of intrusive activity. No indication of upward migration of earthquakes to the surface or change in deformation that would indicate a shallow depth of source intrusive activity. As of the 25th of August, the US Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcanoes Observatory has detected an increase in seismic activity beneath the southern portion of the Kīlauea Summit Caldera in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.Activity began around 4:30 p.m. HST on August 23 and continued through the night and into the early morning hours of August 24, 2021. The swarm was accompanied by increased ground deformation recorded by the Sandhill inclinometer, just west of the site of the seismic swarm. The same incline increase was also recorded by the inclinometer near Uēkahuna Bluff and the site of the former HVO building.At around 1:30 am on August 24, the earthquake swarm intensified in this region; this activity may indicate a magma intrusion occurring 1–2 km (0.6–1.2 miles) below the southern caldera. More than 140 earthquakes were recorded at 4.30 a.m. on August 24; the largest recorded earthquake was magnitude 3.3 with the majority of earthquakes below magnitude 1. Small earthquakes continue at a rate of at least 10 detected earthquakes per hour.Seismicity and ground deformation indicate a small dyke intrusion may occur 1-2 km (0.6-1 .2 mi) below the southern caldera. Previously - As of the 13th of July, HVO reported that no surface activity has been observed by field crews or on webcam images since May 23, 2021. Seismicity has slowly increased in recent weeks in the summit region, with continued summit inflation in recent months . Summit tiltmeters have recorded two cycles of deflation-inflation over the past week, along with continued gradual inflation. Continuing inflation was also recorded by the summit's GPS instruments; however, the tilt and GPS movement pattern indicates that the center of inflation may have shifted slightly towards the southern part of the caldera.Seismicity has slowly increased in recent weeks, although it has yet to reach the levels seen immediately before the December 2020 eruption. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain slightly high. HVO reported that  Kīlauea volcano is no longer erupting. No surface activity has been observed by field teams or webcam images since May 23, 2021. The surface of the lake is completely covered by a solidified lava crust. Seismicity has slowly increased in recent weeks in the summit region, with continued gradual summit inflation in recent months. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain slightly high. As of the 11th of June, HVO rported that the surface of the lake in the Halama'uma'u Crater of Kilauea is now completely covered with a solidified lava crust. No surface activity or evidence of recent surface activity has been observed over the past week except for minor subsidence in the range of 1 to 2 meters (3 to 7 feet). Small, higher-temperature spots around the rim and in local cavities remain visible on the webcam thermal imaging, albeit at temperatures well below those associated with molten lava. As of the 26th of may, HVO reported that eruption in Halema'uma'u crater has stopped. The lava lake has a depth of 229 m. and stagnates over its entire surface. No active lava was observed from the fissure; field teams saw no signs of activity in the lava lake. Since the eruption began on December 20, 2020, more than 40 million cubic meters of lava have been emitted. HVO will continue to monitor changes. As of the 21st of May, HVO reported that the lava outflow from the west vent continues to feed the Halema'uma'u lava lake into the crater through a submerged entrance. Lava flow and intermittent crustal sinking are confined to a small basin with rare overflows, and lava has not seeped along the lake's perimeter over the past week. The total lake depth is 229m on May 20, 2021, measured by a continuous laser range finder over the western part of the lake near the western vent area, and is unchanged since May 11. The lava crust is stagnant and solidified covering 99% of the surface of the lake measured by thermal mapping on May 13. HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 28 April-4 May through a submerged inlet. The depth of the lake was about 227 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part, though the active area continued to shrink. The E half of the lake remained solidified and comprised about 93 percent of the total area, based on thermal measurements acquired on 16 April. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 250 and 475 tons/day on 30 April and 2 May, respectively, continuing a downward trend that began in mid-April; the recent rates suggested that the effusion rate had also decreased. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 21-27 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The depth of the lake was about 226-227 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part, though the active area continued to shrink; the E half of the lake remained solidified. Lava sometimes overflowed the margins of the lake. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 350, 550, 300, and 350 tons/day on 21, 22, 23, and 24 April, respectively. The rates were the lowest measured during the eruption, though elevated above the levels recorded in the months before the start of the eruption (20 December 2020). The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 14-20 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The depth of the lake was about 226-227 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part, though the active area continued to shrink; the E half of the lake remained solidified. Lava sometimes overflowed the margins of the lake. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 950 tons/day on 14 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. As of the 14th of April, HVO reported that the lava outflow from the West Vent continues to feed the lava lake in  Halema'uma'u Crater. The west vent constantly emits low flow lava through a crusted channel and a submerged inlet into the lake. Lava flow and intermittent crustal sinking continue in the western part of the lava lake, with lava seeping sporadically in areas along the perimeter of the lake. The total depth of the lake is 227 m. this April 14, 2021, measured by a continuous laser rangefinder on the active western part of the lake. Stagnant and solidified lava crust covers the eastern part of the lava lake and slowly grows westward. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission rate, measured on April 8, was 1000 t / day. This is high compared to the rates for the months before the eruption started on December 20 (less than 100 t / day), but lower than the pre-2018 lava lake emission rates (around 5,000 t / day) . .HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 31 March-6 April. Lava flowed at a low rate from the main vent into the lake through crusted-over channels and submerged inlets. The total depth of the lake measured about 225 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part; the E half of the lake remained solidified and expanded toward the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,200 tons/day on 1 April. HVO field crews observed weak spattering from two areas at the W vent during 1-2 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.HVO reported that the W vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 24-30 March. Lava flowed from the main vent into the lake through two crusted-over channels and submerged inlets, the former of which occurred during 24-25 March. The total depth of the lake measured about 224 m and lava continued to circulate in the W part; the E half of the lake remained solidified, expanding toward the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 950 and 650 tons/day on 22 and 26 March, respectively.HVO reported that two vents on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 17-23 March. Lava flowed from both the main vent and a vent several meters NE into the lake through submerged inlets. Another lava flow emerged from about halfway up the cone structure starting at 0220 on 16 March, but had ended by the next day. The depth of the western part of the lake rose from about 221 m to 223 m and lava continued to circulate in that part. The E half of the lake remained solidified and lower that the W half, with the crusted E half expanding towards the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 650, 700, and 1,100 tons/day on 17, 18, and 19 March, respectively. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.HVO reported that vents on the inner NW wall of Kilauea's Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 10-16 March. Lava flowed from both the main vent and a newer vent several meters NE into the lake through submerged inlets. Another lava flow emerged from about halfway up the cone structure starting at 0220 on 16 March. The depth of the western part of the lake rose from 221 m to 222 m and lava continued to circulate in that part. The E half of the lake remained solidified and lower that the W half, with the crusted E half expanding towards the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 900 tons/day on 14 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. HVO reported that a small lava pond developed near the western fissure during 5-7 March. On 7 March at about 13:00 local time a levee of the pond started to collapse allowing the pond lava to drain into the main lake. The lake has developed a subtle levee on its south margin (just below the center of the photo), with several lava streams cascading down onto the lower level on the eastern end of the levee. A new lava flow was active north of the normal lava flow entering the lake. This new lava flow was perched above the lake surface, and fed a narrow channel entering the lake. The new stream was set within a collapse scar that resulted from the collapse of a small lava pond.HVO reported that lava from the West Vent continues to feed the lava lake in Halema'uma'u Crater. The active western half of the lava lake measured approximately 217 m. depth, measured by a remote laser rangefinder on the morning of February 27, 2021. Observations yesterday afternoon indicated that lava effusion continues at the western fissure. The lava quickly develops a thin crust as it flows outward to the east with occasionally a crust sinking between the vent and the main island, but not beyond the island. HVO reported that a vent on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 17-23 February. The depth of the western part of the lake fluctuated between 215 and 218 m and the lake surface actively overturned at “plate” boundaries. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was elevated at 1,000 tons/day on 19 February.As of the 17th of February, HVO reported that lava activity remains confined to Halema'uma'u Crater, with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. As of the morning of February 16, the active western half of the lava lake was approximately 216.5 m deep. The small decrease in depth since yesterday coincides with the current deflation. During the last day, lava effusion continued at the western fissure, with the lava rapidly developing a thin crust and flowing eastward. A few oozing lava flows were noted along the northern and eastern margins of the otherwise stagnant eastern part of the lake. The position of the main island has not changed; as measured on February 12, the southern end of the island was 9 m. above the surface of the lava lake, with the highest point at 21 m. above the surface. All the other islands remain stationary, frozen in the stagnant eastern part of the lava lake. SO2 emission rates remain high. The most recent measurements of sulfur dioxide emission rates from February 12 are around 1,100 t / d, which is lower than the pre-2018 lava lake emission rates (around 5,000 t / d). Summit tiltmeters show that slight deflation continues this morning. Seismicity remains high but stable, with high earthquakes and a few minor earthquakes. HVO reported that as of the morning of February 11, the lava in the active potion west of Halema'uma'u lake was about 215m deep, with the eastern part of the lava lake solidifying on the surface. Summit tiltmeters show inflationary tilt continuing over the past day. Sulfur dioxide emission rate measurements taken on February 10 were approximately 1,600 t / d, below the range of pre-2018 lava lake emission rates. Seismicity remains high but stable, with high earthquakes and a few minor earthquakes. HVO reported that eruptive activity continues at the western fissure, supplying lava to the lava lake via a lava stream at the entry site along the western margin. Yesterday 9th of February, geologists reported a small active dome fountain at the entrance site. The active surface lava remains largely confined to the western half of the lake, as before. The western part of the lake continues to present scattered crustal shipwrecks. The stagnant eastern part of the lake was several meters lower than the perched, elevated and active western part. A series of surface cracks separate the asset from the stagnant part of the lake. The islands remained stationary last week. As of the morning of February 9, the lava in the western and active part of Halema'uma'u Lake was about 215 m (705 feet) deep, with the eastern part of the lava lake solidifying on the surface. SO2 emission rates remain high. HVO reported that on the morning of February 6, the lava in the western, active part of Lake Halema'uma'u was about 211 m (692 feet) deep, with the eastern part of the lava lake solidifying on the surface. SO2 emission rates remain high. As hot gases rise from the western vent of Halema'uma'u, the cooler temperatures of the atmosphere cause the water vapor to condense, creating a flammagenitus / pyrocumulus cloud over the Kīlauea lava lake .HVO reported that lava activity is still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. On the morning of February 2, the lava lake is about 213 meters deep, and only the western part of the lava lake is active. SO2 emission rates remain high. The summit inclinometers are on an inflationary trend. Seismicity remains high but stable, with regular high earthquakes and a few minor earthquakes.HVO reported that lava activity is still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. On January 28 afternoon, lava filled about 209 m of Halema'uma'u crater and only the western part of the lava lake is active. Sulfur dioxide emission rate measurements taken on January 23 were approximately 2,200 t / d, below the range of lava lake emission rates before 2018. The summit inclinometers are on an inflationary trend. Seismicity remains high but stable, with high and regular earthquakes and a few minor earthquakes. HVO reported that active western half of the lava lake was about 205m deep this morning on January 25, while the stagnant eastern half of the lake remains several meters below. The entire lava lake - including the stagnant eastern half - is perched / high above the crust between the perched lake and the crater wall. The east side is elevated about 1 m and the west side 4 m above the solidified lava crust adjacent to the crater wall. All of the islands have remained stationary for the past week, frozen in the stagnant eastern part of the lava lake. The dimensions of the main island have remained unchanged with its edges several meters above the surface of the lake. On January 22, the southern end of the island was measured at 12 m. above the surface of the lava lake, the highest point at 23 m. above the surface. HVO reported that lava activity is still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. Low-level fountaining from the west vent feeds a lava channel that drains into the lava lake in Halema'uma'u Crater. The active western half of the lava lake was around 205m deep as of January 23, while the stagnant eastern half of the lake remains several meters below. The entire lava lake - including half that is stagnant - is perched / elevated at least 1-2m above the crust between the perched lake and the crater wall. HVO reported that the west vent feeds a lava channel that drains into the lava lake inside Halema'uma'u crater. The most recent sulfur dioxide emission ratio was 2.50 tonnes / day on January 16. The active western half of the lava lake was about 202 m deep on the morning of January 20, while the stagnant eastern half of the lake remains several meters lower. The entire lava lake - including half of it is stagnant - is perched / elevated at least 1-2m above the crust between the perched lake and the crater wall. HVO reported that lava activity was still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu crater, with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. On morning, January 15, the lava lake has a depth of about 199 m and remains stagnant on its eastern half. SO2 emission rates remain high. The low fountain in the west vent feeds a lava channel that drains into the lava lake at Halema'uma'u Crater. The active western half of the lava lake was about 199m deep on January 15, while the stagnant eastern half of the lake remains several meters below. The entire lava lake - including half of it stagnant - is perched at least 1-2m above the crust between the perched lake and the crater wall. All of the lava lake islands have been stationary for the past week as if frozen in the stagnant parts of the eastern lava lake. The dimensions of the main island have remained unchanged with its edges several meters above the surface of the lake. HVO reported that lava activity was still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater. On morning, January 14, the lava lake was about 199 m (653 ft) deep and remains stagnant over its eastern half. Yesterday afternoon, summit tiltmeters started registering an inflationary tilt. Seismicity remains high but stable, with regular earthquakes and a few minor earthquakes. HVO reported that on morning of January 12 the lava lake was about 196m deep below the west vents, while the stagnant eastern half of the lake was about 4m shallower. The eastern part of the lake seemed to have sagged beneath its perched edges. Overall, the size of the active and inactive parts of the lake has remained the same. The lake was still perched at least 1-2m above the inactive crust between the perched lake and the crater wall which was also rising.As of the 11th of January HVO reported that the lava activity was confined to Halema'uma'u with lava erupting from vents on the northwest side of the crater. on the morning of January 10, the lava lake was about 196 m deep under the western vents while remaining stagnant on its eastern half. SO2 emission rates are still high and the most recent measurements of the sulfur dioxide emission rate of 2,300 t / d on Sunday. The western vents showed a stronger flow from January 10 afternoon with splash and lava flows fueled by splashing from the top of small cones abutting the northwest wall of Halema'uma'u crater. Lava also flowed from the western vents into the lake through an encrusted channel. All of the islands have been stationary for the past day, like frozen in the stagnant parts of the eastern lava lake. The dimensions of the main island have remained unchanged with its edges several meters above the surface of the lake. HVO reported that the lava lake was 194 m deep on January 6th and had a volume of over 27 million cubic meters (35 million cubic yards). The most recent heat map (January 5) indicated that the dimensions of the perched lake were 760 by 520 m. for a total area of ​​28 ha - slightly smaller than December 30 when the map was made. Tuesday (January 5), the lake was perched about 1 to 2 m. above its narrow edges; the overflow on the narrow edge slowly raised a low wall around the lake similar to the wall around an above ground swimming pool.The HVO's flyby over Halema'uma'u on January 5, 2021 showed the newly exposed lava channel entering the lava lake. Lava also continues to enter the lava lake through the tube, which produces the small domed fountain at the margin of the lake below (lower center). As of the 4th of January, HVO reported that the situation was slowly changing. West vents emitted spatters from two places atop a small cone stuck to the northwest wall of Halema'uma'u crater.The lava also emerges as a small domed fountain in front of the west vents, probably from a submerged part of the vent. Sulfur dioxide emissions remain high, with a ratio of 4,400 tonnes per day (January 1). The lava lake was 190 m deep on Sunday afternoon (January 3) and a volume of 26 million cubic meters. It is now perched about a meter above its narrow edges measured yesterday morning (January 3); the overflows on the narrow edge have raised a low wall around the lake that looks like an above ground swimming pool. HVO reported that the West Vent of Halema’uma’u Crater continues to erupt without significant change in recent days. An incandescence was visible from the skylights above the vent and occasional splashes are ejected from these skylights. A weak spattering slowly formed a cone at the vents. The lava channel, which crusted several days ago, continues to supply the lake with lava, and the place where the lava is rising was marked by incandescent fine lines at night. HVO reported that the western vents of Halema'uma'u crater showed spatttering, and feed a lava flow through lava tunnels towards the lake; It continues to widen slowly, its depth reached 186 meters in the afternoon of December 31st, 2020. Sulfur dioxide emission ratios remain high, with 4,500-5,000 tonnes per day. The seismicity remains high, but stable, marked by a high tremor and some earthquakes. The main island of colder, solidified lava floating in the lava lake moved faster westward, as if searching for the western lava source filling the lake, while the other 10 small islands remained relatively stationary around the east end of the lake. The main island measured about 250 m. in length, 135 m. wide and about 3 ha. area according to the heat map of December 30. The measurements on Wednesday evening (December 30) show that the surface of the island was about 6-8 m. above the surface of the lake.HVO reported that the lava lake of Kilauea has changed little in recent days: Erupting lava at the active west vent flows along the lava channel encrusted for the most part over 130 feet in the surface of the lava lake, while in At the top of the fissure, the vents cycle between weak lava fountains and periods of strombolian activity, exhibiting spattering. The lava lake has a depth of 181 meters, for a volume of about 23 million m³. Sulfur dioxide emissions have fallen a little (3,300 tonnes / day), but still remain high. A slight deflationary signal is observed on 30 december, while the seismicity is high and stable, marked by a large tremor and some minor earthquakes. HVO reported that lava activity was still confined to Halemaʻumaʻu crater with lava erupting from a vent on the northwest side of the crater, by two or three narrow channels visible on December 28 morning. As of the 27th of December, HVO reported that the lava lake in the Halemaʻumaʻu crater of Kilauea has changed little over the past day and was about 177 m (581 feet) deep and about 408 m (1340 feet) below the southern edge of Halemaʻumaʻu on the morning of December 27). The volume of the lake remained around 21 million cubic meters (27 million cubic yards or 4.8 billion gallons). The most recent heat map indicated that the dimensions of the lake were 790 by 520 m (864 by 569 yds) for a total area of ​​29 ha (72 acres). The narrow ledge (10-30 m or 11-22 yd) around the lake was about 1-2 m (1-2 yds) above the active surface of the lake, suggesting that the surface of the lake dropped during of the last 2 days. As of the 26th of December, HVO reported that the lava activity remained confined to Halemaʻumaʻu from two vents on the north and northwest sides of the crater. At 2 p.m. yesterday, the crater lake was still 176m deep and the lake level appeared to be 2m. lower, leaving a narrow black rim around the northern edge. Early this morning, the west vent re-activated as the north vent calmed down and began to drain the lake. Reduced SO2 emissions were measured last night. The north vent continued to erupt lava into a lake inside Halema'uma'u Crater. The west vent was glowing until about 2:40 a.m. this morning (almost coinciding with the change from a deflationary tilt to an inflationary summit tilt) when it became vigorously active with up to 3 narrow lava streams in the lake. After 3 a.m., the north vent calmed down and began to slowly drain lava from the lake, and the volume of the lava lake remained around 21 million cubic meters. As of the 25th od December HVO reported that there was no significant change at the summit crater of Kilauea : lava activity remains confined to Halemaʻumaʻu from two vents on the north and northwest sides of the crater. At 7 a.m. on December 25, the growing crater lake was 176 m (577 feet) deep. The high SO2 emissions continued. Two vents continued to erupt on the north and northwest walls of Halemaʻumaʻu. The west vent, located on the lowest block of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, splashed intermittently. The north vent remains the most vigorous and is slowly flooded by the rise of the lake.The vents continued to supply lava to a rapidly expanding lake filling Halema'uma'u Crater. As of early Christmas morning, the lake was 176m deep - an increase of 6m from the previous 24 hours. The volume of the lava lake on the morning of December 25 was approximately 21 million cubic meters. A colder, solidified lava island in the lava lake has become smaller and is slowly drifting northeast into the lake. It is approximately 260m in length and 115m in width according to the heat map of December 23rd. HVO reported that on the afternoon of December 23th, HVO field crews noted that the surface of the summit lava lake of Kīlauea is now 143 m deep, with an approximate volume of 12 million cubic meters. (summit webcams). The area was about 22 ha and the shape of the lake is roughly oval with an east-west length of 690 m and a north-south width of 410 m. A smaller, coolder, solidified lava island has drifted east into the lake over the past 24 hours. (photos and video). It seems to have about 150 m in diameter. The fountaining continues in 2 places, more vigorously at the east vent, feeding the growing lava lake. Summit tiltmeters continued to record a constant deflationary tilt. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high, estimated at around 30,000 tonnes / day, measured on Monday, December 21st. SO2 emissions continue. Seismicity remained high but stable, with a few minor earthquakes and fluctuations in tremor related to the vigor of the fissure fountain.As of the 22nd of December, HVO reported that not significant change occurred. Kīlauea continues to erupt at its summit from at least two vents on the north and west sides of Halemaʻumaʻu. On the morning, the growing crater lake was 487 m (1,598 ft) below the crater rim, indicating that the lake has filled 134 m (440 ft) of the bottom of the Halemaʻumaʻu rater. Summit tiltmeters continued to record slowing deflationary tilt through this morning. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain high estimated at around 30,000 tonnes/day. Seismicity is elevated but stable the last day, with few earthquakes and tremor fluctuations related to the vigor of fissure fountaining. When measured last night, the Halemaʻumaʻu lava lake was 487 m (1,598 ft) below the crater rim and rising at more than 1 m/hr (3 ft/hr). Of the three vents that initially erupted from the north and northeast walls of Halemaʻumaʻu, only two remain active, with the middle vent pausing eruptive activity between approximately 7:30 and 8:00 a.m. HST. The middle and west vents, which are located on the lowest down-dropped block within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, have since been inundated by the growing lava lake. The farthest east vent remains the most vigorous. As of early this morning, a preliminary calculation of volume suggests that, since the start of the eruption, approximately 10 million cubic meters of lava have been erupted (equivalent to over 2 billion gallons). This is a surface area of about 33 acres. As of the 21st of December, HVO reported that activity over the past ten hours has been characterized by three fissure vents on the north and northwest walls of Halema'uma'u Crater. The lava fountain at these vents is estimated to measure up to 25m. height; the vents feed the lava flows into the base of Halema'uma'u Crater, which is being filled with a growing lava lake. No major changes at 4:09 am HST on December 21, 2020. The fountain on the north inner wall of Halema'uma'u crater is dominant, with a weaker fountain emitted from the cracks to the west. The lava lake continues to rise and grow slowly and began to flood the base of the fallen blocks in the Kīlauea caldera during the summit collapse events of 2018. The gas plume continues to ripple and drift to south-west. Just after 6 a.m. HST on December 21, 2020, the middle crack stopped; the main weakest eastern and western cracks remain active. Lava continues to fill Halemaʻumaʻu, and volcanic gas and glass (Pelé's hair) move in the wind. The lava lake has risen at about several meters per hour since the eruption began. The current lava lake has a circulating perimeter, but a stagnant center. The event was accompanied by only moderate amounts of warping, indicating the deflation of a magma reservoir beneath Halema’uma’u. The tilt rates have decreased slightly since the onset of the eruption. The eruption is currently confined to the Halemaʻumaʻu crater. HVO reported that a seismic swarm began on the evening of December 20th in Kilauea, accompanied by ground deformation detected by inclinometers. Shortly after approximately 9:36 p.m. HST on December 20, the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) detected a glow in Halema'uma'u Crater at the top of Kīlauea Volcano.An eruption has started in the summit caldera of Kīlauea. The situation is changing rapidly and the HVO will issue another statement when more information becomes available. According to the first data, that is a small eruption limited to the caldera. As a result, the HVO raised Kīlauea's volcanic alert level to WARNING and its aviation color code to RED. Previously, HVO reported that Kīlauea Volcano is not erupting. Monitoring data for the month of June show variable but typical rates of seismicity and ground deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions, and only minor geologic changes since the end of eruptive activity in September 2018. Water was first observed at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, within Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, one year ago. Since then, the body of water has slowly deepeaned and grown in size. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory continues to monitor the lake, Kīlauea Volcano remains at alert-level NORMAL and aviation color-code GREEN. HVO published May Monthly summary about the activity of the Kīlauea volcano, which is not erupting. Monitoring data for May shows variable but typical rates of seismicity and soil deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions and only minor geological changes since eruptive activity ended in September 2018 . Seismicity rates during the month were about 25% lower than last month. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the top and below the detection limits at PuʻuʻŌʻō and in the lower East Rift Zone. The crater lake at the bottom of Halema'uma'u continues to expand and deepen slowly. As of June 3, the depth of the lake was approximately 36 meters. A certain amount of sulfur dioxide is dissolved in the summit lake and work is continuing to try to quantify this process. HVO reported that monitoring data for February showed variable but typical rates of seismicity and soil deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions and only minor geological changes since the end of activity eruptive in September 2018. The pond of acid water at the bottom of Halema'uma'u continues to expand and deepen slowly. In early March, the dimensions of the pond were approximately 100 meters by 200 meters. The current depth is around 28 meters. As of the 6th of February, HVO reported that the seismicity rates during the month were variable but remain in the long-term values. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the top and below the detection limits at Puʻu ʻŌʻō and in the lower East Rift zone. The pond at the bottom of Halema'uma'u, which began to form on July 25, 2019, continues to expand and deepen slowly. At the beginning of February, the dimensions were: 95 meters by 194 meters. The current depth is around 25 meters.PREVIOUS NEWS 2019 - As of the 5th of December, HVO reported monitoring data continue to show steady rates of seismicity and ground deformation, low rates of sulfur dioxide emissions, and only minor geologic changes since the end of eruptive activity in September 2018. Monitoring data have shown no significant changes in volcanic activity during November. Over the past month, about a dozen DI events occurred beneath the summit. Seismic stations detected over 1800 earthquakes in the vicinity of the volcano, which is an increase of ~10% from last month. Rates of seismicity are relatively consistent throughout the month, although at the summit, episodic increased rates appear to be coincident with the inflated phase of the DI events. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the summit and are below detection limits at Puʻu ʻŌʻō and the lower East Rift Zone. The pond at the bottom of Halema'uma'u, which began forming on July 25, 2019, continues to slowly expand and deepen, and the most recent measurements are 162 meters in the east-west direction and 73 meters in the north-south direction. HVO reported that the crater lake of Halema'uma'u continues to grow; its level is measured on October 19 at 608 meters under the observation site. The steam that sweeps its surface testifies to the high temperature of the water, and the winds at the bottom of the crater. The refill is marked by areas of bluish color on a general tint of the surface of greenish yellow color. HVO reported that a recent flyover of the Pu'u O'o 'crater in the eastern rift zone of Kilauea allowed a good visualization of the bottom of the crater, drained after 35 years of eruptions. The rubble from the collapse of the crater walls filled much of its deepest part, the bottom being now about 250 meters (820 feet) below the eastern ledge. As of the 2nd of August HVO reported that the seismicity and strain ratios remained stable; low emissions of sulfur dioxide since September 2018. Insight from July 25, 2019, a green pond marks the floor of Halema'uma'u, at about 540 meters above sea level. HVO scientists flew over the summit of Kilauea in the morning of 1 August and confirm the presence of water at the bottom of Halima'uma'u crater. Observers saw reflections from the green pond. The pond has clearly expanded since the oldest photos made on July 25th. Previous news - As of the 22nd of May, HVO reported that no significant change occurred over the past week in Kilauea volcanic activity, in normal volcanic alert / green aviation code.Since the beginning of March, tiltmeters have recorded a modest inflationary trend at the top, confirmed by GPS and InSAR measurements; it is interpreted as a magmatic accumulation in the shallow portion of the summit magmatic system, 1-2 km deep.Other measurements show the filling of the magma reservoir of the deep East Rift Zone in a large area between Pu'u O'o and Highway 130, since the end of the 2018 eruption. The HVO continues to monitor Kilauea's seismicity, deformation and gas emissions closely, to detect an increase in its activity. As of the 20th of March, HVO reported that over the past week, volcanic activity has not changed significantly.Low levels seismicity persisted on the volcano, with earthquakes occurring mainly in the summit and south flank regions. GPS stations and inclinometers continue to display movements consistent with deep magma reservoir filling in the East Rift Zone. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Pu'u'u'ō remain low. These rates have been stable for several weeks. HVO reported that rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past week. Low rates of seismicity continue across the volcano, with earthquakes occurring primarily in the summit and south flank regions. GPS stations and tiltmeters continue to show motions consistent with refilling of the deep East Rift Zone. These rates have been steady over the past several weeks. At Kilauea's summit, tiltmeters are showing deflationary tilt consistent with the beginning of a Deflation-Inflation event (D-I event); these types of events have been commonly observed at the summit for several years. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Puʻu ʻŌʻō remain low. As of the 15th of January 2019, HVO reportede that rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past weeks. Deformation signals are consistent with slow magmatic recharge within the middle East Rift Zone (ERZ).Low rates of seismicity continue across the volcano, with events occurring primarily in the summit and south flank regions. Slow inflationary tilt continues in the middle ERZ. Sulfur dioxide emission rates have been below detection limits in the LERZ since early September, though minor amounts of volcanic gas are still present. Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit and Puʻu ʻŌʻō remain low. Previously,HVO reported that no more active lava observations since September 4th, 2018 on the basis of the criterias of GVN program, the phase of the eruption on the Lower East Rift Zone can be considered to be over .Kilauea remains an active volcano, and geophysical data continues to show movements in the magmatic system, including a recharge of the East Rift Zone. As of the 30th of October, HVO reported that Kīlauea Volcano is not erupting. Rates of seismicity, deformation, and gas release have not changed significantly over the past week. Deformation signals are consistent with refilling of the middle East Rift Zone.HVO monitoring during the past week shows low rates of seismicity at the summit and East Rift Zone (ERZ). Earthquakes continue to occur primarily at Kīlauea's summit area and south flank (magnitude-3.8 was the largest) with continued small aftershocks of the magnitude-6.9 quake on May 4, 2018. Seismicity remains low in the lower ERZ. In the ERZ, tiltmeters near Puʻu ʻŌʻō and farther east continue to record an inflationary trend, consistent with refilling of the middle East Rift Zone. At the summit, tiltmeters have recorded a slight inflationary trend. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions at the summit averaged 50 tonnes/day as reported on October 24, and 75 tonnes/day at Puʻu ʻŌʻō on October 23. There was no sulfur dioxide detected by our instruments in the lower ERZ. Previously, HVO bulletin ( 3rd of october) reported that On Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (ERZ), no significant incandescence was visible overnight within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming from the cone was visible during the past day. Webcam images of the fissure 8 cone show that a portion of the crater wall near the northern spillway area has slowly shifted during the past 2 weeks, indicating some instability of the cone in this area. As of the 2nd of October, HVO reported that no significant incandescence was visible overnight in the collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming has been visible during the day. On the middle ERZ, a rockfall at Puʻu ʻŌʻō produced a small ash plume around noon yesterday, October 1. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. Rates of tilting throughout both the summit and the ERZ are much lower than those observed during the recent period of major eruptive activity. As of the 25th of September HVO reported that on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no significant incandescence was visible overnight in the collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone. Minor fuming is visible during the day. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. HVO reported minor incandescence from a collapse pit in the central part of Kilauea’s Fissure 8 cone during 12-15 September, and that small amounts of fuming rose from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the Fissure 8 cone during 12-18 September. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit, and aftershocks from the M 6.9 earthquake in early May were located along faults on the south flank. The combined rate of sulfur dioxide emission from the summit and the LERZ (less than 1,000 tonnes/day) were lower than any time since late 2007. Small collapses at Pu'u 'O'o Crater during 12-14 September generated visible dust plumes. The Volcano Alert level l remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. HVO bulletin (11th of September) reported that on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), minor amounts of incandescence were observed overnight from a collapse pit within the fissure 8 cone, though the amount was reduced over observations from the previous night. Very minor fuming is visible from a small spatter cone located towards the back of the cone. Small lava flows have been observed within the fissure 8 cone, however none have extended outside the walls of the cone. Seismicity and ground deformation remain low at the summit of Kīlauea. Aftershocks from the magnitude-6.9 earthquake in early May are still being generated on faults located on Kīlauea's South Flank. Small collapses continued to occur yesterday at Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater, but are much less frequent than they were over the previous two days. As of the 7th of September, HVO reported that lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no incandescence was visible at fissure 8 from helicopter overflight or UAS (drone) views this morning. Small lava flows have been observed within the fissure 8 cone, however none extend outside the walls of the cone. There is no change in overall activity from observations over the past several days. As of the 5th of September, HVO reported that seismicity remains low and ground deformation is negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. A magnitude-3.1 earthquake that occurred at 5:31AM HST this morning was located below Kīlauea's South Flank and is likely an aftershock of the magnitude-6.9 earthquake from early May. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), no incandescence was visible on the fissure 8 spillway overnight. Images from the UAS (drone) crew showed that weak lava activity continues in the fissure 8 cone as of yesterday afternoon, with no lava extending outside the walls of the cone and no flows heading down the spillway. HVO reported that on 2nd of September, seismicity remained low and ground deformation is negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. Earthquakes, probably aftershocks of the magnitude-6.9 earthquake in early May, continue on South Flank faults. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), incandescence was observed in the fissure 8 cone yesterday afternoon (09/01) with reports of activity extending into early evening. In addition to a persistent spot of spattering, lava slowly covered the 65-by-15 m (210-by-45 ft) crater floor by evening. Webcam views showed weak incandescence occasionally reflected on the eastern spillway wall from the crater overnight suggesting that the lava in the crater remained active. This morning, ground crews have no view of the crater inside the fissure 8 cone, but report the fissure 8 cone is quiet when viewed from a safe distance with no visible fume. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at the summit, Puʻu ʻŌʻō, and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate (< 1,000 t/d) is lower than at any time since late 2007. Friday (08/31), LERZ emission rates were still too low to measure. HVO reported that during an overflight on 25 August a small lava pond was visible deep within the vent at Kilauea's Fissure 8 cone; the pond was no longer visible on 27 August. Lava continued to ooze into the ocean and produce minimal laze plumes, but by 27 August only a small single breakout from the Kapoho Bay lobe was active. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. HVO bulletin ( 24th of August - 20:30 UTC) reported that seismicity and ground deformation are negligible at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano. On the volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ), only a few ocean entries were oozing lava and laze plumes were minimal from overflights early this week. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at both the summit and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate is lower than at any time since late 2007. On Tuesday, the SO2 emissions from the LERZ were too low to measure although SO2 smells were noticed. HVO bulletin (19th of August - 22:39 UTC) reported that the lull in activity at Kīlauea Volcano continues. At the summit, seismicity and deformation are negligible. On the lower East Rift Zone, the only incandescence is at the coast near Ahalanui where a few ocean entries are oozing lava. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at both the summit and LERZ are drastically reduced; the combined rate is lower than at any time since late 2007 HVO reported that during 8-14 August activity at Kilauea was characterized by a slowly-circulating lava pond deep within the Fissure 8 vent (though the pond was crusted over by 14 August) and a billowing gas plume, and a few scattered ocean entries. The summit area was quiet except for occasional rockfalls into the crater. Fresh black sand from fragmented lava was transported SW by the ocean current, and accumulated in the Pohoiki harbor, creating a sandbar. The westernmost ocean entry was about 1 km NE of the harbor. Earthquake and deformation data indicated no magma movement or pressurization in the system. HVO bulletin ( 9th of August - 19h06 UTC) reported that activity and lava output from Fissure 8 remains low and there have been no signs of reactivation or new intrusion. Up-rift of Fissure 8, Fissures 9, 10, and 24, and down-rift Fissures 13, 23, 3, 21 and 7, continue to steam. Ground crews and overflights continue to monitor these for signs of new activity. This morning's overflight crew observed a crusted lava pond deep inside the steaming cone at a level significantly lower than when viewed Tuesday morning. HVO bulletin (7th of August - 23h06 UTC) reported that activity and lava output from fissure 8 remains low. The morning overflight crew observed a small active lava lake within the fissure 8 cone, a weak gas plume, and a drained upper lava channel. The surface of the lava lake was about 5-10 m below the spillway entrance. There were a diminishing number of small active ooze outs near the coast on the Kapoho Bay and Ahalanui lobes and the laze plume was greatly diminished. Active lava remains close to the Pohoiki boat ramp but has not advanced significantly toward it. As of the 3rd of August, HVO reported tha fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the channel leading northeastward from the vent. Multiple overflows developed late yesterday afternoon and evening, one of which headed north toward Noni Farms Road, starting a small fire. Field crews determined the advancing overflow had ceased by 21:00 HST but that fires were still burning. Further downstream overflows were concentrated in the wide lava field west and south-southwest of Kapoho cone, also igniting small fires in adjacent vegetation. HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 18-24 July. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that continued to spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and entered the ocean at Ahalanui. Inward slumping of the crater rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continued, adjusting from the withdrawal of magma and subsidence of the summit area. Explosions from collapse events occurred about every other day (38.5 and 53.5 hours in between a few of the events). Sulfur dioxide emissions from the summit were very low. Fountaining at Fissure 8 continued, producing Pele's hair and other volcanic glass that fell within Leilani Estates. The fountains continued to feed the lava flow that traveled NE, and then SSE, W of Kapoho Crater; lava occasionally overflowed the channel, and on 28 July ignited nearby vegetation. Small plumes of laze (a corrosive steam plume mixed with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic glass particles) were generated at several points along a broad 2-km-wide flow front at Ahalanui. The westernmost edge was less than 175 m NE of the boat ramp in Isaac Hale Park (by 30 July). HVO bulletin ( 16th of July - 19:31 UTC) reported that Fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. The channel is full but not quite up to the rim; there were no significant overflows this morning. The southern margin of the flow remained about 1 km (0.6 mi) from Isaac Hale Park this morning. Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continues to ooze out at several points on the 6 km (3.7 mi) wide flow front into the ocean. Explosions were reported from the main ocean entry this morning with at least one being quite strong. Fissure 22 did not appear active this morning but sounds were heard from it last night. No other fissures are active this morning. HVO bulletin (July 15th - 21:21 UTC) reported that fissure 8 continues to erupt lava into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. Lava levels in the upper channel increased briefly following this morning's summit collapse-explosion event at 3:26 a.m. Another short-lived overflow of the channel at the vent spread east-southeast this morning, but did not advance beyond the existing flow field. The channelized ʻaʻā flow west of Kapoho Crater continues to be the main ocean entry at the southern edge of the flow front. The southern margin of the flow remained about 1 km (0.6 mi) from Isaac Hale Park this morning. Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continues to ooze out at several points on the 6 km (3.7 mi) wide flow front into the ocean. No other fissures are active on the morning. At 3:26 a.m. HST July 15, a collapse/explosion occurred beneath the summit of Kīlauea with energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.2 earthquake. Seismic activity at the summit decreased immediately following the event, but is beginning to increase at this time. Earthquakes in the summit area have resumed following 12th of july collapse/explosion event at 2:42 PM HST, which had an energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.3 earthquake. (updated map 12th of July). HVO bulletin ( July 10th - 19:57 UTC) reported that fissure 8 continues to erupt lava steadily into the perched channel leading northeastward from the vent. Disruptions to the mid-channel occurred yesterday afternoon producing localized overflows along the margins of the flowfield, mostly atop earlier lavas. A significant overflow north of the cinder quarry advancing yesterday and last night towards Cinder Rd. has stalled. An overflow lobe moving around the west side of Kapoho Cone remains active this morning and small brushfires are reported along the margins. Downstream, lava appears to be reoccupying the channel leading to the ocean entry were multiple fingers of lava are active. The southern margin of the ocean entry shows little sign of movement. Yesterday's channel disruption and overflows were caused by blockages that developed along the channel. Additional blockages and resulting overflows are likely to occur as long as the activity continues. Fissure 22 continues to exhibit weak spattering. No other fissures are active. HVO bulletin ( July 10 - 3:05 UTC) Early on afternoon observers reported multiple overflows occurring along both sides of the main lava channel, in an area extending from near the "Y" intersection at Pohoiki Road eastwards to an area just west of Kapoho Crater. Overflows on the upper part of the channel did not extend beyond areas previously covered in lava. Overflows further down the channel have reached beyond the flow field, including one flow lobe that is moving northeast from the main channel towards Cinder Rd. Residents are urged to heed warnings and notices from Hawaii County Civil Defense. Based on information from ground observers and morning and afternoon overflights, the lower part of the main lava channel has undergone significant reorganization. In particular, the channel that had been open near Four Corners is now mostly crusted over, and plumes from ocean entry are significantly reduced. It is likely this is due to a blockage that formed in the early morning in the main channel upstream of Kapoho Crater. Flow volumes coming out of Fissure 8 remain significant, and it is possible that changes in flow channels will continue to occur in the coming days. Fissure 22 continues to exhibit weak spattering. At 9:20 AM HST on July 9, a collapse/explosion occurred beneath Kilauea caldera with energy equivalent to a magnitude-5.3 earthquake. The number of earthquake dropped from 25-40/hr to less than 10/hr. We expect the earthquakes to increase over the next day until the next collapse/explosion tomorrow. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halemaʻumaʻu continues in response to the ongoing subsidence at the summit. HVO bulletin ( 4th of July - 18: 53 UTC ) Fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with intermittent small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now about 55 m (180 ft) tall at its highest point, and fountains rarely rise above that point. ( video vortex ) At the coast, the northern margin of the flow field is still oozing pasty lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Ag and Beach Lots. Lava was entering the sea over a broad area this morning primarily on the northern side of the flow front. As shown by the July 02 thermal map of the flow field, the lava channel has crusted over about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) inland of the ocean entry; lava is oozing from the flow's molten interior into the ocean along most of its broad front. Temporary channel blockages of the Fissure 8 channel causing minor overflows were observed just north of Kapoho Crater by USGS and Civil Air Patrol overflights. Fissure 22 is spattering about 50-80 m above a conical spatter cone and feeding a short lava flow that is moving slowly to the northeast along the edge of earlier flows. (updated map - 30th of June) . HVO bulletin ( 29th of June - 8:28 pm ) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with intermittent small, short-lived overflows. These overflows rarely extend beyond the existing flow field. No active overflows were observed during this morning's helicopter overflight.The spatter cone is now about 55 m (180 ft) tall at its highest point, and fountains rarely rise above that point. At the coast, the northern margin of the flow field is still oozing fresh lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Beach Lots and a few burning areas were observed on the south side of the flow and west of highway 137. Lava was entering the sea over a broad area this morning primarily on the northern side of the entry area. As shown by yesterday's thermal map of the flow field, the lava channel has crusted over about 0.8 km (0.5 mi) inland of the ocean entry; lava is moving beneath the crust and into still-molten interior of earlier flows before it enters the sea. HVO bulletin ( 27th of June - 8:07 pm) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. Small overflows on both sides of the upslope portion of the channel occurred shortly after midnight, June 27. None of these overflows extended past the existing flow field. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the entry area primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area. The morning overflight revealed that the northern margin of the flow field at the coast is oozing fresh lava at several points in the area of Kapoho Beach Lots. HVO bulletin (June 26th of June - 7:13 pm) reported that funtains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. The lava flow front at the coast broadened southward and is now nearly 2 miles in width. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern portion of the flow front primarily through the open channel, but also along a 0.6 mi wide area with multiple laze plumes from smaller oozing lobes. Fissure 22 showed weak spattering and tiny flows around the base of the cone. This morning's overflight crew also observed minor incandescence at Fissure 16/18. HVO bulletin ( June 25th - 10:59 pm) reported that the eruption in the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) continues with no significant change during the past 24 hours. Fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. The spatter cone is now 180 ft tall at its highest point, and fountains only occasionally rise above that point. The lava flow front at the coast broadened southward and is now nearly 2 miles in width. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the flow front primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area marked by billowing laze plumes. Fissure 22 is weakly active and Fissure 16/18 was not observed on the morning.At 4:12 p.m. HST on June 24, after approximately 17 hours of elevated seismicity, a collapse explosion occurred at the summit producing an ash-poor steam plume that went undetected by the weather radar. Visual observations suggested the plume rose less than 2000 ft above the caldera before drifting downwind to the southwest. The energy released by the event was equivalent to a magnitude 5.3 earthquake. HVO bulletin 23rd of June - 18:40 UTC) reported that fountains from Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to supply lava to the open channel with only small, short-lived overflows. During an overflight early this morning, geologists observed incandescence from Fissure 22, but no associated spattering or flow. Lava is entering the sea this morning on the southern side of the entry area primarily through the open channel, but also along a 1-kilometer (0.6 mi) wide area. The entry areas are marked by billowing laze plumes. HVO reported that the eruption at Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) and at Overlook Crater within Halema`uma`u Crater continued during 13-19 June. Lava fountaining and spatter was concentrated at Fissure 8, feeding lava flows that spread through Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions, and built out the coastline where the fast-moving flow entered the ocean in the area of the former Kapoho Bay. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was occasionally noted, and spattering was visible at Fissure 6 on 16 June. Hawai‘i County Civil Defense reported that by 17 June a total of 533 homes had been destroyed due to lava flows. HVO bulletin (June 17th - 8:15 UTC) reported that the Lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption in Leilani Estates continued with little change. Fountains from the Fissure 8 spatter cone continue to feed lava into the well-established channel that flows to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava and mild spattering from Fissure 15 was observed late in the day. The flow field is relatively stable with little change to its size and shape for the past few days. HVO bulletin (16th - 2:59 UTC) reported that lava fountains from Fissure 8 reached heights between 100 and 130 ft with bursts up to 180 ft while the cinder and spatter cone that is building around the fissure is now about 170 ft at its highest point. Lava is flowing through the well-established channel from fissure 8 to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. The early afternoon overflight found the Fissure 8 vent, channel, and entry stable with a small amount of expansion at the southern boundary of the flow near the coast and south of Vacationland. Fissure 24 (southeast of Fissure 8) seemed to be steamier and emitting more fume. Fissure 9 (southeast of Fissure 24) appeared hotter and will be checked on the ground this afternoon. HVO bulletin (June 15th - 8:27 UTC) reported that fssure 8 lava fountains reached heights of 200 ft in the afternoon, and the cinder and spatter cone that is building around the fissure is now about 160 ft at its highest point. Lava is flowing through the well-established channel from fissure 8 to the ocean at Kapoho. Occasionally, lava spills over the channel levees. The ocean entry remained fairly broad with laze blown onshore. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. HVO bulletin (14th of June - 8:21 UTC) reported that lava fountains reaching heights of 53 m (174 ft) were observed at Fissure 8 in the late afternoon. Lava from Fissure 8 continues to flow through the well-established channel to the ocean at Kapoho, with rare, small overflows of the channel levees. A laze plume at the ocean entry was blown onshore this afternoon, and areas of upwelling offshore were present throughout the day. Fissures 16 and 18 continue to ooze lava. HVO bulletin (13th of june- 2:12 UTC) reported that line of closely spaced vents at Fissure 8 are continuing to erupt producing fountains encircled by a 115-ft spatter cone. This activity continues to feed the fast moving channelized flow that is entering the ocean at Kapoho. Weak lava activity continues at Fissures 16/18 as has been noted for the last several days. Incandescence was noted at Fissures 15 and 22. Lava was entering the ocean over a broader length this morning with several minor incandescent points and small plumes and two larger entries and corresponding plumes. The upwelling areas were also more dispersed than yesterday. (updated map 13th of June) . HVO bulletin (12th - 2:09 UTC) reported that three closely spaced lava fountains at fissure 8 are erupting with fluctuating heights from below the 115 ft high spatter cone around it up to 180 feet. Lava continues to be fed into the channelized flow trending north and then east to a single ocean entry at Kapoho. Weak lava activity at Fissures 16/18 was observed last night. This morning's overflight confirms that fountaining continues at Fissure 8 and that its channel is nearly full with no spillovers. Minor steam explosions were observed at the ocean entry. HVO bulletin reported that Fissure 8 now consists of three closely-spaced lava fountains, the tallest of which reached heights of 130-180 feet, feeding a strong channel to the northeast and then east to the ocean entry. During the day, minor spillovers have dribbled over the Fissure 8 channel levees but have generally stalled before reaching ground not covered by previous lava flows. Yesterday's measurements show that gas emissions from the fissure system have nearly doubled, possibly indicating an increase in eruption rate from Fissure 8. Minor lava activity at Fissures 16/18 continued. HVO bulletin (June 9th - 8:49 UTC) reported thatLava continues to erupt from Fissure 8, with vigorous fountains reaching heights of about 200-220 feet. Observers on the late afternoon overflight reported no significant changes in the Fissure 8 flow field, which continues to supply lava to the ocean entry at Kapoho. Two vigorous steam plumes are rising from the ocean flow front and being blown inland. Strong thermal upwelling was noted in the ocean extending up to 1000 yards out to sea from the visible lava front. Heavy gas and steam emissions were noted at fissures 9 & 10, but lava emission is occurring only at Fissure 8. Low level ash emissions continue at the summit with slowly increasing seismicity, indicating that another small explosion is likely in the next several hours. Inward slumping of the rim and walls of Halema`uma`u continues in response to ongoing subsidence at the summit. The number of houses destroyed since the beginning of this eruption has reached 600 including the areas of Leilani, Kapoho and Vacationland; This isthe most destructive eruption for Hawaii, listed in modern times, according to the mayor of the County. HVO bulletin ( June 8th - 8:24 UTC) reported that lava fountaining at Fissure 8 fluctuated with heights varying between 190 and 215 feet. This activity is feeding a lava channel flowing east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. The noon overflight found that the delta is about 1.2 mi wide in the Vacationland/Waopae area and observed the flow was expanding northward through Kapoho Beachlots. A large area of upwelling offshore suggests the presence of lava flowing on the ocean floor in that area. HVO bulletin ( June 7th - 00:34 UTC) reported that on the morning, lava fountaining at Fissure 8 continued to reach heights of 150-180 feet, feeding a stable channel to the east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. Lava is entering the ocean in the Vacationland subdivision. Vacationland has been completely covered by lava, and overnight the flow expanded north by 100 m within Kapoho Beach Lots. The lava delta that formed at Kapoho Bay extended slightly overnight. The northern lobe of the Fissure 8 flow shows no signs of activity this morning, and there is only wispy smoke at the flow front. No other fissures are active. HVO bulletin (June 6th - 8:28 UTC) reported that persistent lava fountaining at Fissure 8 is reaching heights of 150-180 feet. This eruptive activity continues to feed a channel transporting lava to the east to the ocean entry in the Kapoho Bay area. Minor breakouts along the channelized flow have been very small and stagnated before travelling any significant distance. HVO's late afternoon overflight showed that the Fissure 8 flow is continuing to form a lava delta with limited continuing advances into the surviving parts of the Kaphoho Beach Lots and Vacationlands neighborhoods. The northernmost lobe of the Fissure 8 flow is advancing very slowly to the northeast. No other fissure vents are active. HVO bulletin (June 5th - 5:30 UTC) reported that fountaining at Fissure 8 continued feeding a robust lava channel to northeast along Highway 132 to the ocean entry in Kapoho bay. As of late afternoon the lava entry had built a delta extending approximately 700 yards into the bay. A laze plume is blowing inland from the ocean entry but dissipating quickly. The lava flow front is about 600 yds wide. A lava breakout was also occurring upslope of the Kapoho cone cinder pit but stalled about 300 yards southeast of the intersection of Railroad Avenue and Cinder Road. Sluggish lava flows are present in the vicinity of Fissure 18; all other fissures are inactive. HVO bulletin ( June 4th - 5:07 UTC) reported that fissure 8 fountaining persisted throughout the day to heights up to 220 feet, and the channelized flow continued to deliver lava northeast along Highway 132 to the Kapoho area. Lava is advancing along a 0.5-mile-wide front towards the ocean at Kapoho Bay between Kapoho Beach Road and Kapoho Kai Drive. As of 5:45 PM HST, the lava flow was about 245 yards from the ocean at its closest approach point. Other branches of the Fissure 8 lava flow were inactive. All other fissures are inactive, although observers on the late afternoon overflight noted abundant gas emission from Fissures 9 & 10 and incandescence without fountaining at fissures 16 & 18. HVO bulletin (June 2nd - 8:29 UTC) treported that fountaining at Fissure 8 is reaching 180 - 220 feet in height and continues to feed a channelized lava flow to the northeast along Highway 132 and down into the Four Corners region (at the intersection of Highways 132 and 137). Small overflows from the channel are occurring along its length, including in a few places near the intersection of Highway 132 and Pohoiki road. As of 9:50 PM HST the flow front was approximately 0.28 miles from the intersection. The more western branches of the Fissure 8 flow either stalled or advanced only short distances. Fissure 18 appears to be crusted over or inactive. The flows that had been moving toward Highway 137 are either inactive or moving very slowly. Fissure 22 appears to be inactive. HVO bulletin ( June 1st - 4:41 UTC) reported that the fissure 8 continued to produce persistent fountains that reached heights up to 260 feet. A small spatter cone is forming on the downwind side of the fountain and is approximately 100 feet high. The fountains are feeding flow activity to the northeast, and minor overflows from the Fissure 8 channel are occurring along its length. One overflow covered the remaining northern part of Makamae Street in Leilani Estates. This overflow crossed Kahukai street, filling in a low area between Makamae and Luana streets. The front of the Fissure 8 flow near Noni Farms road advanced at rates up to 100 yards/hour. At 12:30 PM HST, the flow front was 1.9 miles from the Four Corners area. High eruption rates from Fissure 8 have led to the formation of a leveed channel along the western edge of the lava flow. Failure of flow levees could result in rapid advance of flows. Flow margins are extremely hazardous and should not be approached. Fissure 18 feeds the upper part of a lava flow that extends to 1.5 mi from Highway 137; the lower portion of the fissure 18 lava flow stalled about 0.5 mi from the highway. Fissure 2 is weakly active and is pooling lava around the vent. HVO bulletin (May 31st - 5:24 UTC) reported that fissure 8 maintained high fountains through Wednesday with sustained heights exceeding 200 feet and the presence of multiple secondary fountains that reached to 60 feet. This fountaining continued to feed a lava flow that moved downslope along Highway 132. Advance rates were less than 100 yards/hour for the three lobes of the flow. The flow moved north of Highway 132 in the vicinity of Noni Farms and Halekamahina roads, from which the two easternmost lobes advanced in a more east northeasterly direction while the westernmost lobe advanced in a northeasterly direction. The Fissure 18 flow also remained active, moving downslope toward Highway 137 at rates of much less than 100 yards per hour. During the day, sporadic bursts of activity were also observed from Fissures 22, 6, and 13. HVO bulletin (May 30th - 2:51 UTC) reported that vigorous eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) fissure system in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens. Fissure 8 remained very active today fountaining to heights of 200 feet at times and feeding a lava flow that advanced atop the Fissure 8 ʻaʻā flow that was active Sunday night/Monday morning. The first lobe of this flow crossed highway 132 just before 2 pm HST Tuesday. Lava continues to advance toward the northeast. Visual observations early Tuesday afternoon also confirmed continued weak activity at Fissures 18 and 19. Fissure 18 has produced channelized flows which have advanced 1.6 mi toward the coast. HVO bulletin (May 29th - 2:35 UTC) reported that the lava flow from Fissure 8 reached Pohoiki Rd. this morning and stalled as the Fissure's activity abruptly diminished. A few fissures reactivated briefly during the day. As of the 1 pm overflight, Fissure 8, 18, 20, 22, 6/13, and 7/21 reactivated with Fissure 7/21 having the highest fountains. The reactivated fissures have not yet erupted enough lava to reach the coast so the two ocean entry sites were relatively inactive. Only a minor ooze of residual lava was entering the ocean from the Eastern channel. (map) HVO bulletin (May 28th - 4:20 UTC) reported that vigorous eruption of lava continues from the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) fissure system in the area of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens. Fissures 22 and 13 continue to feed lava flows extending south to the lava ocean entry. Signals recorded on stations in the LERZ indicate that the lava ocean entry remained active overnight. This morning, lava activity at both vents has diminished and the ocean entries are weaker than yesterday. Fissure 6 is no longer active. Fissure 21 has been intermittently active. Fissure 7 activity is very active, producing a large spatter rampart over 100 feet tall from fountains reaching 150-200 feet. The fountains fed two perched channels--the north channel fed a lava flow that advanced toward pad E of the PGV property and the south channel a flow that was advancing to the southeast along the west border of the fissure 22 flow.Ash continued to erupt intermittently from the Overlook crater, within Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the Kīlauea summit, the largest occurred around noon producing an ash column to nearly 10,000 ft. The Fissure 7 north channel fed a flow that advanced into PGV property and approached pad E before it stalled this morning; however, the flow was refreshed by lava from the vent and, about noon, started to advance again covering a portion of pad E and also producing a narrow flow to the north of pad E. These flows continue to be active as of this posting. HVO bulletin (May 26th - 2:56 UTC reported that fissure 22 continues to erupt lava that is flowing southeast to the coast where lava is entering the ocean. Fountains at Fissures 6 and 13 feed lava into a channel that also reaches the coast, making a second ocean entry. Fissure 7 and 21 are feeding a lava flow that has advanced northeastward crossing Kahukai St. at about 3:30 pm this afternoon and continuing to the northeast at a slow pace. Fissure 17 is barely active.At the summit multiple small eruptions of ash occurred over the past day, all ejecting ash to under 10,000 ft above sea level. One of the largest occurred about 4:17 pm sending ash as high as 12,000 feet above sea level. HVO bulletin (May 25th - 3:12 UTC) reported that fissure 22 continues to erupt lava that is flowing southeast to the coast where lava is entering the ocean. Fairly tall fountains at Fissures 6 and 13 feed lava into a channel that reached the coast yesterday making a second ocean entry. Fissure 7 and 21 are feeding a pahoehoe flow that has advanced eastward covering most of the area bounded by Leilani Blvd, Mohala St., and and the fissure line. Fissure 17 continues weak spattering, Fissure 19 and 23 are no longer active. At the summit Seismic levels, which abruptly decreased after the recent explosive eruptions, are again slowly increasing. At this time, based on HVO web cameras, a robust plume of gas and steam is billowing out of the Overlook vent and drifting generally southwest. HVO bulletin (May 24th - 2:47 UTC) reported that fissure 6 through 22 continue erupting lava fountains. The fountains from Fissure 22 feed a single lava channel that reaches the coast just north of MacKenzie State Park. The actual point of entry has continued shifting to the west. Fountains erupted from Fissures 5, 6, 13, and 19 continued to feed a lava flow advancing to the south along the west side of the Fissure 22 flows and may reach the ocean this afternoon or evening. Fissure 17 continue weak spattering, Fissure 8 reactivated briefly this morning to erupt two small pahoehoe flows over the initial `a`a flow. At the Kilauea summit multiple small eruptions of ash occurred over the past day, all ejecting ash to under 10,000 ft above sea level. One of the largest occurred about 10:30 this morning. Additional explosions are possible at any time. HVO bulletin (May 23rd - 8:22 UTC) reported that eruption of lava and ground cracking continues in the area of Leilani Estates subdivision. Over the course of the day, the most active eruptive activity in the Lower East Rift Zone shifted to the middle portion of the system of fissures. The most active fissures were 22,19, 6, 5, and 23. Fissure 17, at the northeastern end of the fissure system is only weakly active now. Fissure 6 is feeding a flow to the south, roughly parallel to the western flow from fissure 22. Fountaining of fissures 5 and 23 fed flows in the eastern part of Leilani Estates. Small ash emissions from the Overlook crater have been occurring frequently today. Moderate trade winds were blowing to the southwest and noticeable ashfall may happen in downwind locations. HVO bulletin ( May 22nd - 2:11 UTC) reported that fissure 22 is erupting a short line of low lava fountains that feed a channelized flow that reaches the coast just north of MacKenzie State Park. Spattering continues from a reactivated Fissures 6 that intermittently feeds a short lava flow. Fissures 17 and 19 continue weak spattering.Volcanic gas emissions have tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from Fissure 20 so SO2 concentrations are likely elevated to higher levels throughout the area downwind of the vents. ( video -Photos ) . At the summit One explosive eruption of ash occurred at about 1 am this morning. Several smaller ash emissions have also taken place and produced abundant ash. HVO bulletin ( May 21st - 0:15 UTC) reported that spattering continues from Fissures 6 and 17 with significant lava flows being erupted from Fissures 20. Two of these lava flows from Fissure 20 reached the ocean along the southeast Puna coast overnight; however, a crack opened under the east lava channel early this morning diverting the lava from the channel into underground voids. This may cause changes downslope in the channel system and the ocean entry.Volcanic gas emissions have tripled as a result of the voluminous eruptions from Fissure 20 so SO2 concentrations are likely elevated to higher levels throughout the area downwind of the vents.At the Kilauea summit Seismic levels, which abruptly decreased after explosive eruptions on Saturday afternoon and Sunday noon, are again slowly increasing. Based on HVO web cameras, a robust plume of gas and steam is still billowing out of the Overlook vent and drifting generally southwest. . HVO buletin (May 19th - 5:53 UTC) that the eruption of lava and ground cracking in the area of Leilani Estates subdivision continues. Late on afternoon, a fast-moving pahoehoe lava flow emerged from fissure 20 and traveled southeast where it crossed Pohoiki Road. Estimates from Hawaii County Fire Department aerial video at 6:30 pm indicate advance rate of 300-400 yards per hour; this rate may change with time and USGS crews are in the area to try and monitor flow advance. Other fissures remain weakly active and volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind. Smoke from burning vegetation as lava flows advance is also contributing to poor air quality. . HVO bulletin (May 18th, 2:54 UTC) reported that after the summit explosive eruption early morning seismic levels have been gradually increasing, but as of this report no additional explosions have occurred. No earthquakes greater than magnitude 3.5 have occurred in the past day.Volcanic gas emissions at the summit remain high. At the Lower East rift zone tThis afternoon, fissure 17 is still actively spattering but the flow is nearly stalled. In addition, fissures 18, 19, and 20 have reactivated and a new fissure (21) has opened between fissures 7 and 3. An area 50-100 yards wide, parallel to and north of the line of fissures between Highway 130 and Lanipuna Gardens, has dropped slightly. This long depression is currently being filled by pahoehoe lava flows from fissures 20 and 21. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the fissures. HVO bulletin (May 17th - 2:47 UTC) reported that ash emission from the Overlook crater within Halema`uma`u has generally decreased since yesterday. Although varying in intensity, at times the plume contains enough ash to be gray in color. The cloud is rising an estimated 3 to 4,000 feet above the ground, but altitudes are varying with pulses of emission. The ash cloud is drifting slowly northward from the Kilauea summit and ashfall may occur in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and Volcano Village. Communities downwind may receive ashfall and should take necessary precautions. Several magnitude 3 or stronger earthquakes occurred beneath the summit today. The earthquakes were at shallow depth and resulted in cracks in Highway 11 near the entrance to Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park. Some facilities within the National Park were damaged as well. The explosive eruption of 1924 at the Kilauea summit was also marked by hundreds of felt earthquakes as magma drained from the caldera. This afternoon, eruptive activity remained concentrated at fissure 17 but the spattering was decreasing in vigor. The advance of the flow has slowed significantly since yesterday afternoon; the flow remains nearly 2.5 km (1.5 mi) in length. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the fissures. Magma continues to be supplied to the lower East Rift Zone as indicated by the continued northwest displacement of a GPS monitoring station. Elevated earthquake activity continues, but earthquake locations have not moved farther downrift in the past couple of days. HVO bultetin (15th of May 23:27 UTC) reported that as of early this morning, eruption of ash from the Overlook vent within Halemaumau crater at Kilauea Volcano's summit has generally increased in intensity. Ash has been rising nearly continuously from the vent and drifting downwind to the southwest. Ashfall and vog (volcanic air pollution) has been reported in Pahala, about 18 miles downwind. NWS radar and pilot reports indicate the top of the ash cloud is as high as 10,000 to 12,000 feet above sea level, but this may be expected to vary depending on the vigor of activity and wind conditions. Ash emission from the Kilauea summit vent will likely be variable with periods of increased and decreased intensity depending on the occurrence of rockfalls into the vent and other changes within the vent. HVO bulletin (14th of May 18:36 UTC) reported that on the morning, activity is dominated by lava fountaining, explosion of spatter more than 100 feet into the air, and an advancing lava flow from fissure 17 at the northeast end of the fissure system. As of 630 am the fissure 17 flow had traveled just under a mile roughly east-southeast parallel to the rift zone. It is turning slightly south and at this time is about one half mile south of Highway 132. Fissure 18 that became active late yesterday is weakly active. A fissure 19 has been spotted very near fissure 15 as of about 8 am just northeast of Pohoiki Road and north of Hinalo Street at the east end of Lanipuna Gardens. It is producing a sluggish lava flow. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated throughout the area downwind of the vents. Yesterday with the onset of activity at fissure 17, powerful steam jets have occurred intermittently near the west end of the fissure. These jets may be responsible for some of the loud sounds reported by residents and emergency workers. HVO reported that as of late today (May13rd), activity was dominated by lava fountaining, explosion of spatter bombs hundreds of feet into the air, and several advancing lava flow lobes moving generally northeast from fissure 17 at the downrift (northeast) end of the new fissure system. As of about 7 pm, one lobe was 2 yards thick and advancing roughly parallel to Highway 132. The flow front was just over a half mile southeast of the intersection of Highway 132 and Noni Farms Road. Based on overflight images late this afternoon, additional lava from fissure 17 was also moving slowly southeast. Volcanic gas emissions remain elevated. At the Kilauea summit Deflationary tilt continues. A robust plume of steam and volcanic gas, occasionally mixed with ash, has risen from the Overlook crater within Halemaumau. HVO bulletin (May12th, 2:39 UTC) reported that Volcanic unrest in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. While no lava has been emitted from any of the 15 fissure vents since May 9, earthquake activity, ground deformation, and continuing high emission rates of sulphur dioxide indicate additional outbreaks of lava are likely. The location of future outbreaks is not known with certainty, but could include areas both uprift (southwest) and downrift (northeast) of the existing fissures, or resumption of activity at existing fissures. Communities downslope of these fissures could be at risk from lava inundationHVO bulletin (May 11th 4:51 UTC) reported that High levels of unrest related to the intermittent eruption of lava in Leilani Estates in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continue. While no lava was noted erupting today from any of the 15 fissure vents formed thus far, earthquake activity, ground deformation, and continuing high emission rates of sulphur dioxide indicate additional outbreaks of lava are likely. The location of future outbreaks is not known with certainty, but could include areas both uprift (southwest) and downrift (northeast) of the existing fissures, or resumption of activity at existing fissures. Earthquake activity was high in the area today. Continuing ground deformation and located earthquakes were mostly in the area around and northeast of Fissure 15 at Pohoiki Road indicating that the intrusion is migrating further to the northeast. Steaming ground cracks in the vicinity of Highway 130 continue. HVO bulletin (May 10th, 2:55 UTC) reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in Leilani Estates in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Visible activity this early afternoon was again focused on the northeast portion of the fissure area. Fissure 15 broke ground across Poihiki Road, generating a pahoehoe flow about 20 m (66 ft) long. During an overflight of the area about 3 p.m. HST, geologists observed a new steaming area uprift (west) of Highway 130. During a second overflight at 4:30 p.m., the area was still steaming. Rates of motion increased late this morning on a GPS station 1.5 km (1 mile) southeast of Nanawale Estates. The direction of motion is consistent with renewed movement of magma in the downrift direction (to the northeast). Rates of seismicity changed little throughout the day; located earthquakes were mostly uprift (west) of Highway 130. Gas emissions remain elevated in the vicinity of fissures. Tiltmeters at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano continue to record the deflationary trend of the past week and the lava lake level continues to drop. At about 8:32 a.m. HST, a large rockfall from the steep crater walls into the retreating lake triggered an explosion that generated an ash column above the crater; the ash was blown toward the south-southwest. Rockfalls and explosions that produce ash columns are expected to continue. HVO bulletin (May 8th, 18:15 UTC ) reported that of 7:00 am, the eruption along Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone within the Leilani Estates subdivision has paused. Strong emission of gas continues from the fissure system that is now about 2.5 miles long. This pause is likely temporary and resumption of lava emission or additional fissure outbreaks are possible at any time. Deflationary tilt at the summit of the volcano continues and the lava lake level continues to drop. There is no active lava in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō area. Aftershocks from Friday's magnitude-6.9 earthquake continue and more are expected. Rockfalls into the Overlook vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater are producing intermittent ash emissions. Seismicity at Kīlauea's summit remains elevated. USGS/HVO continues to monitor the situation 24/7 in coordination with Hawaii County Civil Defense and other authorities. Field crews are onsite this morning examining the fissure vents, lava flow of yesterday, and searching for any signs of new or resumed activity. As of the 8th of May (3:59 UTC), HVO reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. The location of activity today was focused on the southwest portion of the area. This morning, two new fissure segments broke ground. The first (fissure 11) opened in a forested southwest of Leilani Estates about 9:30 am and was active for only 3 hours. The second (fissure 12) opened about 12:20 between older fissures 10 and 11. By 3:15 pm, both new fissures were in active but the west end of fissure 10 was steaming heavily. Cracks on Highway 130 widened from 7 cm to 8 cm over the course of the day and additional cracks were found just west of the highway on trend with the eruptive fissures. As of the 7th of May (6:59 UTC) HVO reported that the intermittent eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Fissure 8 erupted lava fountains until about 4 p.m. HST, and the aa' flow advanced slowly northward through the afternoon, even after the lava fountains shut down. Geologists reported this early evening that the flow crossed Ho'okopu Road, a distance from fissure 8 of about about 1.1 km (0.6 miles). They also reported new ground cracks in the vicinity of fissures 8 and 9 that were emitting thick steam and gases, but no lava spattering was observed by the time of this status report. Rates of seismicity and deformation decreased in the past day. The absence of additional deformation in the past day suggests a pause in magma acculumation in the distal part of the intrusion. Tiltmeters at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano continue to record the deflationary trend of the past several days. Corresponding to this deflationary trend, the summit lava lake level in Overlook crater dropped about 2 m (6.5 ft) per hour during the day. The lake level has dropped an estimated 220 m (722 ft) since the collapse of Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater on April 30. Rockfalls from the steep crater walls into the retreating lake continue to produce ashy plumes above Halema'uma'u crater. Rockfalls and ashy plumes are expected to continue as the lake level drops. Earthquake activity in the summit remains at elevated levels. In the past 24 hours, about 31 magnitude-2 earthquakes occurred at depths less than 5 km (3 miles) beneath the summit area (compared to the 24-hour period when 152 magnitude-2 and magnitude-3 earthquakes. These earthquakes are related to the ongoing subsidence of the summit area and earthquakes beneath the south flank of the volcano. HVO bulletin ( Saturday, May 5, 2018, 21:54 UTC) reported that active eruption of lava and gas continues along Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone within the Leilani Estates subdivision. Additional fissure vents producing spatter and small lava flows developed early this morning, and additional outbreaks in the area are likely. Deflationary tilt at the summit of the volcano continues and the lava lake level continues to drop. There is no active lava in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō area. Aftershocks from yesterday's M6.9 earthquake continue and more should be expected, with larger aftershocks potentially producing rockfalls and associated ash clouds above Puʻu ʻŌʻō and Halemaʻumaʻu Crater. Residents of the Puna District should remain alert, review individual, family, and business emergency plans, and watch for further information about the status of the volcano. Video. According to latest HVO bulletin (Saturday, May 5, 2018, 02:04 UTC) eruption of lava in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano continues. Several additional eruptive fissures or vents - each several hundred yards long - have opened over the past day. No significant lava flows have yet formed. Spatter and lava are accumulating primarily within a few tens of yards of the vent. The sixth and most recent fissure is on the eastern edge of the subdivision. Not all fissure vents remain active and no far-traveled lava flows have formed. For maps showing the locations of these features :https://volcano es.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/multimedia_maps.html .HVO geologists will be in the area overnight to track additional activity that may occur, and other scientists are closely tracking the volcano's overall activity using various monitoring data streams. Seismicity and deformation are consistent with continued accumulation of magma within the rift zone. Additional outbreaks of lava are expected. According to report from HVO (Friday, May 4, 2018, 08:13 UTC) the eruption in the Leilani Estates subdivision in the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano that began in late afternoon temporary ended by about 6:30 p.m. HST. Lava spatter and gas bursts erupted from the fissure for about two hours, and lava spread a short distance from the fissure, less than about 10 m (33 ft). At this time, the fissure is not erupting lava and no other fissures have erupted. HVO geologists are working near the fissure overnight to track additional activity that may occur, and other scientists are closely tracking the volcano's overall activity. Geologists reported this evening that the presence of sulfur gas is quite noticeable around the fissure, typical of active and recently active fissures. The concentration of sulfur dioxide gas is high within tens of meters (yards) of the fissure. Lava flows did not advance more than about 10 m (33 ft) from the fissure. The flows are no longer active. At this time, no other fissures have erupted from along the rift zone. Tiltmeters at Kīlauea's summit continue to record deflationary tilt and the lava lake level has dropped about 37 m (121 ft) in the past 24 hours. Seismic activity has not changed significantly during the day or since the brief fissure eruption. Previously, HVO reported that the intrusion of molten rock into the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano reached the surface in the late afternoon on May 3 in a part of Leilani Estates. A fissure about 150 m (492 ft) long erupted mostly spatter and intermittent bubble bursts for about 2 hours.Lava did not travel more than a few m (yards) from the fissure.Hawaii County Civil Defence is coordinating needed response including evacuation of a portion of the Leilani subdivision. USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory deployed geologists to the eruption site overnight, and other scientists are monitoring various data streams telemetered to the observatory 24/7.As of the 30th of April, in a special report HVO reported that following weeks of inflation, the floor of the crater of Pu'u O'o collapsed on April 30, 2018, between 14h and 16h30 in two episodes visibles on a thermal camera located on the edge of the crater. Bad weather conditions prevented the observatory teams to fly over the crater and cannot observe this activity.The collapse caused the release of a large amount of reddish ash around the Pu'u O'o for several kilometers on the 61 g lava flow. Following this collapse, seismometers and tiltmeters recorded an increase in seismic activity and deformation from the summit area of ​​Kilauea to an area between 10 and 16 km east of Pu'u O'o; during the night, this activity continued to spread along the rift zone to the east and the highway 130 to 30 km ... marking an area potentially at risk of eruption.The strongest earthquake of the sequence was of magnitude 4, south of Pu'u O'o 'on April 27 at 2:39. A new ladder crack, of 1 km long, has opened to the west of Pu'u O'o, characterized by heavy outgassing. its released a small amount of lava, according to the presence of small areas of spatters; it is no longer active. The level of the upper lava lake, located in the Halema'uma'u crater, has dropped 15 meters, suggesting an intrusion from the summit area during the weekend into the Pu'u O'o magmatic system towards the East; summit deflation supports this mechanism.The volcanic alert level remains at Watch and the aviation code is orange. Residents of Puna must remain alert and monitor information on the status of the volcano.During 18-24 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. The lake level was high, and by late on 21 April had overflowed the S crater rim. As of midday on 23 April the new flows has covered about 16 ha of the floor, or about 30%. Overflows of the crater rim continued through 24 April, flowing as far as 375 m onto the N, SW, and S parts of the crater floor. HVO noted that the overflows were the first significant ones since May 2015. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 18 April geologists observed the pit crater on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater, noting that overflows had built up the crater rim to several meters above the crater floor and 7 m higher compared to late March. During 11-17 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. The lake level was high, with spattering visible from HVO and Jaggar Museum; by 16 April the lake level was 10 m below the rim of the Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. On 11 April a moderate swarm of over 200 earthquakes occurred at depths of 7-9 km below the summit. The largest event was a M 2.4. Seismicity returned to background levels at 0230. Three minor ledge collapses were detected on 12 April, one at 1157 and two just after 1830. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali; on 13 April most scattered breakouts were within 2.2 km from Pu'u 'O'o Crater, and one was about 5 km away. During 4-10 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand through 6 April. A rockfall at 1028 on 6 April triggered an explosion in the lava lake, damaging the webcam power system on the crater rim. During 28 March-3 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island. The Webcam images, which are updated every five minutes, can be accessed at : http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/cams/NCcam/ . From HVO - Near real-time web cam Pu'u'O'o. Halemaumau webcam

USA - Mauna Loa volcano (Hawaian islands)

September 24th, 2022

HVO reported that a  small seismic swarm has been detected below the summit of Mauna Loa volcano. As of 2 a.m. HST on 23rd of September, The U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory has recorded more than 38 earthquakes beneath the summit caldera region, the most earthquakes in a group about 3.1 mi (5 km) wide and -1.2 to 0.6 mi (-2 to 1 km) below the surface.As of the 15th of July, HVO reported that last week, about 87 low-magnitude earthquakes were recorded below the summit and upper flanks of Mauna Loa, the majority of them occurring at ldepths less than 15 km (9 mi) below the level of the sea. GPS measurements show low rates of ground deformation over the past week. Gas concentrations and fumarole temperatures at the summit and at Sulfur Cone on the southwest rift zone have remained stable over the past week. The webcams show no change in the landscape.As of the 13th of Jaunary, HVO reported that seismicity rates remain slightly elevated above long-term background levels, but have not changed significantly over the past week, characterized by approximately 45 low-magnitude earthquakes (below M2.5 ) under the top and upper flanks. Other Mauna Loa monitoring data streams (ground deformation, gas concentrations, visual appearance in webcams) show no significant changes. Previous news 2021 - As of te 22nd of July, HVO reported that seismicity rates at the summit remain slightly above long-term background levels, with 38 low-magnitude earthquakes (below M2.5) recorded below the summit and upper flanks over the past week. of Mauna Loa. The majority of these earthquakes occurred at shallow depths below 8 kilometers below sea level. Monitoring of soil deformation, gas releases and visual monitoring show no significant changes. As of the 5th of June, HVO reported that eismicity rates at the summit remain slightly high and above long-term background levels, with around 55 low-magnitude earthquakes below Mauna Loa, most concentrated below the summit and elevation flanks of the volcano. All of the earthquakes last week were below M3 and mostly occurred at depths less than 8 km (about 5 mi) below ground level. Other Mauna Loa monitoring data feeds show no significant changes in deformation rates or patterns that would indicate increased volcanic risk at present. Gas concentrations (below 2 ppm SO2) and fumarole temperatures (below 100 degrees Celsius) at the summit and Sulfur Cone in the southwest rift zone remain stable.As of the 29th of April, HVO reported that over the past week, HVO seismometers have recorded around 150 small-magnitude earthquakes beneath Mauna Loa, most of them concentrated below the summit and upper flanks of the volcano. All of the earthquakes last week were below M3 and mostly occurred at depths less than 8 km (about 5 mi) below ground level. Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements continue to show a slightly scalable deformation pattern of the summit over the past week. Gas concentrations (0 ppm SO2) and fumarole temperatures (below 100 degrees Celsius or 212 degrees Fahrenheit) at the summit and at Sulfur Cone in the southwest rift zone remain stable. HVO reported a swarm of 172 earthquakes occurred northwest of the summit of Mauna Loa on March 29 and 31, about 6 to 8 km (3.5 to 5 miles) below the surface. An inclinometer near the summit of Mauna Loa measured a small change in inclination along with the flank swarm. The change in tilt was consistent with the contraction across the summit and has since leveled off. Over the past week, HVO seismometers have recorded a total of 245 low-magnitude earthquakes (almost all below M3) below Mauna Loa, the most concentrated below the summit and upper flanks of the volcano at depths less than 8 km (about 5 mi) below ground level. Gas concentrations (0 ppm SO2) and fumarole temperatures (below 100 degrees Celsius or 212 degrees Fahrenheit) at the summit and at Sulfur Cone in the southwest rift zone remain stable. The webcams do not show any change in the landscape. Massive Mauna Loa shield volcano rises almost 9 km above the sea floor to form the world's largest active volcano. Flank eruptions are predominately from the lengthy NE and SW rift zones, and the summit is cut by the Mokuaweoweo caldera, which sits within an older and larger 6 x 8 km caldera. Two of the youngest large debris avalanches documented in Hawaii traveled nearly 100 km from Mauna Loa; the second of the Alika avalanches was emplaced about 105,000 years ago (Moore et al. 1989). Almost 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is covered by lavas less than 4000 years old (Lockwood and Lipman, 1987). During a 750-year eruptive period beginning about 1500 years ago, a series of voluminous overflows from a summit lava lake covered about one fourth of the volcano's surface. The ensuing 750-year period, from shortly after the formation of Mokuaweoweo caldera until the present, saw an additional quarter of the volcano covered with lava flows predominately from summit and NW rift zone vents. (GVN/GVP)

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U.S.A. - Bogoslof volcano island (Aleutian islands)

February 20th, 2018

End eruption report - The AVO has put online a 3D multispectral image of Bogoslof, resting since August 30, 2017, end of the eruption 2016-17. The approximately 60 explosive episodes characterizing this period have significantly modeled the Bogoslof's morphology. The island has grown by a factor of three, reaching 1.6 km², but new pyroclastic materials and surge deposits are not consolidated; erosion modifies the contours of Bogoslof permanently, and in December, the lagoon of the vent opened on the ocean on the north coast, marking a gradual return to more modest dimensions ... general problem of news or remodeled volcanic islands: construction and destruction. Previous news - On 6 December AVO decreased the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level for Bogoslof to Unassigned, noting that no significant activity had been observed in seismic, infrasound, satellite, or lightning data during the past three months. The last detected explosive activity occurred on 30 August 2017. On 27 September AVO reported that the last explosion at Bogoslof was detected on 30 August, and no new volcanic activity was observed in satellite, seismic, or infrasound data since then. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. AVO reported that during 20-26 September nothing significant was observed in partly to mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 22-23 September, indicating ongoing unrest. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 13-19 September nothing significant was observed in partly to mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 13-14 and 16-17 September, indicating ongoing unrest. On 17 September discolored ocean water was visible in satellite data, possibly representing outflow from the crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 6-12 September nothing significant was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images of Bogoslof, and no activity was detected in seismic or infrasound data. The 8 September report noted that the crater lake had been bisected by a narrow isthmus of land. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in one satellite image during 10-11 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at 0405 on 30 August and continued intermittently until 0555; the event produced a low-level ash plume that rose to around 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSE. Later that day seismic and infrasound data showed quiet conditions, and a low-level plume (likely steam) drifted almost 65 km SSE. Satellite, infrasound, and seismic data showed nothing notable during 31 August-5 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. Three short-duration eruptive events occurred during 27-28 August. The first, a two-minute-long explosion at 1508 on 27 August, produced a volcanic cloud that rose 7.9 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The second event started at 0323 on 28 August and lasted 25 minutes. The resulting small cloud drifted ESE and quickly dissipated. The third event was detected at 1117 on 28 August and generated a small volcanic cloud that rose 7.6-9.1 (25,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were observed in a few satellite images during 28-29 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a satellite image of Bogoslof acquired at 0628 on 24 August showed elevated surface temperatures and a small plume that was most likely steam drifting 17 km S. During 24-25 August a robust steam plume drifting 70 km SE and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data. A four-minute-long explosion that began at 1629 on 26 August generated an eruption cloud that rose 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The event was also observed in seismic and infrasound data, and one lightning stroke was detected. . AVO reported that photographs of Bogoslof taken during an overflight on 15 August showed that the vent area (which had dried out during the 7 August eruption) had refilled with water. Seismicity decreased on 16 August and remained low at least through 18 August. Weakly elevated surface temperatures consistent with a warm lake were identified in satellite data during 19-20 August. Satellite data acquired on 21 August showed an approximately 125-m-diameter lava dome within the intra-island lake, just W of the 1992 lava dome. A cold volcanic plume, likely from the lava dome, drifted about 55 km S of the island. Some minor explosions were detected in infrasound data at about 0410 on 22 August. The lava dome had grown to 160 m in diameter. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that on 9 August seismic and infrasound data suggested low-level eruptive activity at Bogoslof; weakly elevated surface temperatures and a minor steam emission were identified in satellite images. No significant activity was observed in cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data during 10-13 August. Two short pulses of tremor were detected (at 0853, lasting five minutes, and at 0913, lasting three minutes) in seismic data; seismicity returned to baseline levels afterwards. A sequence of seismic events began at 0000 on 15 August; no activity was observed in infrasound, lightning, or satellite data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and theVolcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that during 2-6 August no activity at Bogoslof was observed in mostly cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. An explosive eruption began at 1000 on 7 August, following more than an hour of increased seismicity. A pilot reported that an ash cloud rose to an altitude of 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l., prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. The eruption lasted about three hours, and was longer lived than most of the events in the eruptive sequence that started in December 2016. At 1341 AVO noted that the ash plume had formed a continuous cloud which stayed attached to the volcano and drifted S. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 8 August. Satellite images acquired on 8 August showed a significant expansion of the island towards the N with thick tephra deposits around the vent area forming a new crater lake. AVO reported that during 26 July-1 August no activity at Bogoslof was observed in partly cloudy to clear satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 19-25 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images, and no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 12-18 July no significant activity at Bogoslof was observed in cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite images; weakly elevated surface temperatures were noted on 12 and 16 July. In addition no activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or lightning data. The Aviation Color Code Aremained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.Avo reported that two new explosions occurred at the Bogoslof on 10 and 11 July. The first one consists of a series of explosions that began on July 10 at 7:47 UTC and ended on 10.07 at 10:35 UTC, the AVO has passed the alerts to RED / Warning. A small cloud of ashes associated with the first episode reached 6,000 meters, and quickly dissipated in a southeasterly direction. A rapid decline in seismicity around 11:00 UTC lowered alert levels to ORANGE / Watch. - The second period of activity began around 6 pm UTC: seismicity and infrasound were increased for 8 minutes. No significant emissions were detected by satellite.On July 11, at 01:06 UTC, the seismic network recorded an eruption that lasted about 15 minutes. No volcanic clouds, lightning or infrasound were detected. Alert levels remain unchanged until data is evaluated. AVO reported that an explosion at Bogoslof was detected at 0124 on 30 June and lasted about 20 minutes. A small cloud from the event drifted about 16 km N and by 1815 had dissipated. Seismicity declined afterwards but continued intermittently at low levels. Beginning at 1248 on 2 July a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data. The event lasted about 16 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Following the eruption seismicity declined and no signs of volcanic unrest were detected in seismic, infrasound, on satellite data on 3 July; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. The ACC and VAL were again raised to Red and Warning, respectively, following an explosive event that began at 1651 on 4 July and lasted 13 minutes. An eruption cloud rose as high as 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. An 11-minute-long eruption began at 1907 on 4 July, producing a small cloud that rose 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. AVO reported that a new significant explosive eruption occurred at 20:48 UTC July 2 (12:48 AKDT July 2). AVO is raising the Aviation Color Code to RED and Alert level to WARNING for Bogoslof volcano. Satellite data and pilot reports shows a volcanic cloud with an estimated altitude of 36,000 ft asl moving towards the east. Seismic and infrasound data suggest that the ash emissions are no longer continuing. AVO reported that slightly elevated surface temperatures at Bogoslof were identified in satellite images on 23 June, and steam emissions were occasionally observed the previous week. Beginning at 1649 on 23 June a significant explosive event was detected in seismic and infrasound data that lasted about 10 minutes. It produced an ash plume that rose as high as 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 400-490 km E. The event prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Four additional explosions were detected, during 1918-1924, 2013-2021, 2104-2112, and 2152-2155, though any resulting ash plumes were not detected above the cloud deck at 8.5-9.1 km (28,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. On 25 June the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. At 1645 on 26 June an eruption which lasted about 14 minutes produced an ash plume that rose 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic and lighting data indicated that a significant explosion began at 0317 on 27 June, prompting AVO to raise the ACC to Red and the VAL to Warning. The event lasted 14 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. Following a significant explosive eruption this 24 June at 0h49 UTC / 23 June 16h49 AKDT, the Bogoslof  has changed to a red aviation code. It produced a plume rising to about 36,000 ft, and was accompanied by a strong seismicity, flashes and infra-sons. The eruption lasted 10 minutes. The satellites located the volcanic cloud at 1:30 UTC, at 36,000 ft, moving northeast.AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures and a small steam emission at Bogoslof were identified in satellite images during 13-14 June. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were detected on 16 June, and a 13-km-long steam plume was visible on 18 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that a new lava dome at Bogoslof breached the surface of the ocean on or around 6 June, and was the first observation of lava at the surface since the start of the eruption that began in mid-December 2016. The dome was an estimated 110 m in diameter on 7 June, and then grew to 160 m in diameter by 9 June. An explosive eruption began at 0318 on 10 June with a series of short infrasound signals which then, starting at about 0416, transitioned into several minutes-long continuous seismic and infrasound tremor signals. The events generated an ash-rich cloud that rose to an estimated altitude of 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Warning. The eruption ended at 0528. Satellite data indicated that at least part of the volcanic cloud was more ash-rich than most in the current eruption period. On 11 June AVO noted no detectable activity in seismic or infrasound data after the event the day before. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Satellite image acquired on 10 June and a photograph from an observer aboard a jet aircraft on 11 June suggested that the lava dome was no longer above the surface of the water, and was destroyed during the 10 June event. A series of explosive events, each lasting 10-30 minutes, began at 1747 on 12 June and ended around 2035. Ash plumes rose 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. At 0817 on 13 June a six-minute-long explosion was detected in seismic and infrasound data. A plume was not observed, likely because it was too small or below detection limits. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that a short-duration (less than 10 minute) explosion at Bogoslof began at 1842 on 31 May based on seismic and infrasound data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted WNW, and dissipated over the Bering Sea. The explosion was preceded by a several hour-long swarm of very small earthquakes. Seismicity decreased in the hours prior to the explosion and remained below the detection threshold. A sulfur dioxide plume from an explosion on 28 May was visible in satellite data drifting over the Hudson Bay region of Canada on 2 June. A short-duration explosive event at 0750 on 5 June produced a small volcanic cloud observed by a pilot. Low-amplitude tremor was detected in seismic data beginning at about 1229 on 5 June but then decreased to background levels. A vessel in the area reported vigorous steaming and a white plume rising several thousand feet above sea level. A brief explosive event was detected at 0600 on 6 June. The event likely produced a low-level (less than 3 km or 10,000 ft a.s.l.) emission; a possible plume at 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. was identified in a satellite image following the detection of the activity in seismic and infrasound data, but quickly dissipated. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. On 29 May the ash cloud continued to drift NE. No detectable activity was observed in data from seismic or infrasound stations located on nearby Islands, and no new activity has been observed in satellite data. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that the eruption at Bogoslof which began at 2232 on 16 May lasted about 73 minutes. Trace amounts of ash fell in the community of Nikolski on Umnak Island. Later that day the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch; no further ash emissions were detected and seismicity was low. Satellite data showed that the event altered the N coastline of the island. The crater lake was breached with a 550-m-wide gap along the N shore, and the NE shore had been extended 300 m from new tephra deposits. AVO reported that an increase in seismic and infrasound activity from Bogoslof was detected from stations on nearby islands starting at 2232 on 16 May, suggesting the beginning of an explosive eruption. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Watch. A pilot reported an ash plume rising as high as 10.4 km (34,000 ft) a.s.l., and the Worldwide Lightning Location Network detected lightning associated with the cloud. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. The eruption lasted about 73 minutes. On 19 April AVO noted that no new volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in satellite, seismic, or infrasound data since a short-lived increase in seismicity on 15 April; AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and theVolcano Alert LevelIncreased seismicity at Bogoslof was recorded by stations on nearby islands starting around 1501 on 15 April, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. The seismic activity subsided a few hours later; there was no evidence of renewed eruptive activity from infrasound, lightning, or satellite data during 15-18 April. On 5 April AVO reported that the Aviation Color Code for Bogoslof was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory based on the absence of detected activity at the volcano for the past three weeks; the last large explosion occurred on 8 March. No significant volcanic activity was detected in seismic, infrasound, or satellite data during 6-11 April. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 29 March-4 April, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 28-29 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 22-28 March, and satellite views were often obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 21-23 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof was detected in seismic or infrasound data during 15-21 March, and satellite views were either obscured by clouds or showed nothing noteworthy. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 16-17 and 20-21 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 2236 on 7 March, indicated in seismic, lightning, and infrasound data, and lasted about three hours. Though ash was not immediately visible in satellite data, AVO raised the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Later, satellite images showed a large ash cloud rising to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting E. This event was the first detected eruptive activity since 19 February, and more than 1,000 lightning strokes related to the volcanic eruption cloud were detected during this event, by far the highest number observed to date. In addition the seismic levels were among the highest detected since the beginning of the eruption. Satellite images from 8 March showed that the W part of the island had grown significantly. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch on 9 March. Two earthquakes swarms were detected during 9-11 March; the first began at 1750 on 9 March and ended at 1400 on 10 March, and the second was detected from 1900 on 10 March to 0500 on 11 March. Mildly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 10-11 March. A third swarm began at 0500 on 12 March. A short-duration event, from 1131 to 1143 on 13 March, produced a small ash cloud that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SSW. AVO noted that after the event, the level of seismic activity declined and the repeating earthquakes, detected for much of the previous several days, stopped. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images from 13 March. A photograph taken by a pilot showed a low-level, billowy steam plume rising from the general area of the intra-island lake. AVO reported that a new explosive eruption began on March 8 at 7:36 UTC / 7 March at 22:36 AKST at Bogoslof, characterized by about three hours of significant ash emissions. Activity was observed via seismic, infrasonic and lightning detection networks. A large ash cloud was seen by the satellites, moving east to an altitude of 10,700 meters asl. The volcano remains at a high level of instability, and its current aviation alert level is red. AVO reported that no significant volcanic activity at Bogoslof had been detected in seismic, infrasound, or mostly cloudy satellite data during 22-28 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Warning.AVO reported that during 15-16 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0955 on 17 February seismic data indicated the beginning of an explosive event, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Individual pulses of seismicity was recorded until 1140, and then afterwards seismicity was low. Satellite images and pilot observations indicated that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. The event was also verified by infrasound and lightning data. Another short-lived explosive event began at 1546, detected in infrasound and seismic data. A volcanic cloud identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. An explosion at 0450 on 18 February was detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The seismic data suggested that ash emissions lasted several minutes, and then seismicity decreased. A preliminary evaluation of satellite data indicated that a cloud rose at least as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l.; the cloud drifted SW. On 19 February the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Later that day seismic and infrasound data recorded a series of short-lived explosive pulses during 1708-1745. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. A plume identified in satellite images rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 160 km SE over Unalaska Island. AVO geologists on the island described the cloud has having a white upper portion and a slightly darker lower portion. Storms in the region impacted data communications at AVO's facility in Dutch Harbor on 20 February, limiting AVO's ability to forecast and detect eruptions at Bogoslof. AVO reported that during 8-12 and 14 February cloud cover prevented satellite views of Bogoslof; no other data indicated eruptive activity. At 0724 on 13 February seismicity significantly increased, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. Satellite images acquired through 0930 showed no ash emissions above the 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. cloud deck, and no lightning was detected. AVO concluded that, despite the intensity of seismic activity, a significant ash emission was not produced during this event; the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. AVO reported that no further emissions were detected at Bogoslof after an explosion at 0520 on 31 January; the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch the next day. A burst of tremor lasting nine minutes was detected starting at 0457 on 3 February. A second burst, starting at 0533 and lasting 20 minutes, was also detected by infrasound instruments, indicating an explosion. No ash cloud was detected above the meteorological cloud deck in satellite data. An event that began at 1642 produced a small volcanic plume that drifted about 40 km N below an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Seismic tremor significantly decreased later that evening. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed in two satellite images acquired on 5 February, possibly related to hot deposits from explosive activity the day before. On February 3, at 13:57 and 14:33 UTC, two episodes of tremor were detected; The second, accompanied by an infrasonic signal, indicates an explosion, without cloud of ash observed by satellite.Several short bursts of seismic activity were detected at 0520 and 0608 on 30 January. An infrasound signal accompanied the first event indicating an explosion; an eruption cloud was identified in satellite data at 0530, rising to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. later that day AVO noted that bursts of explosive activity continued and intensified; more than 10 short-duration explosions were detected in seismic, infrasound, and lightning data. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) was raised to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was raised to Warning. Ash plumes rose as high as 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 125 km SE. Trace amounts of ashfall and a sulfur odor were reported in Unalaska/Dutch Harbor (98 km E). By the next day the explosions had subsided or ended. Satellite images acquired on 31 January showed significant changes to the island. AVO stated that freshly erupted volcanic rock and ash had formed a barrier that separated the vent from the sea, suggesting that the change had resulted in the more ash-rich emissions occurring during 30-31 January. AVO reported that no further emissions were detected at Bogoslof after an explosion at 0453 on 24 January; the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Watch the next day. An hour-long seismic increase began at 0134 on 25 January though no evidence of eruptive activity was evident. Based on lightning and seismic data an explosive event began at 0650 on 26 January, and another burst of seismicity was recorded at 0706. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning. An ice-rich cloud, first identified in satellite data at 0700, likely contained ash, and rose as high as 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE at lower altitudes, and NE at altitudes above about 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. Lightning and seismic data again indicated an explosive event at 0824 on 27 January, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) to Warning. An ice-rich cloud that likely contained ash rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E; seismicity related to ash emissions remained elevated for 48 minutes. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch later that day. AVO reported that an explosive event at Bogoslof began at about 1320 on 18 January, generating an ash plume that rose at least to an altitude of 9.4 km (31,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The dark (ash-rich) plume was identified in satellite images and observed by a pilot, and produced lightning strikes and infrasound signals detected by sensors in Sand Point and Dillingham. Analysis of a satellite image suggested the presence of very hot material (lava) at the surface immediately surrounding the vent, which was the first such observation since the beginning of the eruption. AVO raised theAviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Volcano Alert level (VAL) to Warning. A second lower-altitude cloud was visible in satellite images around 1400, likely corresponding with an increase in seismic tremor that occurred from 1340-1355. The ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch the next day. Another explosion was detected at 1317 on 20 January, following an approximately 30-minute-long increase in seismic activity, based on seismic data and lightning detected from the World Wide Lightning Location Network. Pilots observed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 11 km (36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE. Satellite images indicated an ice-rich plume and lava present at the vent. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning, but were again lowered one level to Orange and Watch, respectively, the next day. Several lightning strikes north of Bogoslof indicated that an explosive event began at 1409 on 22 January. An ash plume identified in satellite images rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. The ACC was raised to Red and the VAL was raised to Warning, and again lowered one level the next day. Following a period of increasing seismicity, an explosive event began at 0453 on 24 January, as indicated in seismic data and lightning detection, prompting AVO to raise the ACC to Red and the VAL to Warning. Seven minutes later an ice-rich plume which likely contained ash rose too altitudes of 7.6-10.7 km (25,000-35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. AVO reported that photos taken by a pilot on 10 January showed Bogoslof covered with dark gray ash, and a roughly 300-m-diameter submarine explosion crater on the E side of the island. Unrest continued during 11-17 January. Two short-lived explosions (five to six minutes long) were seismically detected at 1123 and 1230 on 12 January and observed by pilots. The estimated altitudes of the first and second plumes were 5.5 and 4.4 km (18,000 and 14,500 ft) a.s.l., respectively. Seismicity again increased at 2126 on 14 January and remained elevated. Six explosive events were detected between 2216 on 14 January and 0350 on 15 January. No volcanic clouds were identified in satellite data, although one lightning strike was recorded at 2232 on 14 January. Increased seismicity on 17 January indicated minor explosive activity; steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose no higher than 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.The last eruption of this volcano took place from July 6 to 24, 1992. It had Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 3 and produced a new dome.Bogoslof is the emergent summit of a submarine volcano that lies 40 km north of the main Aleutian arc. It rises 1500 m above the Bering Sea floor. Repeated construction and destruction of lava domes at different locations during historical time has greatly modified the appearance of this "Jack-in-the-Box" volcano and has introduced a confusing nomenclature applied during frequent visits of exploring expeditions.The present triangular-shaped, 0.75 x 2 km island consists of remnants of lava domes emplaced from 1796 to 1992. Castle Rock (Old Bogoslof) is a steep-sided pinnacle that is a remnant of a spine from the 1796 eruption. Fire Island (New Bogoslof), a small island located about 600 m NW of Bogoslof Island, is a remnant of a lava dome that was formed in 1883. (USGS-AVO)

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U.S.A. - Shishaldin volcano (Alaska)

October 22nd, 2021

AVO reported that several outages affected GPS, seismic, and infrasound stations used to monitor Shishaldin. On 20 October AVO changed both the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level to Unassigned, reflecting the lack of this data to detect unrest. The volcano continued to be monitored with webcams, satellite data, remote infrasound, seismic, and GPS
networks. AVO reported that several outages affected GPS, seismic, and infrasound stations used to monitor Shishaldin. On 15 January AVO changed both the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level to Unassigned, reflecting the lack of this data to detect unrest. The volcano continued to be monitored with local webcams, satellite data, and remote infrasound, seismic, and lightning networks. Previous news 2020 - On 24 June AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin had decreased to background levels. Additionally, satellite images showed no new lava in the crater area, typical surface temperatures, and minor steaming. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. AVO issued an advisory volcanic alert and Yellow aviation code, the troubles continue with possible sulfur dioxide emissions detected by satellite and vapor in the crater visible on high resolution satellite images. The views of the web cameras were obscured by the clouds and no significant activity was detected on local seismic stations or regional infrared sensors. Although disturbances are currently at low levels, activity could intensify with little warning, and additional eruptive activity in the summit crater, lava flows, lahars and ash-producing eruptive events could happen.On 16 April AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin had decreased during the past two weeks, though it remained slightly above background levels. Additionally, satellite images showed no new lava nor changes in the crater area, and a decrease in surface temperatures. The Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. AVO reported elevated seismicity at Shishaldin during 8-13 April characterized by occasional low-frequency earthquakes. Minor steaming from the summit crater was sometimes seen in satellite and webcam data. A small thermal anomaly was visible in satellite data during 8-9 April. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported elevated seismicity at Shishaldin during 1-7 April 2020 characterized by weak continuous tremor and occasional low-frequency earthquakes. The webcam recorded steam plumes rising from the summit crater on 1 April. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images on a few days. The Volcano Alert level remained at Watch and theAviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported elevated seismicity at Shishaldin during 25-31 March characterized by continuous low-level tremor. Steam-and-gas plumes rising from the summit crater were occasionally recorded by the webcam and identified in satellite images. Weakly- to- moderately elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 29-30 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that seismicity remained high with low level continuous tremor recorded in the past week.A weak gas plume was commonly observed on webcam images when the views were clear, and high surface temperatures were observed on satellite images.Eruptive activity appears to be confined to the summit area during this latest period of unrest, which began in mid-March. However, activity could increase with little or no warning, causing lava flows outside the crater, lahars and ash emissions.The volcanic alert is Watch, and the aviation code orange.
AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin was characterized as near-continuous tremor during 18-20 March and continuous tremor during 21-24 March. Steam-and-gas plumes rising from the summit crater were recorded daily by the webcam and sometimes identified in satellite images. Elevated surface temperatures, consistent with lava in the summit crater, were also identified in satellite images. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that eruptive activity continues at Shishaldin. Minor explosive activity has decreased over the past 24 hours, but seismicity remains high with almost continuous tremors. Satellite views have been obscured by clouds, and a small plume of vapor from the summit has been observed in a clear web camera image in the past 24 hours. At this time, eruptive activity appears to be confined to the summit area, but activity could increase with little or no warning, causing lava flows outside the crater, lahars, and ash emissions. The current aviation color code: ORANGE. AVO reported that weak but elevated seismicity was also recorded along with small explosion signals during 14-17 March. Elevated surface temperatures, consistent with lava in the summit crater, were identified in satellite images during 15-17 March. A small steam plume rising from the summit crater was visible in a webcam image on 17 March. AVO raised the alert level of the Shishaldin to Watch and the aviation code to orange on March 14 at 10:31 pm, following the observation on a high resolution satellite image of lava, and of what appears to be a new cone in the summit crater. A weak tremor is also detected. On 6 February AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin decreased during the previous week (though remained slightly above background levels), along with the surface temperatures at the summit identified in satellite data. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory since the eruption appeared to have paused or ceased. AVO reported that seismic activity at Shishaldin remained above background levels during 29 January-4 February. Weakly- to moderately-elevated surface temperatures were sometimes identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that seismic activity at Shishaldin remained above background levels during 22-28 January. Elevated surface temperatures continued to be identified in satellite images, though became weak during 26-28 January. Infrasound data suggested that minor explosions were occurring at the summit during 22-23 January. Small steam plumes from the summit were visible on 22, 23, and 26 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that during 20-21 January elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images, though the N-flank flow was not active. Seismicity remained above background levels, and coincided with detections in infrasound data that suggested small explosions at the vent. Steaming from the summit was visible in webcam images. AVO reported that seismicity dropped sharply to low levels around 3:30 p.m. on January 19, 2020, and ash production increased at about the same time, producing an ash plume that reached 9,000 meters. The eruption continued to produce ash until about 10:00 p.m. when activity slowed. High surface temperatures are still apparent on the satellite images this morning. Webcam images captured after sunrise on the southeast side of the volcano show a weak plume of vapor at the top, new tephras and / or lava deposited on the upper flanks of the cone and a dusting of ash on the snow throughout the area.AVO reported that an increasing in seismicity was observed on January 7, 2020 around 5 a.m. AKST, accompanied by ash emissions; the ash cloud was visible on satellite images at a height of 7,000 meters, drifting east-northeast. The seismicity then weakened for a few hours, before increasing sharply. The plume was loaded with ashes, justifying an increase in warning levels to red aviation code, around 14:20 AKST. Satellite images show very high surface temperatures, and three lava flows are observed; volcanic lightning and infrasound are detected by regional measurement stations. Around 24:00 AKST, the seismicity fell again, and the ash emissions decreased. The alerts returned to Watch, with an orange aviation code. Ash falls are expected on the communities located to the northeast. AVO reported that the volcano still produces lava flows on the upper flanks and is the site of a short-lived explosive activity. This December 3 around 9:30 am AKST, the seismicity started to increase, to lead to a brief period of emission of ash; the ash cloud reached an altitude of 7,300 meters asl.drifting southeast, with lightning bolts. The seismicity then abruptly decreased. Thermal anomalies considered as very high, with a maximum at 1443MW, indicating a continuous effusion. The aviation code is maintained at Orange, accompanied by a SIGMET up to an altitude of 7,300 meters established by the National Weather Service. The 2857-m-high, glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. The Aleuts named the volcano Sisquk, meaning "mountain which points the way when I am lost." A steady steam plume rises from its small summit crater. Constructed atop an older glacially dissected volcano, it is Holocene in age and largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the west and NE sides at 1500-1800 m elevation. There are over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, but sometimes producing lava flows, has been recorded since the 18th century. Webcam . (GVN/GVP)

USA - Cleveland volcano (Alaska)

June 23rd, 2022

AVO reported that during 15-21 June elevated surface temperatures over Cleveland were sometimes identified in satellite images, reflecting the continuing emissions of hot gases. Weather clouds sometimes prevented views of the volcano. Crater subsidence in the summit crater was detected during the previous several weeks. Sulfur dioxide emissions were detected on 15 and 21 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.AVO reported that during 24-31 May daily elevated surface temperatures over Cleveland were identified in satellite images, along with plumes of steam and sulfur dioxide gas. Crater subsidence in the summit crater was detected during 26-27 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. As of the 10th of May, AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures and sulfur dioxide emissions have been detected in satellite data for the past two days, representing a departure from background activity. AVO raises the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level to Yellow/advisory. Previous news 2021 - AVO reported that a magnitude 4.3 earthquake at Cleveland was recorded during the morning of 26 March. Smaller earthquakes continued to be detected that day at a decreasing rate. There have been no signs of activity observed in infrasound or satellite data, nor evidence of volcanic gas emissions and elevated surface temperatures due to clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert LevelAVO changed the Cleveland aviation code, in the Aleutian volcanic arc, to yellow, and the volcanic alert to advisory on March 20, 2021 at 9.44 p.m. Z. Satellites have detected an increase in volcanic gas emissions and high surface temperatures since March 2020. A local earthquake on March 10 was measured by seismometers 100 km away on Umnak Island, indicating a potential rise in activity.The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks. Webcam

USA - Davidof island (Alaska-Aleutian Island)

March 17th, 2022

ccording to AVO the earthquake swarm that began on 24 January in the vicinity at Davidof continued at least through 15 March with a few small earthquakes recorded each day by seismometers on Little Sitkin (15 km E). The rate was variable, though the total number of events was similar to the previous week. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.According to AVO the earthquake swarm that began on 24 January in the vicinity at Davidof continued at least through 1 March with a few small earthquakes recorded each day. The swarm was either related to tectonic processes or volcanic unrest. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. As of the 27th of January, AVO reported that over the past two days, a swarm of earthquakes has occurred near Davidof Volcano in the Aleutians. The largest earthquake in the current sequence occurred yesterday at 4:02 p.m. AKST (January 26, 01:02 UTC) and had a magnitude of 4.9. A similar earthquake swarm occurred in December 2021. No signs of unrest were seen in recent satellite images of the volcano. This seismic activity may be associated with volcanic unrest or be due to regional tectonic activity. Due to the possibility of escalating volcanic unrest, AVO is raising the Aviation Color Code and Volcanic Alert Level for Davidof to Yellow/Advisory. Previous news 2021 - As of the 29th of December AVO reported that earthquake swarm that occurred near the Davidof volcano, in the Aleutians, from the beginning of December calmed down.Aviation Color Code and Alert Level are reduced to UNASSIGNED / UNASSIGNED. The AVO only assigns a color code and alert level values ​​to volcanoes that are sufficiently instrumented to allow us to understand the background state of the activity. The nearest seismometers to Davidof are found about 15 km east of the volcano on Little Sitkin Island, and are insufficient for us to assign specific alert levels. Earthquake swarms either related to tectonic processes or volcanic unrest were recorded in the vicinity of Davidof during 8-10 December. The largest earthquake was a M 4.2 recorded at 1045 on 10 December. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory due to the possibility of escalating volcanic unrest. Small earthquakes continued to be detected during 11-14 December, though at a lower rate and amplitude. Cloudy or mostly cloudy satellite and webcams views showed no volcanic activity. A cluster of small islands between Segula and Little Sitkin in the western Aleutians, the largest of which is Davidof, are remnants of a stratovolcano that collapsed during the late Tertiary, forming a 2.7-km-wide caldera. The islands include Khvostof, Pyramid, Lopy, and Davidof; the latter three form the eastern rim of the mostly submarine caldera, sometimes referred to as the "Aleutian Krakatau." The islands were constructed above a roughly 100-m-deep submarine platform extending NW to Segula Island; the floor of the caldera lies 80 m below sea level. The islands are vegetated, but lava flows are recognizable, and Smith et al. (1978) suggested a possible Holocene age. (AVO/GVP)

USA - Edgecumbe volcano (Alaska)

April 23rd, 2022

AVO reported that swarm of earthquakes which was detected in the vicinity of Mount Edgecumbe on Monday, April 11, 2022 was characterized by hundreds of small quakes in the swarm, though the large majority were too small to locate. Over the past few days, earthquake activity has declined and is currently at background levels. The recent swarm inspired an in-depth analysis of the last 7.5 years of ground deformation detectable with radar satellite data. Analysis of these data from recent years reveals a broad area, about 17 km (10.5 miles) in diameter, of surface uplift centered about 2.5 km (1.5 miles) to the east of Mt Edgecumbe.AVO reported that a swarm of earthquakes was detected near Mount Edgecumbe Volcano, beginning around 2 a.m. AKDT on Monday, April 11, 2022. There were hundreds of small earthquakes in the swarm, although the vast majority are too small to locate. The National Earthquake Information Center reported that one of the largest earthquakes in the swarm occurred at 11:04 a.m. AKDT on April 11, with a magnitude of 2.8 at 10 km. depth. The Alaska Earthquake Center reported that another earthquake occurred at 3:44 p.m. AKDT on April 11, with a magnitude of 2.1 and a depth of 4 km. Since this morning, the swarm continues, although the rate of earthquakes has decreased over the past 24 hours. The cause of this earthquake swarm is currently unknown. This swarm may be associated with volcanic processes, regional tectonic activity, or a combination of sources. AVO does not have local seismic instruments in the area, and the nearest station is at Sitka, 24 km (15 miles) east of the volcano.The Pleistocene-to-Holocene Edgecumbe volcanic field covers about 260 km2 of Kruzov Island west of Sitka in the SE panhandle of Alaska. The basaltic-to-dacitic field is dominated by the large composite cones of Mount Edgecumbe, Crater Ridge, and Shell Mountain, and has an unusual tectonic setting only 16 km E of the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather transform fault separating the North American and Pacific plates. Mount Edgecumbe is a stratovolcano with a well-defined crater, and is the largest volcano of the field. Crater Ridge is truncated by a 1.6-km-wide, 240-m-deep caldera. These and other vents are oriented along a SW-NE line. Volcanic activity originated about 600,000 years ago along fissures cutting Kruzof Island. A series of major silicic explosive eruptions took place about 9000-13,000 radiocarbon years ago. The latest dated eruptions were phreatomagmatic explosions during the mid-Holocene, and all postglacial activity has been pyroclastic. Reports of historical eruptions of Mount Edgecumbe are unsubstantiated.(GVN/GVP)

USA - Great Sitkin volcano - Andreanof Island (Alaska-Aleutian Islands )

August 18th, 2022

AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 9-16 August; no changes to the flow margins were visible but the lava had deepened around the vent. Weather clouds often obscured satellite and webcam views during most of the week. Seismicity was low and occasional local earthquakes were recorded. Elevated surface temperatures were
identified in satellite images on most days. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.As of the 15th of July, AVO reported that the slow eruption of lava from the summit crater of Great Sitkin Volcano continued this week. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were observed at the summit in satellite data on most days when the volcano was not obscured by clouds. Seismic activity remains weak with occasional small local earthquakes detected throughout the week. Satellite radar observations showed a thickening of the lava flow around the vent, but no significant change in the length of the lava flows.AVO reported that the eruption at Great Sitkin continued during 29 June-5 July. The lava-flow field grew slightly, expanding 15 m E. Elevated surface temperatures were occasionally identified in satellite images; weather clouds sometimes obscured satellite and webcam views. Seismicity was low. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that the eruption at Great Sitkin continued during 8-14 June. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data almost daily, consistent with lava effusion; weather clouds sometimes obscured satellite and webcam views. Seismicity was low with several small local earthquakes detected by the seismic network. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that the eruption at Great Sitkin continued during 24-31 May, though weather clouds sometimes hindered observations. Almost daily elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data, consistent with lava effusion, and satellite images during 28-29 May showed that the lava field had expanded. Steam emissions were occasionally visible. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion likely continued during 3-10 May; a 5 May satellite image showed that the S flank flow had advanced 15 m. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 6-10 May. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin likely continued during 27 April-3 May; no significant seismic activity was detected and weather clouds obscured webcam and satellite views. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively. AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 20-26 April, and very low seismicity persisted. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 13-19 April, based on high-resolution satellite data. Weather clouds prevented visual observations on most days. Very low seismicity persisted. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively. AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 5-12 April and very low seismicity persisted. The lava flows on the S, W, and N flanks had advanced up to 10 m during 2-8 April, and elevated surface temperatures identified in satellite images during 8-10 April indicated continuing effusion. Steaming from the vent and flow field was occasionally identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 30 March through 5 April and low seismicity persisted. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano most of the week, but slow lava effusion continued; minor flow fronts advanced from the W and S lobes, as well as the E margin. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 22-29 March and very low seismicity persisted. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano most of the week; one satellite image acquired on 24 March showed slow expansion of the flow field. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 15-22 March and very low seismicity persisted. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano most of the week; slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images during 20-21 March. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively. AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 8-15 March and very low seismicity persisted. The rate of effusion slightly increased from 28 February to 11 March, based on radar data collected on those two dates; lava was extruded in all direction from the vent and the southern lobe advanced 20 m. Snow covered most of the flow except for the advancing fronts of the lava lobes and around the vent area. Elevated surface temperatures were periodically identified in satellite images. Minor steaming was visible in webcam images on 12 March. The steaming was dense and also visible in satellite images during 12-13 March. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.As of the 11th of March, AVO reported that outpouring of lava from a vent in the summit crater of Great Sitkin Volcano has continued at a slow rate over the past week. Analyzes of satellite radar images collected on February 28 and March 11 suggest a slightly increased rate of lava effusion during this period, with an advance of the southern lobe of about 65 feet (20 m) and extrusion in all directions around the vent. AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin likely continued during 2-8 March and very low seismicity persisted. Elevated surface temperatures were periodically identified in satellite images. A possible steam plume rising above the weather clouds was visible during 4-5 March. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin likely continued during 23 February-1 March and very low seismicity persisted. Weakly elevated surface temperatures at the summit were detected during 25-28 February. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 9-15 February, though cloudy conditions often prevented satellite and webcam views. Seismicity remained slightly above background levels, and elevated surface temperatures were periodically identified in satellite images. A steam plume was occasionally visible in webcam images. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin likely continued during 18-25 January, and seismicity remained at very low levels. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 19-22 January. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin probably continued during 5-11 January, though cloudy conditions prevented satellite and webcam confirmation. Seismicity was very low; several small seismic events were recorded during 9-10 January. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively. Previous news 2021 - .AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 29 December 2021 to 4 January 2022 along with very low and persistent seismicity. Satellite images acquired on 29 December 2021 and 1 January 2022 showed that the lava flows on the W flanks had advanced. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 8-14 December and very low seismicity persisted. Elevated surface temperatures at the summit, that were sometimes intense, were detected overnight during 10-11 and 13-14 December. A radar image acquired during 12-13 December showed a growing flow field. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin likely continued during 1-7 December. Elevated surface temperatures at the summit were periodically detected through the week. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively. AVO reported that lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 10-16 November. Elevated surface temperatures were visible in clear satellite images during 11 and 15-16 November. Two days later effusion was confirmed in satellite images; the N lava flow had not progressed but the W and S flank flows had advanced to 680 and 650 m, respectively. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that lava flows at Great Sitkin were approximately 680 m long on the W flank, 560 m long on the S flank, and 90 m long on the N flank by 30 October based on satellite images. Lava effusion probably continued during 3-9 November, though weather clouds prevented visual confirmation. Elevated surface temperatures were occasionally detected in satellite images during 2-3 and 5-6 November. Seismicity was low overall, though slightly increased during 6-7 November. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively. AVO reported that lava flows on Great Sitkin's S and W flanks were 600 m long by 27 October based on satellite images, and lava effusion likely continued during 27 October-2 November. Seismicity remained elevated and was characterized by small earthquakes consistent with ongoing lava flows. Elevated surface temperatures were occasionally detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively. AVO reported that lava effusion continued this week at the Great Sitkin, and lava fills more than half of the summit crater (photo) . Satellite imagery through October 27 showed that two lava lobes, flowing over low points on the crater rim, extend down the slope about 600m to the south and west . Lava also reached the rim of the crater on its northern periphery. In a few areas, lava has advanced over the snow and juts into the glacial ice to the east, but no significant vapor formation or water accumulation was observed. This indicates that melt rates are likely low and that there is no indication of impending hydrological hazards. The lava lobes which have passed the edge of the summit crater flow into small valleys developed on the volcanic edifice. The terrain is steep in these areas, and boulders of lava and lava rubble could break away from the terminus of the flow lobes without warning and form small rock avalanches in these valleys. Such avalanches can release ash and gas and could travel several hundred meters beyond lava flows; they would be dangerous for anyone in these areas. Satellite imagery shows such a blocky deposit extending downward beyond the terminus of the western flow lobe.
AVO reported that lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 13-19 October. Seismicity remained elevated and was characterized by small earthquakes consistent with lava effusion, though an outage affected geophysical data streams during 16-18 October. Satellite images acquired on 11 October showed that lava filled more than half of the summit crater, flowing onto the S and W flanks, and had recently reached the N crater rim. Lava traveled 330 m down the S flank, 350 m down the W flank, descended small valleys, and in some areas, advanced over snow and ice. Blocks that had detached from the end of the W flow descended 450 m. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that lava effusion continued this week at the Great Sitkin in the Aleutian Arc, and lava now fills more than half of the summit crater. Satellite imagery from October 11 showed that two lava lobes, flowing over low points on the crater rim, extend down a slope 330 m to the south and 350 m to the west. Lava also reached the rim of the crater on its northern periphery. In a few areas, lava advanced over snow and ice, but no abnormal melting, vapor formation or water accumulation was observed. This indicates that melt rates are likely low and that there is no indication of impending hydrological hazards.AVO reported that lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 29 September-5 October. Seismicity remained elevated and was characterized by small earthquakes consistent with lava effusion. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite images. By 3 October the dome had grown to 1,200 m E-W and 1,000 m N-S. Lava flows that continued to advance down the S and SW flanks were about 300-350 m long. The SW lobe was descending two drainages and produced hot avalanches that traveled 450 m downslope on top of a snow field. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 22-28 September, though weather clouds sometimes prevented webcam and satellite views. Seismicity remained elevated and was characterized by small earthquakes consistent with lava effusion. By 24 September the dome had overtopped the S and W crater rims and flowed 305 m down the S flank and 195 m down the W flank. The dome was about 25 m thick and had grown to 1,170 m E to W and 925 m N to S in dimension. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 15-21 September, though weather clouds often prevented webcam and satellite views. Seismicity remained elevated and was characterized by small earthquakes consistent with lava effusion. A radar image from 16 September indicated that the lava dome had grown to 1,130 m E-W and 910 m N-S, and was about 30 m thick. The edges of the dome touched the S and W rims of the crater. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 20-21 September. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 7-14 September, though weather clouds often prevented webcam and satellite views. Seismicity remained elevated and was characterized by small earthquakes consistent with lava effusion. A radar image from 9 September indicated that the lava dome had grown to 1,100 m E to W and 860 m N to S, and was 25-30 m thick. Lava began to advance though a gap in the S rim of the summit crater. Elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite data on 14 September. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures at Great Sitkin and daily small earthquakes were detected during 31 August-7 September, consistent with the growing lava dome. Gas plumes were observed almost daily in satellite data. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that the lava dome at Great Sitkin continued to grow, reaching 880 m in diameter by 25 August and 1,090 m during 28-29 August. Elevated surface temperatures and small earthquakes were detected during 25-31 August, consistent with the growing dome. Daily steam-and-gas plumes were observed in satellite data and by local observers. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.AVO reported that the lava dome at Great Sitkin remained active during 17-24 August; satellite imagery showed changes from a diameter of 800 m on 17 August to 850-860 m throughout 18-21 August. Elevated surface temperatures and daily small earthquakes were consistent with an active dome. Gas-and-steam plumes were visible to local ground observers and in satellite imagery during 20-22 and 24 August. As of the 16th of August, AVO reported that high surface temperatures and small earthquakes were detected during the last day at the Great Sitkin volcano, which corresponds to the continued growth of a lava dome. Satellite imagery on 16.08 at noon showed that the lava dome is now greater than 700 m in diameter. (against 380 m. on 08/09). A plume of steam and gas could be seen above the summit on satellite images and by ground observers. No explosion or ash emission was detected. The current volcanic alert level remains at Watch and the aviation code at Orange. As of the 14th of August, AVO reported high surface temperatures and small earthquakes were detected during the last day at the Great Sitkin volcano, which corresponds to the continued growth of a lava dome. A plume of steam and gas could be seen above the summit on clear satellite images from the web camera. No explosion or ash emission was detected.As of the 13th of August, AVO reported that the eruption of a lava dome in the summit crater of the Great Sitkin volcano continued over the past week. Satellite data showed the dome grew from around 300m in diameter on August 6 to around 380m on August 9. Plumes of steam were visible in satellite and web camera images, but no ash emission was detected. Small earthquakes were detected which are probably associated with the lava effusion. No explosive activity was detected. There is no indication of how long the lava flow lasted during the current eruption, and it is possible that explosive activity could occur with little or no warning. The volcanic alert remains at Watch and the aviation code at Orange. AVO reported that incandescence was visible over the growing lava dome of Great Sitkin on Friday evening (August 6) around 10:30 p.m., along with a robust plume of steam. High surface temperatures were seen on a satellite image, but all other satellite and webcam views of the volcano over the past day have been obscured by clouds. The high surface temperatures are the result of an effusion of lava in the summit crater. The dome was measured, using satellite radar images, over 230 m in diameter as of Thursday, August 5. As of the 5th of August, AVO reported that unrest continues at the Great Sitkin volcano. During the last day, numerous earthquakes and small explosions were recorded on local infrasound and seismic stations. The dome has been expanding since mid-July and the last explosive event was on May 25, 2021. AVO is monitoring and using satellite imagery to measure the rate of growth. It now measures more than 100 meters in diameter. At night, the people of Adak about 26 miles across the water report the plume of steam lit by the incandescent lava atop the dome. On August 5, local observers reported a low-level lava fountain at the active vent that was also visible from Adak Island. A robust volcanic cloud was observed in web camera views of the volcano throughout the day. This cloud extends north-northeast below about 10,000 feet above sea level. It is probably composed mainly of volcanic gases and water vapor, but could include some amount of ashes. AVO reported that unrest continued at Great Sitkin during 28 July-3 August. Seismicity remained elevated and a small swarm was recorded during 1-2 August. Elevated surface temperatures and a north-drifting steam plume were identified in satellite images during 27-28 July. Minor steam emissions were visible during 31 July-3 August. The circular lava dome in the crater had grown to 180 m in diameter based on measurements taken using a 3 August satellite image. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.Recent images have shown a new circular lava dome growing in the crater of Great Sitkin Volcano. On July 26, 2021, the dome is about 130 m diameter, and growing since first observed July 22. The most recent explosive eruption event was May 25th.A satellite radar image from last night on July 22 at 9:32 p.m. (July 23 05:32 UTC) shows a small area of ​​uplift about 50 m (~ 150 ft) in diameter at the center of Great Sitkin crater suggesting a magma rise near the surface. This lava dome-like feature appears to have been in place between July 14-22. As a result, AVO is increasing the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcanic Alert Level to Watch. Seismicity has been at relatively low levels this week compared to last week and we suspect the lava dome feature was put in place last week. Moderately high surface temperatures consistent with this feature were observed in satellite data on July 22. Cloudy conditions have obscured satellite views of the volcano for most of the past week. AVO will continue to closely monitor this new uplift feature.The 1740-m-high Great Sitkin volcano forms much of the northern side of Great Sitkin Island. A younger parasitic volcano capped by a small, 0.8 x 1.2 km ice-filled summit caldera was constructed within a large late-Pleistocene or early Holocene scarp formed by massive edifice failure that truncated an ancestral volcano and produced a submarine debris avalanche. Deposits from this and an older debris avalanche from a source to the south cover a broad area of the ocean floor north of the volcano. The 1740-m-high summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 meters. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded at Great Sitkin since the late-19th century. (GVN/GVP) Webcam

U.S.A - Pavlof volcano (Alaska)

August 18th, 2022

AVO reported that a minor eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 9-16 August, though cloud cover often prevented visual confirmation. Seismic tremor persisted and multiple small daily explosions were detected in local and regional seismic and infrasound data. The explosions may have produced minor ash emissions that rose no higher than 3
km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipated quickly, though on a few of the clear views none were seen. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images on most of the days. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 29 June-5 July, and seismic tremor persisted. Daily elevated surface temperatures identified in satellite images were consistent with the continuing effusion of short (615 m or less) lava flows. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 14-21 June, and seismic tremor persisted. Daily elevated surface temperatures identified in satellite images were consistent with the continuing effusion of short (500 m or less) lava flows. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 24-31 May, and seismic tremor persisted. Daily elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images consistent with the effusion of short lava flows on the upper E flank. An active flow that was 650 m long was visible in satellite images during 28-29 May. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 3-10 May, though weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Seismic tremor persisted. Daily elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images and almost daily steam emissions were recorded in webcam images. The lava flow from the E vent was 500 m long by 8 May. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 26 April-3 May, though weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Seismic tremor persisted and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images almost daily. A short lava flow had descended the E flank during 26-28 April and was about 500 m long. Steaming from the active vent was visible during 30 April-2 May. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 20-26 April, though weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Seismic tremor persisted and daily elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 12-19 April, though weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Seismic tremor persisted and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images almost daily. Steam emissions were seen rising above the summit in webcam images on 16 April. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 5-12 April, and seismic tremor persisted. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images almost daily. Possible minor lava effusion was visible in satellite images on 6 April, and a few small explosions were recorded each day during 6-9 April. Low-level ash emissions were visible in webcam and satellite images during 6-7 April, and satellite images captured ash and pyroclastic flow deposits extending at most 1.5 km from the vent and short lava flows on 9 April. Steam emissions from the vent were visible during 8-10 April. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that weak eruptive activity was ongoing at Pavlof during 30 March through 4 April, and seismic tremor persisted. Weak explosive activity was detected during 31 March and 2-3 April with low-level plumes visible in the mornings, though satellite and webcam views were mostly obscured by clouds. During 3-4 April elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite images despite the cloudy weather. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 22-29 March, and seismic tremor persisted. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images on most of the days and were consistent with minor lava effusion. Cloud cover sometimes prevented webcam and satellite views of the summit area; sulfur dioxide emissions were visible in satellite images during 24-26 March. Two small explosions were detected in local and regional infrasound data during 23-24 March and one was recorded during 26-27 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 15-22 March, and seismic tremor persisted. Cloud cover sometimes prevented webcam and satellite views of the summit area, though almost-daily elevated surface temperatures identified in satellite images were consistent with minor lava effusion. Three small explosions were detected in local and regional infrasound data during 19-20 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that the eruption at a vent on Pavlof's upper E flank was ongoing during 8-15 March, and small explosions were detected in local seismic and infrasound data on most days. Tremor levels was characterized as strong during 8-10 March and moderate during the rest of the week. A satellite image acquired on 7 March showed highly elevated surface temperatures near the vent (likely due to an accumulation of lava spatter), and a dark lahar deposit extending 750 m down the SE flank. Minor ash deposits were visible around the vent. Elevated surface temperatures were visible on most days of the week, though cloud cover sometimes prevented observations, consistent with continued activity. On 14 March satellite images showed minor lava effusion at the vent. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof was ongoing during 2-8 March. Small explosions were detected on most days. Lava effusion likely continued from a vent just E of the summit, possibly sending lava flows a short distance down the NE flank, though weather clouds often obscured views. Elevated surface temperatures were often identified in satellite images. A high-resolution satellite image acquired during 5-6 March showed a developing spatter cone in the E crater, as well as no active lava flows nor widespread ash deposits on the flanks. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. As of the 5th of March, AVO reported that a few small explosions were detected overnight and this morning at Pavlof. No ash emissions were detected in satellite or webcam imagery, but elevated surface temperatures continue to be detected near the active eastern vent, consistent with short lava flows on the upper flanks.AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof was ongoing during 23 February-1 March. Lava effusion continued from a vent just E of the summit and sent a lava flow a short distance down the NE flank. Seismicity was higher with periods of tremor, and elevated surface temperatures were periodically identified in satellite images; both were consistent with continuing lava effusion. Small explosions were detected during 24 and 26-28 February. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof was ongoing during 8-15 February with lava effusion from a vent on the upper SE flank feeding lava flows on the E flank. Seismicity was elevated with periods of tremor and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images; both were consistent was continuing lava effusion. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that eruption of the Pavlof volcano continues in the Alaskan Peninsula. Strongly elevated surface temperatures consistent with the active lava flow on the eastern flank of Pavlof were observed in satellite data throughout the week. Web camera views were mostly obscured throughout the week, but occasional clear views showed continued steaming. Clear satellite images from Wednesday January 19 showed a lava flow and lahar extending 1.3 km and 4.4 km (0.8 and 2.7 miles), respectively, east of the volcano's summit.AVO reported that elevated seismicity at Pavlof during 5-11 January was characterized by daily periods of tremor. High surface temperatures consistent with active lava effusion near the vent were identified in satellite images each day. The lava flow on the SE flank lengthened from 80 to 300 m during 2-6 January based on high-resolution satellite data. Robust steaming was observed by pilots and in webcam images on 9 January. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that seismicity at Pavlof was elevated during 29 December 2021 to 4 January 2022 and was characterized by daily periods of tremor. Minor ash emissions were visible during 28-29 December and small explosions were occasionally recorded during 29-30 December. Thermal emissions continued to be low, and elevated surface temperatures consistent with a hot vent region were identified in satellite images during 1-3 January. During 3-4 January lava was active in an area within 100 m of the SE vent. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. Previous news 2021 - AVO reported seismicity at Pavlof was elevated during 8-14 December, and weak explosive activity was detected by geophysical sensors during 8-11 and 13-14 December. No ash emissions were visible, though satellite and webcam views were often cloudy. Elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images during 11-14 December; a lava flow on the E flank was visible in images during 12-13 December. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof continued during 1-7 December, focused at a vent on the upper SE flank. Seismicity remained elevated and several daily explosions were detected using infrasound data. Elevated surface temperatures were observed in satellite data during 1-2 December, though cloud cover often prevented observations. No emissions were visible in mostly cloudy satellite and webcam views during 1-3 December. Minor ash emissions were visible in webcam images on 4 December and, based on webcam images and a pilot observation, the next day a diffuse ash plume rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted tens of kilometers beyond the volcano. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof continued during 14-23 November and was focused at a vent on the upper NE flank. Seismicity remained elevated and signals were periodically recorded that were likely explosions. Lava fountaining began on 14 November and had built a small, unstable cone. Hot debris from the cone traveled a few hundred meters down the flanks, melting snow and ice that resulted in narrow lahars which traveled several kilometers down the flanks. Elevated surface temperatures were observed in satellite data at least through 23 November, suggesting that the lava fountaining continued. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof continued during 10-16 November and was focused at a vent on the upper NE flank. Seismicity remained elevated. Pilots observed steam plumes rising to 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l.; steam plumes were also visible the next day. On 11 November a narrow 2-km-long lahar deposit on the SE flank was identified in satellite images. The lahar was likely generated by the interaction of lava and snow on the upper flank. Strongly elevated surface temperatures visible in satellite images during 10-15 November were indicative of lava effusion and possibly fountaining. Several explosions were recorded during 12-14 November. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code remained at Watch and Orange, respectively.AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof continued during 3-9 November and was focused at a vent on the upper NE flank. Seismicity remained elevated; several small explosions and discontinuous tremor were recorded during 5-8 November with increased frequency compared to the previous week. The explosions likely produced small, low-level ash plumes, though weather clouds often prevented confirmation by satellite and webcam images. Elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images overnight during 7-8 November, coincident with the emplacement of a 30-m-long lava flow. Small diffuse ash plumes were visible in webcam images and dissipated quickly. Elevated surface temperatures remained visible through 9 November. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code remained at Watch and Orange, respectively. AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof continued during 27 October-2 November and was focused at a vent on the upper SE flank, near the location of the 2007 vent. Seismicity remained elevated with tremor and daily small explosion signals. The explosions likely produced low-level ash plumes that rose no higher than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l., though weather clouds often prevented confirmation by satellite and webcam images. Elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images during 25-26 October. A small plume and discolored snow at the summit were visible in mostly clear satellite images during 27-28 October. Slightly elevated temperatures were identified in satellite images during 31 October-2 November. Minor steaming at the vent was seen in webcam images on 1 November, as well as a small ash plume that rose to a low height and dissipated quickly. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code remained at Watch and Orange, respectively.AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof continued during 20-26 October and was focused at a vent on the upper SE flank, near the location of the 2007 vent. Seismicity remained elevated with tremor and daily small explosions during 20-24 October. Weather clouds obscured satellite and webcam images most days, but the explosions likely produced low-level ash plumes that rose no higher than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Elevated surface temperatures were visible in satellite images during 25-26 October. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code remained at Watch and Orange, respectively. AVO reported that the eruption at Pavlof continued during 13-19 October and was focused at a vent on the upper SE flank, near the location of the 2007 vent. Seismicity remained elevated. Two small explosions were recorded in infrasound and seismic data on both 14 and 16 October. A few explosions were recorded during 17-18 October; ash deposits on the flanks were visible in satellite images. Cloudy conditions obscured satellite and webcam images most days. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code remained at Watch and Orange, respectively.AVO reported that seismicity at Pavlof remained elevated during 6-12 October. Two explosions were recorded by infrasound network during 6-7 October. Mostly cloudy conditions obscured satellite and webcam images most days. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code remained at Watch and Orange, respectively.AVO reported that seismicity at Pavlof remained elevated during 29 September-5 October. No explosions were recorded most days by the seismic and infrasound networks, and no eruptive activity was observed in mostly cloudy webcam and satellite images. On 3 October webcam images showed that recent ash deposits on the flanks had been covered by fresh snow; later that night either new ash deposits were visible in webcam images or older deposits were revealed due to snowmelt. Weakly elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images. At least two minor explosions were recorded during 4-5 October and minor emissions likely comprised of steam and sulfur dioxide were visible in morning webcam images on 5 October. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code remained at Watch and Orange, respectively.
Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavlof, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing Strombolian to Vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode, when a fissure opened on the N flank, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.(GVN/GVP) Webcam

U.S.A. - Veniaminof volcano (Alaska)

July 10th, 2021

AVO changed both the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level for Veniaminof to Green and Normal, respectively, on 8 July, noting that seismic stations were back online. The monitoring network consists of local and regional seismic stations, regional infrasound networks, lightning detection, and satellite image monitoring.AVO reported that eruptive activity at Veniaminof had declined during the previous few weeks; no emissions were visible after ash emissions on 5 April and seismicity continued to decline. On 21 April the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Likely low level ash emissions were observed on 6th of April in web camera views from the summit of Veniaminof. Seismic activity remains high. Due to the renewed activity, AVO was raising the Aviation Color Code to ORANGE and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. The Alaska Volcano Observatory continues to monitor Veniaminof with a local seismic network, remote infrasound and lightning networks, as well as satellite and webcam images.AVO reported that during clear weather days on 25, 28, and 29 March. Discrete, short-lived ash emissions were detected during the afternoon and evening of 27 March in images from the FAA webcam in Perryville. The intermittent events lasted several minutes and produced small ash clouds that rose less than 300 m (1,000 ft) above the vent and drifted SE, which may have resulted in trace ashfall in Perryville, though there was no confirmed evidence. As of the 25th of March, AVO reported that low level activity continued. Elevated surface temperatures are observed at the top cone and the sidewall vent. Satellite observations reveal fresh ash deposits extending over about 10 km. south-east on the snow of the caldera.Seismicity shows periods of repeated seismic events and tremor.Back to the noises formed during the activity of March 23: the audible noises in the vicinity of the volcano are caused by the bursting of large pockets of gas with the active cone, in the case of typical Strombolian activity, characterizing basaltic volcanoes basalto-andesitic. AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 17-23 March. Low surface temperatures were visible in satellite images along with steam-and-gas plumes. Low-level tremor was recorded in local seismic data. During the morning of 21 March small explosions were identified using seismic data and infrasound sensors in Chignik Lagoon. A volcanic gas cloud drifted SE at or below 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Small explosions were detected again during 21-23 March. Sulfur dioxide plumes were identified in satellite data. Minor ash emissions rose hundreds of meters and rapidly dissipated, though on 23 March a pilot saw an ash plume rise to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite data during 22-23 March showed highly elevated surface temperatures and subsidence of the glacial ice over the flank vent where lava was erupting. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity continues. Small explosions at Veniaminof were observed in local seismic data and infrasound data at Chignik lagoon on the morning of March 21. A cloud of volcanic gas has been detected in satellite data extending southeast at an altitude of 5,000 feet or less. Minor low-level ash emissions from the small cone in the summit caldera and lava eruption in the intracaldera glacier at a vent ~ 1 km (0.6 mile) east of the top of the cone continues. AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 9-16 March. Ash emissions rose to 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 200 km NE and SE during 9-10 March. Explosions and ash emissions declined to lower levels the rest of the week, though new ash deposits within the caldera, and as far as 10 km SE, were sometimes identified in satellite images. Lava continued to effuse under the intra-caldera glacier in an area on the flank about 1 km E of the cone's summit. Elevated surface temperatures over this area were identified in a satellite images during most days, along with steam plumes and a broadening collapse pit in the ice from melting around the eruption site. Data from local seismic stations were back online by 12 March and showed elevated seismicity and tremor through 15 March. Steam-and-has plumes were identified in satellite images during 15-16 March. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. As of the 12th of march, AVO reported that low level eruptive activity continues. Mainly cloudy satellite images showed minor low-level ash and gas emissions from the small cone in the summit caldera. Strongly elevated surface temperatures and a vapor plume were also observed from the lava eruption in the intracaldera glacier at a vent ~ 1 km (0.6 miles) east of the top of the cone. Low-level volcanic ash plumes were observed at about 7,000 to 10,000 ft asl extending up to 200 km (124 miles) downwind, leaving traces of ash deposits within 20 km (12 , 4 miles) from the vent to the northeast and southeast. Explosions corresponding to this activity have been detected on regional geophysical networks over the past week. Explosive activity has decreased over the past two days, with only minor ash emissions observed near the vent and no activity was detected in regional geophysical data.Current level of volcanic alert: WATCH - current aviation color code: ORANGE. As of the 7th of March, AVO reported that low level eruptive activity continues at Veniaminof. Numerous small explosions were seen on regional infrasound networks over the past day, some of which were heard and felt by residents of Perryville. High surface temperatures have been observed in satellite data, suggesting that lava may be near or on the surface of the summit cone. A low-level plume of ash and volcanic gas continues to be emitted and has been observed by pilots, as well as on web cameras and satellite imagery during periods of clear weather. The ash and gas plume was mostly below 3,000 meters asl, but was estimated at 4,500 meters asl in satellite data from last night. The plume continues to dissipate rapidly and the ash is mostly confined to the top caldera near the vent. AVO reported that regional infrasound sensors detected a small explosion from the Veniaminof volcano on March 4, 2021 at 2:13 p.m. UTC (5:13 a.m. local time). Satellite and webcam views indicate low-level ash emissions (<10,000 feet / <3,000 meters asl.) heading in the SSE direction, and minor ash deposits are visible over the volcano. As a result, AVO increases the Aviation Color Code to ORANGE and the Volcano Alert Level to WATCH on Veniaminof Volcano. Local seismic data remains offline due to a failure of a satellite link at Port Heiden. However, the Alaska Volcano Observatory continues to monitor Veniaminof with satellite and webcam data and remote infrasound, seismic and lightning networks. AVO reported that seismic data for Veniaminof had not been received since 8 December 2020 due to a problem with the satellite link at Port Heiden. Both the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were changed to Unassigned on 15 January 2021, reflecting the lack of available seismic data to detect unrest. Massive Veniaminof volcano, one of the highest and largest volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the north, is deeply notched on the west by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the south. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface. (GVN/GVP)

U.S.A. - Semisopochnoi volcano ( Alaska)

August 22nd, 2022

AVO reported that a short-lived explosion occurred at Semisopochnoi's Cerberus crater at 1:47 p.m. AKDT (21:47 UTC) on 21th of August that produced ash emissions observed in local webcams. Ash emissions ceased at 2:16 p.m. AKDT (22:16 UTC). The ash plume was not visible above weather clouds in satellite images, so it was less than 6 km above sea level. This event is similar to eruptive activity observed during last year at Semisopochnoi, but was the first confirmed ash show since June 12, 2022. The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level are raised to ORANGE/WATCH.AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone likely continued during 29 June-5 July. Seismicity was quiet. Weather clouds often prevented satellite and webcam views; sulfur dioxide emissions were detected in satellite images on 28 and 30 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 14-21 June. Periods of weak tremor were recorded by the seismic network. Weather clouds often prevented satellite and webcam views; minor steam emissions were visible in one clear webcam image on 17 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 24-31 May. Seismicity continued to be elevated with intermittent tremor and several daily explosions recorded by infrasound and seismic instruments. Weather clouds often prevented satellite and webcam views; sporadic ash emissions were visible during 27-28 May and likely occurred on other days as well. Sulfur dioxide emissions were detected during 27-29 May, and elevated surface temperatures were identified during 28-29 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 3-10 May. Seismicity continued to be elevated with intermittent tremor detected by the seismic network. Several daily explosions were recorded during 8-10 May. Weather clouds obscured views of the volcano, though daily minor, low-level ash emissions were seen in webcam views. A pilot reported a low-level eruption cloud on 9 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 26 April-3 May. Tremor continued to be detected by the seismic network. Weather clouds obscured views of the volcano on most days, though occasional views during 27-29 May revealed new ash deposits on the flanks. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity continued during 19-26 April. Periods of seismic tremor were occasionally detected and small explosions were recorded in seismic data during 19-20 April. Minor, low-level, plumes with low ash content were visible in webcam images through each day during 19-20 April, with occasional more energetic ash plumes.AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 12-19 April. Periods of seismic tremor were detected daily and occasional small explosions were recorded in seismic and regional infrasound data on most days. Weather cloud cover often hindered webcam and satellite views; minor, low-level ash plumes were visible in webcam images during 16-19 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 6-12 April. Periods of seismic tremor were detected daily and occasional small explosions were recorded on most days in seismic and regional infrasound data. Partly-to-mostly-cloudy webcam views and occasional satellite images showed daily short-lived ash bursts and more continuous steam emissions. Steam plumes drifted as far as 70 km SW during 6-7 April. A low-level steam plume drifted more than 100 km at altitudes less than 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. during 7-8 April. A low-level ash plume drifted up to 80 km WNW on 8 April. Local ash deposits were occasionally visible. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 30 March-4 April. Periods of seismic tremor and occasional small explosions were detected daily in seismic and regional infrasound data. Daily minor ash emissions rose no higher than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and occasional steam emissions were visible in webcam and satellite images; clouds sometimes prevented satellite views. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 22-29 March. Periods of seismic tremor and occasional small explosions were detected daily in seismic and regional infrasound data. Daily minor ash emissions and occasional steam emissions were visible in webcam and satellite images; clouds sometimes prevented satellite views. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 15-22 March. Periods of seismic tremor and occasional small explosions were detected daily in seismic and regional infrasound data. Daily minor ash emissions and occasional steam emissions were visible in webcam images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 8-15 March. Seismic tremor and sometimes numerous daily explosions were detected in seismic and regional infrasound data. Minor ash emissions were visible in webcam images during 8-9 and 14-15 March; likely plumes on other days may have been hidden due to clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 1-8 March. Local seismic and infrasound instruments recorded daily small explosions. Weather clouds often prevented satellite and webcam views of the volcano, though explosions likely produced low ash clouds from the summit and they were visually confirmed during 4-8 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 23 February-1 March. Seismicity was elevated with low-level tremor and daily small explosions. Weather clouds sometimes prevented satellite and webcam views of the volcano, though low ash clouds from the summit were visible on most days. Ash deposits on the N flank were visible in a few webcam images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 9-15 February. Seismicity was elevated with low-level tremor, and several small explosions were detected daily in both seismic and infrasound data, through 13 February. Steam and low-level ash emissions likely occurred daily, though due to weather clouds they were not confirmed in satellite and webcam images during 13-14 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.Near-continuous low-level eruptive activity continues from Mount Cerberus North Crater at Semisopochnoi. Seismicity remains high and several small explosions have been detected. A low-level ashy plume was observed in webcam data during the day of 9th and and 10th of February. AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity continues at Semisopochnoi from the northern cone of Cerberus. Seismicity remains elevated. Low-level steam and ash emissions were observed in web camera images. Nothing unusual was observed in the cloudy satellite data. A small explosion was detected by the local infrasound array on morning. Small eruptions producing minor ash deposits near the active north crater of Mount Cerberus and ash clouds generally below 10,000 feet above sea level have characterized the recent activity. Small explosions and associated ash emissions may continue and be difficult to detect, particularly when heavy cloud cover obscures the volcano. AVO reported that eruption continues. Small explosions producing low-level ash clouds from the northern crater of Mount Cerberus on Semisopochnoi Island have occurred intermittently throughout the past week. These explosions were detected by local seismic and infrasound sensors. When weather conditions permitted, small ash emissions were observed in web camera images. For most of the week, these low-level broadcasts could not be seen on satellite views. However, an ash plume drifting south could be seen by satellite on Thursday January 13 at an altitude of around 1,500 meters above sea level. AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity and elevated seismicity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 29 December 2021 to 4 January 2022. Minor ash-and-steam emissions were visible in webcam images during 28-29 December. Ash plumes observed in webcam and satellite images on 31 December rose to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 100 km NE. Ash emissions observed in webcam images during daylight hours on 1 and 2 January were being blown down the flank by high winds. Small explosions were detected in seismic data during 2-4 January, though cloud cover obscured views. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. Previous news 2021 - AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity and elevated seismicity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 8-14 December. Several daily explosions were detected in seismic and infrasound data. Small ash clouds drifting at least 185 km SE were identified in satellite images during 8-9 December. Persistent steam emissions occasionally punctuated by ash emissions were visible in webcam views during 10-11 December, and ash emissions were visible the next day even though conditions were mostly cloudy. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that the eruption of the Semisopochnoi volcano continues. Small explosions producing low-level ash clouds from the north crater of Mount Cerberus on Semisopochnoi Island have occurred several times a day throughout the past week. These explosions were detected by local seismic sensors, local and regional infrasound sensors and, when weather conditions permitted, by webcam and satellite images. Clouds obscured the volcano for most of the past week, although small ash clouds drifting at least 185 km southeast of Semisopochnoi were detected in satellite data on the 8th and 9th. December.AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 17-23 November. Daily minor explosions were detected in seismic and infrasound data. Small ash plumes rising no higher than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. likely continued to be emitted, though weather clouds obscured satellite and webcam views of the volcano on most days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 10-16 November. Daily minor explosions were detected in seismic and infrasound data. Daily ash plumes were visible in webcam and satellite data rising to 1.5-3.7 (5,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l., drifting NE, E, SE, and S, and dissipated quickly. Weather clouds sometimes obscured views. Ash plumes were typically dissipating within 50 km of the volcano. Minor ashfall on the island was sometimes visible. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 2-9 November. Daily tremor and minor explosions were detected in seismic and infrasound data. Several small low-level ash plumes were visible in webcam data rising to an estimated altitude of 1.5 (5,000 ft) a.s.l. during 2-3 November. Weather clouds obscured views during 4-7 November with the top of the cloud deck varying at altitudes of 3-6.1 km (10,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l.; ash plumes likely continued to be emitted though none rose above the cloud deck. Ash plumes were typically dissipating within 50 km of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 26 October-2 November. Daily tremor and minor explosions were detected in seismic and infrasound data. Although weather clouds often prevented webcam and satellite views, intermittent, low-level ash emissions were visible during clear views, rising as high as 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipating quickly. Sulfur dioxide emissions were detected during 26-27 and 30-31 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 19-26 October. Tremor and multiple minor explosions were detected daily in seismic and infrasound data. Although weather clouds often prevented webcam and satellite views, intermittent, low-level ash emissions were visible during clear weather rising to altitudes up to 3 km (10,000 ft a.s.l.); the farthest plume drifted 250 km on 19 October. Sulfur dioxide emissions were detected during 25-26 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 13-19 October. Seismicity remained elevated and daily minor explosions were detected in infrasound data. Although weather clouds often prevented webcam and satellite views, intermittent, low-level ash emissions were visible rising to altitudes up to 3 km (10,000 ft a.s.l.) and drifting E on 13 October. Ash plumes rose as high as 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 18 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 6-12 October. Seismicity remained elevated and a few explosions per day were detected in infrasound data. Although weather clouds often prevented webcam and satellite views, discontinuous, low-level ash emissions were visible rising to altitudes up to 3 km (10,000 ft a.s.l.) and drifting E during 8-9 October. Low-level ash emissions were also visible in webcam images during 9-12 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 29 September-5 October. Seismicity remained elevated with intermittent explosion signals or bursts of activity likely from explosions. A few explosions were also detected in regional infrasound data during 2-5 October. Small ash clouds were observed almost daily in either webcam or satellite images rising to altitudes below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.; plumes drifted ENE on 2 October, then N and NW on 3 October. Sulfur dioxide plumes were possibly observed on a few days, though definitely on 3 October. Webcams located 5-6 km from the active vent recorded ashfall during 4-5 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 22-28 September. Seismicity remained elevated; daily explosions were recorded by seismic and infrasound networks. The frequency and intensity of ash emissions decreased during 21-22 September with occasional discrete ash clouds drifted W at altitudes of 3-4.6 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. Sulfur dioxide plumes also drifted W. Occasional low-level ash emissions drifted NW, W, and SE during 22-26 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.As of the 21st of September, AVO reported that ash emissions have decreased in frequency and intensity over the past 24 hours at Semisopochnoi, with distinct ash clouds currently drifting northwest between 3,000 and 4,500 meters.Due to this drop in activity, the Alaska Volcano Observatory has lowered the color code from Aviation / Volcano Alert Level to Orange / Watch.SO2 emissions have also been observed during the last 24 hours drifting north of the island. Seismicity remained high with explosions detected in seismic and infrasound networks.Small eruptions producing minor ash deposits near the active northern crater of Mount Cerberus and ash clouds typically less than 3,000 meters above sea level have characterized recent activity, which shows no sign of slowing down. AVO reported that on 19th of September, ash emissions from the eruption underway at Semisopochnoi have increased in frequency and intensity. Satellite images show an ash cloud at an estimated altitude of 15,000 feet above sea level extending about 60 miles (100 km) to the southeast until 05:00 UTC. Explosions were observed throughout the day and an increase in sulfur dioxide emissions was observed in satellite data this afternoon. These observations represent an increase in eruptive activity and the aviation color code and volcanic alert level are increased to RED / Warning. AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 7-14 September. Seismicity was elevated and characterized by periods of continuous tremor. Short-lived explosions lasting several minutes were detected daily in infrasound data. Small ash clouds from the explosions rose 3-4.6 km (10,000-15,000 ft) and dissipated within two hours. Sulfur dioxide emissions were detected in satellite images at altitudes less than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l., sometimes extending downwind for hundreds of kilometers. During 7-9 September periods of lower-altitude ash emissions interspersed with voluminous steam plumes were observed in web camera images moving horizontally by the wind and rising no higher than 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 31 August-7 September. Multiple daily explosions were detected by seismic and infrasound networks. Ash-and-steam plumes from the explosions were sometimes confirmed in satellite and webcam images rising to altitudes lower than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l., though during 6-7 September ash plumes rose as high as 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. Local ashfall on the island was visible in satellite data. Sulfur dioxide emissions were detected in satellite images during 31 August-2 September and on 6 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.As of the 1st of September, AVO reported that eruptive activity continues in the northern crater of Mount Cerberus on Semisopochnoi Island. Several small explosions have occurred over the past 24 hours, detected by seismic and infrasound networks. High SO2 emissions continue to be observed in satellite data. Small eruptions producing minor ash deposits near the active northern crater of Mount Cerberus and ash clouds generally less than 10,000 feet above sea level have characterized recent activity, which shows no sign of slowing down. Small explosions can continue to occur and could be difficult to detect, especially in bad weather. AVO reported that multiple explosions and seismicity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 18-24 August. Low-level gas-and-ash emissions, including occasional sulfur dioxide emissions were detected in satellite and webcam data during 18-24 August and rose no higher than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.AVO reported that an eruption at Semisopochno's North Cerberus crater was ongoing during 11-17 August, characterized by daily explosions, ash plumes, and occasional sulfur dioxide emissions identified in satellite images. Multiple energetic explosions were detected daily in seismic and infrasound data, and strong seismic tremor was occasionally recorded. Daily steam-and-ash plumes identified in webcam and satellite data rose no higher than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 200-300 km W. Daily ashfall likely occurred on the island. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.As of the 14th of August, AVO reported that during the last day, four small explosions were detected from the North Cerberus crater in Semisopochnoi on infrasound and seismic sensors. Clear images from the web camera showed nearly continuous ash emissions, including during periods with no explosion detected. Overnight, satellites detected a low-level ash plume below 10,000 feet above sea level extending to Kiska about 100 to 200 miles west (200 to 300 km).AVO reportede that more than 20 small explosions were detected in the North Cerberus crater in Semisopochnoi during the day of August 12. None of these were noted on satellite imagery, and a stable, low-level steam plume, possibly containing ash, was seen on clear web camera images this morning. Ash emissions from these explosions are likely similar to those of the past few days, but not always detected due to the low altitudes and cloud cover.As of the 10th of August, AVO reported that ten separate explosions have been detected from the North Cerberus crater at Semisopochnoi over the past day, and a small, low-level plume has occasionally been noted on satellite imagery drifting east. Small ash and vapor emissions were detected in clear images from web cameras.Small eruptions producing minor ash deposits near the active northern crater of Mount Cerberus and ash clouds less than 10,000 feet above sea level have characterized recent activity and show no signs of abating . Small explosions can continue and could be difficult to detect, especially in bad weather. AVO reported that increased seismicity and elevated activity in infrasound data were recorded during 31 July-1 August, and multiple, discrete, energetic explosions were detected during 1-3 August. Weather clouds again obscured satellite views; steaming was visible in webcam views. Beginning at 1015 on 2 August the local networks recorded an explosion and an intense burst of seismic and acoustic tremor that lasted for about 15 minutes. A small ash cloud was visible in satellite images drifting 60 km N at altitudes of 1.5-3 km (5,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash emissions from the active vent in North Crater were visible in webcam views on the morning of 3 August. As of the 31st of July, AVO reported that the seismic activity of  has increased in recent days, particularly marked during the last 8 hours. Increased activity was also detected on local infrasound stations, suggesting possible low level emissions (below 10,000 feet above sea level). Due to this increase in activity, AVO is increasing the Aviation Color Code to ORANGE and the Alert Level to WATCH on July 31 at 10:19 AKDT. AVO reported that seismicity continued to be elevated during 23-27 July. Robust steam emissions were visible in webcam views during 22-24 July and sulfur dioxide plumes were identified in satellite images on 23 July. Weather clouds obscured views during 24-27 July. The volcano was downgraded from the Aviation Orange color code to YELLOW on 07/21/2021 at 4:28 p.m. Seismicity is greater than background noise, but no evidence of explosive activity was detected in the seismic or infrasound data. No activity was observed in the cloudy satellite views, but strong vapor emission from the active vent was observed on the web camera images from the night of July 22. AVO reported that unrest continued at Semisopochnoi during 13-20 July. Periods of low-level tremor and steam plumes from Mount Cerberus were occasionally recorded. Elevated surface temperatures at the N cone of Mount Cerberus were identified in satellite images during 13-14 July and robust steam-and-gas emissions were seen in webcam images. A plume with low amounts of sulfur dioxide drifting about 200 km N was identified in satellite data on 17 July. Sulfur dioxide emissions were also detected the next day. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.Satellite observations on the afternoon of July 13 showed emissions from a cloud of volcanic gas (SO2), possibly containing volcanic ash. The emissions occurred for tens of minutes beginning at around 2100 UTC (1300 AKDT) and produced a low-level cloud that moved south to an altitude of less than 1,500 meters asl. The volcanic tremor continued for several hours yesterday afternoon before dropping to low levels. No additional gas / ash emissions were observed in satellite data or detected on the local infrasound network. Aviation color code and alert level changed to Orange / Watch due to seismic tremor and low level ash emissions on 12th of July, 2021. A continuous volcanic tremor began to be observed at ~ 8:00 p.m. UTC (12:00 a.m. AKDT) and is continuing. Ash emissions were visible in satellite data starting around 9:00 p.m. UTC (1:00 p.m. AKDT) down to an altitude below 5,000 feet asl (depending on wind direction). Satellite observations yesterday afternoon showed a robust steam plume and sulfur dioxide emissions. As of the 16th of June, AVO reported that no ash emission or explosion has been detected at Semisopochnoi  in satellite or infrasound data since May 30, and the level of seismic activity has been relatively low. Satellite views over the past few weeks have detected high surface temperatures and emissions of sulfur dioxide have been observed repeatedly, indicating continued volcanic unrest, but no recent ash deposition has been observed. Due to the low level of seismicity and the lack of significant explosive activity, AVO lowers the Aviation Color Code and Volcanic Alert Level to Yellow / Advisory. AVO reported that low-level unrest at Semisopochnoi continued during 2-8 June with seismicity occasionally above background levels. Steaming from Mount Cerberus was sometimes observed by field crews. Slightly elevated surface temperatures were identified in a few satellite infrared images during 4-7 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that strongly elevated surface temperatures were also identified in satellite data. Increased seismic tremor and accompanying low-level ash emissions began at 0945 on 30 May, with ash plumes drifting S at an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. at least through 1250. Elevated surface temperatures were detected during 30-31 May, likely from hot material on the crater floor. Seismic data showed low-level continuous tremor and occasional small discrete events. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that low-level ash emissions resumed on May 30 at around 5:45 p.m. UTC (9:45 a.m. AKDT) at Semisopochnoi and were accompanied by an increase in the seismic tremor (continuous tremors). They were visible in geostationary satellite data and continue until 20:50 UTC (12:50 AKDT). The seismic tremor remains high at the present time and its intensity varies. The ash cloud is moving south over Amchitka Island at an elevation of about 5,000 feet asl. High spatial resolution data from the 29th afternoon show sharply elevated surface temperatures in the active (northernmost) vent of Mount Cerberus. Infrasound data shows no evidence of strong explosive events. The seismicity during the last day was characterized by periods of high tremors which increased and decreased over periods of several hours, interspersed with periods of much lower amplitude. The alert level remains at Watch and the aviation code at Orange.Semisopochnoi, the largest subaerial volcano of the western Aleutians, is 20 km wide at sea level and contains an 8-km-wide caldera. It formed as a result of collapse of a low-angle, dominantly basaltic volcano following the eruption of a large volume of dacitic pumice. The high point of the island is 1221-m-high Anvil Peak, a double-peaked late-Pleistocene cone that forms much of the island's northern part. The three-peaked 774-m-high Mount Cerberus volcano was constructed during the Holocene within the caldera. Each of the peaks contains a summit crater; lava flows on the northern flank of Cerberus appear younger than those on the southern side. Other post-caldera volcanoes include the symmetrical 855-m-high Sugarloaf Peak SSE of the caldera and Lakeshore Cone, a small cinder cone at the edge of Fenner Lake in the NE part of the caldera. Most documented historical eruptions have originated from Cerberus, although Coats (1950) considered that both Sugarloaf and Lakeshore Cone within the caldera could have been active during historical time. (GVN/GVP)

USA- Atka volcano (Alaska)

August 28th, 2021

AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level for the Atka Volcanic Complex to Green and Normal, respectively, on 27 August, noting that seismicity had returned to baseline levels over the previous week.AVO reported that small earthquakes and seismic tremors at Atka continued to be detected, though at near background levels during 18-24 August.The number of small shallow earthquakes increased at Atka during 10-11 August, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. The earthquakes were located at a depth of 3-6 km and around 7 km SW of Korovin, though may be related to the several vents that are part of the Atka volcanic complex. Seismicity declined afterwards but remained above background levels through 16 August, and was near baseline levels by 17 August. The largest volcanic center in the central Aleutians, Atka consists of a central shield and Pleistocene caldera with several post-caldera volcanoes. A major dacitic explosive eruption accompanied formation of the caldera about 500,000 to 300,000 years ago. The most prominent of the post-caldera stratovolcanoes are Kliuchef and Sarichef, both of which may have been active in historical time. Sarichef has a symmetrical profile, but the less eroded Kliuchef is the source of most if not all historical eruptions. Kliuchef may have been active on occasion simultaneously with Korovin volcano to the north. Hot springs and fumaroles
are located on the flanks of Mount Kliuchef and in a glacial valley SW of Kliuchef. (GVN/GVP)


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Pu'u'u cone ( Kilauea volcano)

Color photograph of lava lake

Kīlauea’s summit lava lake, in Halema‘uma‘u, just after sunset on January 8, 2021. This view is to the north, from the south rim of the crater.(HVO)

ITALY - Etna volcano ( Sicily)

September 7th, 2022

During the month of August 2022, the INGV observed degassing activity, at variable speed, at the level of the summit craters, and frequent roars coming from the Bocca Nuova crater.
The fracturing seismic activity is characterized by the swarm in the western sector, which began on August 29 (28 events with M > 2.0, Mmax 3.3).The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor is on an average level alternating with short periods at high level. Variable trend in the rate of occurrence of infrasonic events, which are mainly located in the Bocca Nuova crater area.As of the 11th of August, INGV reported that in recent days, Etna has been emitting spectacular gas plumes (mainly water vapour), causing some apprehension among local residents. In fact, the extremely humid air these days causes water vapor to condense, making the plume more visible.INGV reported that the week of July 11th to 17th was chracterized by degassing of the summit craters. Specifically, during the July 11 flyby and July 16 inspection, the Bocca Nuova 1 vent showed degassing at a variable and pulsating rate, while BN2 showed intense degassing with continuous emission of reddish ash. , which rapidly diluted in the atmosphere. During the inspection, occasional roars were heard coming from the bottom. At night, the images from the video surveillance system showed flashes in correspondence with the craters of the pits.The Southeast crater showed modest degassing produced by a fumarolic field located on the rim of the crater.The Voragine crater and the North-East crater had the bottom obstructed by debris and did not present thermal and degassing anomalies, except of the fumarolic type.
INGV reported that between June 27 and July 3, 2022,degassing activity continued from the summit craters. Low fracturing seismic activity was observed, and the tremor amplitude remains at medium-high levels. Infrasound activity was fluctuating, with sources concentrated near Bocca Buova. GNSS data showed a recovery in inflation. The flux of SO2 at an average level. The flux of CO2 from the ground was at low average values.INGV reported that after the cessation of effusive activity in the Valle del Bove, on the night of June 15 to 16, no eruptive activity was observed on Etna. During the week of June 20-26, 2022, activity was marked by pulsed degassing from the Bocca Nuova crater, fumarolic activity from various points on the Southeast crater, and modest fumarolic activity from the Northeast crater .INGV reported that from the inspections carried out by the staff of the Observatory on June 13th, 14th and 16th and from the surveillance cameras, it has been observed that the effusive activity at the mouth of about 2700 m s.l.m. , reported in the previous release, ceased on June 13, while between June 15 and 16 the flow of lava at the mouths at an altitude of about 1900 m a.s.l. in the Serracozzo region. In addition, no ash emission was observed from the southeast crater.As of the 12th of June, INGV reported thatt the opening of a new effusive vent has occurred at Etna, at an altitude of about 1900 m above sea level near the fracture system located in the north wall of the Valle del Bove in the Serracozzo region in which an effusive vent opened on June 7. The emitted flow appears poorly fed and the lava flow has extended over a few tens of meters. During the day, the effusive activity produced by the vents opened on May 29 at an altitude between 2900 and 2750 m. above sea level and the explosive activity at the level of the southeast crater continued, both with a variable rate. As of the 2nd of June, INGV reported that a strong Strombolian activity was observed at the level of the craters of the summit of Etna. Thermal anomalies remained "very high" according to Mirova. The ash emission was in progress. The height of the volcanic clouds was estimated at 4000 M above the summit, moving towards the South-South-West. INGV reported that that a continuous emission of ash from the SE crater of Etna began from 17:00 GMT on June 1, 2022, forming a volcanic ash plume that affects the SSE sector of the volcano. In addition, according to an inspection carried out in the afternoon by INGV staff, the effusive activity produced by the SE crater continues, the most advanced lava fronts are around 2100 m. From the seismic point of view, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, while showing a slight decrease from 4:00 p.m. GMT, is currently in the upper range, with a tendency to decrease further. The source of the volcanic tremor is located under the SE crater at an altitude of about 3000 m a.s.l.INGV reported that during the last week of May 2022, Etna presented Strombolian activity at the level of the southeast crater, sometimes accompanied by the formation of ash clouds, and the opening of several effusive vents along its length. 'an eruptive fracture that produce the development of lava flows in the Valle del Bove.INGV reported that On May 29th, 2022 06:05 UTC, an effusive mouth opened in the upper part of Etna's Valle del Bove. The altitude of the lava emission point is about 2800 m above sea level. The average amplitude of the tremor, after a rapid decrease observed in the afternoon of day 28, accompanying the cessation of Strombolian activity at the summit of the southeast crater in progress since May 12, oscillates on average values -high. The location of the sources is in the area of ​​the Southeast crater at a depth of about 3000 meters. Infrasonic activity is weakly evoked in the Bocca Nuova crater area. The ground deformation signals recorded by the permanent GNSS and tilt monitoring networks over the past few hours do not show any significant variations. According to the inspection carried out in the afternoon, it was observed that on the flank of the Southeast crater two effusive vents opened, the first at an altitude of approximately 3,250 m, the second at an altitude lower around 2,800 m. The effusive rate at the time of the sightings was low and the flow was moving inside the Valle del Bove towards Monte Simone. The most advanced lava fronts reached an altitude of about 2100 m.INGV reported that from 17:40 UTC on May 22, 2022, there was a gradual increase in explosive activity at the level of the SE crater of Etna, which produced a visible emission of ash towards the south, reaching an altitude of about 5000 m a.s.l. At the same time, the emission of lava continued at the level of the effusive vents formed on May 12 and 20, with variable intensity. The most advanced lava fronts are between 2800 and 2700 m altitude in the Valle del Leone desert. From the seismic point of view, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, while showing large fluctuations in its trend in recent days, remains stable in the range of high values ​​/ red zone. The source of the volcanic tremor is located under the SE crater, at a depth of about 3000 m above sea level. The infrasonic activity is quite sustained and mainly located in the SE crater. The data from the GNSS and clinometric networks monitoring ground deformations do not show any significant changes. As of the 21st of May, INGV reported that activity is still continuing at the southeast crater. Two flows were visible on Saturday 21st of may in the evening on the southeastern flanks; Strombolian activity illuminated the crater and falling lapilli falls gild the upper slopes. Sulfur dioxide emissions remain significant, with a cloud towards the southwest, which reached Tunisia. As of the 20th of May, INGV reported that from 15:30 UTC a new effusive vent opened on the north side of the SE crater of Etna, at an altitude of approximately 3,250 m a.s.l., immediately northwest of the mouth which opened on May 12. A small lava flow was currently being emitted from the new vent towards the northeast. At the same time, the lava flow at the mouth of May 12 continued, whose lava fronts were deposited in the Valle del Leone desert. Finally, the SE crater continued to be affected by Strombolian explosive activity, of variable intensity, which from 21st of May,at 3:30 p.m. UTC is accompanied by a discontinuous emission of diluted ash which dispersed at 4:40 p.m. UTC. From the seismic point of view, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, while showing large fluctuations in its trend, remains in the range of high values. The source of the volcanic tremor is located under the SE crater, at a depth of about 3,000m. The infrasonic activity at the SE crater is quite sustained both in the number and in the energy of the infrasonic transients. The signals acquired by the GNSS and clinometric networks do not show any significant variations related to the phenomenology in place. The new eruptive fracture only remained active for a few hours. In the evening, only the May 12 fracture and the explosive mouth at the top remained active.INGV reported that after the opening of an effusive vent on the northern flank of the Southeast Crater of Etna, communicated on 05/12/2022 at 8:38 p.m. local time, placed at a altitude of about 3250 m a.s.l. The effusive activity stabilized in the following days, producing a lava flow which develops towards the ENE in the Valle del Leone desert whose most advanced front has currently reached an altitude between 2400 and 2300 m a.s.l. The new lava flow from the flank of the southeast crater of Etna flanks the one already in progress which formed around 3250 m. At the same time, the SE crater is affected by a discontinuous Strombolian explosive activity of variable intensity which, in the most intense phases, produces a modest emission of ash which is rapidly diluted in the atmosphere.From a seismic point of view, compared to the 12 cm press release, the trend of the gradual increase in the average amplitude of the tremor continues in the range of high values. The sources of the tremor are located in the Southeast crater around 3000 m. above sea level. As of the 19th of May INGV reported that the new fissure vent continues to feed lava flowing into the Valle del Bove in the E-NE direction. Behavior of the volcano has changed over the last 24 hours and slowly, but surely intensified characterized by strombolian activity at the vent... It appears that the vent started to produce pulsating small lava fountains likely caused by magma change composition from basaltic gas-poor to gas-rich conditions. Currently there are no signs to cease the eruption in the near future as indicate the high and stable volcanic tremor.As of the 18th of May, INGV reported that after the opening of an effusive vent on the northern flank of the Southeast Crater of Etna, on May 12, 2022 at 8:38 p.m. local time, placed at an altitude of approximately 3250 m. asl., the effusive activity stabilized in the following days, producing a lava flow which is developing towards the ENE in the desert Valle del Leone, whose most advanced front has currently reached an altitude of between 2400 and 2300 m a.s.l. At the same time, the SE crater is affected by a discontinuous Strombolian explosive activity of variable intensity which, in the most intense phases, produces a modest emission of ash which is rapidly diluted in the atmosphere. As of the 16th of May, INGV reported that the lava flow continues to be active on the northern flank of the Southeast crater for almost 60 hours since the effusive eruption started on Friday the 13th. The volcanic tremor has continued at stable conditions over the weekend and is still continuing. This likely suggests a delicate equilibrium of effusion rates of magma.As of the 14th of May, INGV reported that activity of the south-east crater of Etna has been mild for two days, during which the lava flows slowly from a fracture on its northern flank and feeds a flow. There were small puffs of ash, not likely to put a large area in crisis as a few months ago, and a few small dustings of incandescent pyroclastic materials. The tremor level remains high, in the red zone. As of the 13th of May, INGV reported that effusive episode is still in progress at the volcano. The lava continues to keep the flow active, emerging from the new eruptive fissure and advancing onto the northern flank of the Southeast crater. Presence of snow and ice in interaction with the flow front generates ash-steam-rich plumes as visible in the attached video below from Etnasentieri Irene.The National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Etneo Observatory, reported that on 12th of May from approximately 7 p.m. local time, ash was observed from the Southeast crater associated with the opening of one or more vents on along the north side of the Southeast Crater, which produced a small lava flow whose front reached the north base of the crater. Thermal anomalies are low to moderate, between 2 and 12 MW on May 12 and 13. The ash plume that has now formed reaches a height of about 3500 m a.s.l. The forecast model of the dispersion of the eruptive cloud indicates the SW direction. INGV reported that a mall activity occurred in the evening of May 11, 2022 at the southeast crater of Etna, with an emission of ash and gas, lying by the winds, and a visible incandescence following the explosive activity at nightfall.INGV reported that activity at the summit craters of Etna during the first half of April did not show significant changes compared to what had been observed previously, and consisted of a variable and mainly carried degassing regime. by the Bocca Nuova crater.INGV reports a variable rate degassing activity at the summit craters of Etna between March 21 and 27, 2022, as well as weak seismic fracturing activity. The amplitude of tremor, with sources located under the central craters, remains low. Weak infrasonic activity is reported near inconspicuous Bocca Nuova.INGV reported that activity of the summit craters of Etna  during the week of March 14 to 20, 2022, showed no variation compared to that observed the previous week. In particular, the degassing activity of the summit craters was mainly carried by the crater of the well located in the northwest sector of Bocca Nuova, characterized by an intense sometimes impulsive degassing. The Voragine craters and the NE craters, on the other hand, showed a predominant degassing linked to fumaroles present along the edges of the crater. Seismic fracturing activity is characterized by an event of M = 3.3. Tremor amplitude: medium to medium level. Infrasound activity is moderate. Ground deformation monitoring networks have not experienced significant changes over the past week.INGV reported that between February 21 and 27, strombolian activity and lava fountains occurred from the Crater of South East; degassing at the Bocca Nuova crater and the Voragine crater; degassing and ash emissions from the northeast crater. Seismic fracturing activity is low; the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor generally remains on low and medium levels, with the exception of the lava fountain on February 21, where very high values ​​were reached. The local observatory INGV informed that ash emissions were observed from the Northeast crater at 12:38 local time yesterday.T he seismic tremor remained at low levels located at the area between Bocca Nuova and the Southeast crater in 2000-2500 meters elevation. Volcanic ash dispersed towards the S-SE direction.INGV reported that following the paroxysm, the southeast crater of Etna was the site of ash emissions on February 24 around 9:00 a.m. On the same day at 12:38 UTC, from surveillance cameras and what was reported by INGV personnel in the field, an emission of ash was observed from the Northeast crater, which was followed by other ash pulses of lesser intensity. According to the forecast model, the ashes are dispersed in the atmosphere in the SSE direction. INGV reported that from 18:00 UTC on 22th of February, the improvement in weather conditions made it was possible to observe from the surveillance cameras, the resumption of weak Strombolian activity at the level of the South-East crater of Etna, and a lava flow spreading along its eastern flank. According to the forecast model, the volcanic cloud is dispersing in a southerly direction. As of the 21st of February, INGV reported that from the early hours of the morning, a weak Strombolian activity at the level of the South-East Crater of Etna was observed. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, from about 08:00 UTC, gradually increased. At 09:07 (08:07 UTC), a parameter changed In particular, a thermal anomaly was observed from the surveillance cameras. The anomaly occurred at the level of the Southeast crater.At 12:24 (11:24 UTC) The INGV announced that a lava fountain wass in progress at the Southeast Crater. The volcanic cloud has reached a height of about 10 km., and is moving towards the southeast. Around 10:40 UTC, a further increase in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor is observed, which was currently at high levels. The centroid of the sources of volcanic tremors continued to be located in the SE zone of the crater at an altitude of approximately 2800-2900 m above sea level. An increase in infrasonic activity was observed which is near from the Bocca Nuova crater. From 11:10 GMT, from the images of the INGV-OE surveillance cameras, an overflow of lava from the Southeast Crater propagating towards the SWwais observed. The volcanic cloud also reached a height of at least 11 km above sea level. Catania airport has been temporarily closed. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor is still at very high levels. The centroid of volcanic tremor sources was located in the southeast crater region at an altitude of about 2900-3000 m above mean sea level. At 14:12 (13:12 UTC) INGV reported that the lava fountain southeast of the crater has ceased. The volcanic cloud produced by the explosive activity has reached an estimated height of about 12,000 m above sea level and was dispersing towards the South-South-East. INGV-OE personnel in the field reported a fallout of volcanic ash at Viagrande, Trecastagni and Zafferana. The lava flow produced by the ongoing activity southeast of the crater was still fed. From around 12:10 UTC, there was a rapid decrease in the average amplitude values ​​of the volcanic tremor, which settle on an average level with a decreasing trend.At 15:53 ​​​​​​(14:53 UTC) INGV reported that from the images of surveillance cameras and INGV-OE personnel in the field, a weakly fed flow was observed, which extended towards the E and whose lava front remained confined to the summit zone reaching an altitude of approximately 2900 m. In addition, the flow that propagates in the SW direction was always fed. INGV reported at 6:21 p.m. that explosive activity at the southeast crater has ceased. INGV-OE field staff observed fallout of volcanic ash produced during lava fountaining in the towns of Viagrande, Milo and Acicastello, with the main axis of dispersal between Petrulli and Zafferana. With regard to the effusive activity, the lava flows which propagate in the direction of the South-West and the East are still weakly fed. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, from about 14:00 UTC after some fluctuations around the average values, showed a new tendency to decrease, currently settling at levels low to medium. Previous news - After the end of the paroxysmal activity reported the day before a weak and discontinuous intra-crateric explosive activity persists at the south-eastern crater of Etna, which produces a weak emission of ash, dispersed in the atmosphere in the north-eastern sector. west of the volcano. The lava flow from the southeast crater appears to be depleted and cooling. The front reached an altitude estimated, from ground observations, at around 2,850 m above sea level, west of Monte Frumento Supino. Pyroclastic flows, clouds of gas and hyper-fast ash, were noticed during this paroxysm and in particular one 1500 meters long towards the south at 10:26 p.m. It was caused by the disembowelment of the southern flank of the Southeast Crater which today has a deep scar at this location As of the 10th of February, INGV reported that from 14:20 UTC from the cameras of the CCTV network, a modest overflow of lava is observed from the Southeast Crater, which flows in a West - Southwest direction.From about 16:00 UTC, there was, in alternating phases in terms of intensity and frequency, a decisive intensification of Strombolian activity at the level of the Southeast Crater. Based on the forecast model, the volcanic plume is heading west. The lava flow produced by the ongoing activity to the southeast of the crater seems to be still fed and its front has reached an estimated altitude of around 2900 m above sea level. The phase of increase in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor continued, which reached a high level with an oscillatory trend. The sources of the tremor remain in the southeast crater area, at an altitude of about 2800-2900 m above sea level. Infrasound activity also showed an upward trend, characterized by fluctuations marked with the rate of occurrence of events and their amplitude values ​​ranging from medium to high. Infrasonic events are mainly localized to the southeast crater.From about 20:40 UTC, we observe the passage of Strombolian activity in the form of a lava fountain to the southeast of the crater, 500-600 meters high. The lava flow produced by activity at the SE crater continues to be well fed. The eruptive cloud produced by the current activity, reaches a height of about 10,000 m., dispersing towards the western sector of the volcano. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor has reached very high values ​​and the sources remain in the area of ​​the southeast crater, at an altitude of about 2900-3000 m above sea level. At 8:40 p.m., 9:19 p.m. and 9:26 p.m. UTC, the activity of the southeast crater produced three small flows of pyroclastic material. The first two flows traveled a few hundred meters towards the Valle del Bove while the third headed south, also covering a few hundred meters. At 23:19 UTC, INGV reports that lava fountaining from the southeast crater has ceased. The eruptive cloud produced by the activity, at about 8,000 meters above sea level, disperses in the western sector of the volcano. The lava flow produced by the current activity at the Southeast Crater seems still fed and the front is at an altitude of about 2,700 m. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, after reaching the maximum value at 21:00 UTC, underwent a rapid decrease, returning to the average level. Currently, this parameter shows a trend of further decrease. The center of gravity of volcanic tremor sources remains localized in the area of ​​the southeast crater at an altitude of about 2900 m above sea level. At the same time, infrasonic activity also suffered a decrease rapid in both the number of events and the amplitude. The tilt network showed variations within a few microradians during lava fountaining activity. On the other hand, no significant change was observed in the time series of the GNSS network. Previously, INGV reported that during the night of February 9, we observed the resumption of a modest explosive activity at the level of the Southeast Crater of Etna, highlighted by flashes visible on the cameras of the CCTV network. The activity is currently confined inside the crater and generates discontinuous and light ash emissions. According to the forecast model, the volcanic plume is heading southwest. From 01:30 UTC an increase in the average amplitude of the tremor is observed up to average values ​​with an increasing trend. The source is located in the southeast crater area at a depth of about 3000 m above sea level. At the same time, infrasonic activity also showed an increase and is located in the southeast crater. There are no significant variations in the time series of the tilt and GNSS network dataINGV reported for the period from January 31 to February 6, 2022 that discontinuous and discontinuous Strombolian activity and slight emissions of volcanic ash at the level occurred of the southeast crater of  Etna. Degassing activity is observed at the other summit craters.As of the 3rd of January, INGV reporeds that Strombolian activity in Etna's southeast crater has ceased. In addition, by analyzing the images of the INGV-OE surveillance cameras, from February 2, the light and discontinuous emissions of volcanic ash communicated in the updates of January 30 and 31 are no longer observed. As of the 31s(t of January, INGV reported that that weak Strombolian activity continues at Etna's southeast crater. This activity produces light and discontinuous ash emissions which disperse rapidly in the atmosphere. The amplitude of the tremor is almost stationary and reaches average values. The sources are located SE of the Southeast Crater at a level of about 3000 m. altitude Infrasound activity is generally weak. The stations of the ground deformation monitoring networks (GPS and tilt) operating on the volcano do not show significant variations.INGV reported that from 00:15 GMT this January 30, 2022, we observe the resumption of a modest and sporadic explosive activity at the southeast crater of Etna, the activity produces weak ash emissions brown (old materials) that disperse quickly in the summit region. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor is on medium-low values. The source of the volcanic tremor is located in correspondence with the Southeast crater at an altitude of about 2500 m above sea level. The rate of occurrence of infrasonic events is low. The stations of the soil deformation monitoring networks operating on the volcano show no significant change. Previous news 2021 - As of the 15th of December, The images of the CCTV system and the observations made by INGV staff present in the summit area of ​​Etna show that the lava flow produced by the vent which opened at an altitude of 2180 m in the Valley del Bove is no longer powered and cools down overall. The southeast crater continues to produce weak intracrateric Strombolian activity, as already described.On December 15 at 6:41 am loc., The INGV reported that during the night a weak Strombolian activity was observed at the level of the South-East crater which produced ash quickly dispersed in the summit area. The lava flow produced by the vent opened at an altitude of 2180 m in the Valle del Bov is still weakly fed. Vona changed back to orange on 12/15/2021 / at 5:46 a.m.INGV reported that from 11:15 UTC on December 14, scientists present in the summit area observed the resumption of explosive activity at the level of the Southeast crater of Etna, with an abundant emission of ash which, on the basis of forecast models, disperses in the S direction. At 11:54 am, a Red VONA was issued; the height of the ash plume is estimated to reach 5,500 m at its summit. The trend of increasing the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor continues in the high value range. The infrasonic activity remains weak. The intense and continuous emission of ash from the southeast crater continued until approximately 4:15 p.m. UTC. Subsequently, the emission had a variable tendency, alternating from phases in which the matter emitted strongly decreased and was dispersed in the top zone, to phases in which the emission resumed continuously and subsided. scattered to the south. The mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor, after reaching the maximum value around 14:30 UTC, suffered a rapid decrease. Currently, the amplitude of the tremor shows fluctuations around high values. The infrasonic activity, on the other hand, does not show significant variations.The stations of the soil deformation monitoring networks operating on the volcano show no significant changes since the last version of the update.INGV reported that from approximately 16:30 UTC on December 13, 2021, a weak intracrateric Strombolian activity was observed at the SE crater of Etna. From 17:05 UTC the analysis of the images of the CCTV cameras showed the opening of an effusive mouth at the base of the western wall of the Valle del Bove at an altitude estimated between 2200 and 2100 m above sea level, from which a small lava flow is emitted. The effusive vent produced a poorly fed flow a few hundred meters long. The flow front has been digitized, and its ramifications have reached the Monti Centenari area, settling at an altitude estimated between 1700-1800 m above sea level. In correspondence of the effusive mouth, no visible explosive activity is observed at a distance. From a seismic point of view, the gradual increase in the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor continued. It has now reached the high value range. The infrasonic activity, on the other hand, does not show significant variations. Soil deformation monitoring networks did not record any significant changes. INGV reported that on 7th of December from around 08:00 UTC, almost continuous ash emissions are observed from the southeast crater of Etna, which are scattered near the summit area towards the ENE. The amplitude of the tremor increases slowly, with values ​​always in the average. The signal sources are located in the south-eastern crater area at a level of approx. 2700 a.s.l. The infrasonic activity is weak. No significant changes in soil deformation monitoring network data.INGV reported that on December 4th at 09:55 local,. sporadic and diluted ash emissions from the south-eastern crater of Etna. Due to cloud cover, observations are made discontinuously. From the seismic point, the tremor increases slightly on the average values. The infrasonic activity is at low levels and does not show significant changes.trombolian activity is observed at the southeast crater from 4:10 p.m. GMT. From the seismic point of view, the gradual increase in the amplitude of the tremor continues. An increase in infrasound activity is also observed from 3 p.m. Strombolian activity continued at the southeast crater during the day on December 5. The activity produced some sporadic ash emissions scattered around the summit area. At dusk, a few glimmers are observed in the clouds, but due to the presence of dense cloud cover in the summit area, it was not possible to assess the intensity and frequency of the explosions. The amplitude of the tremor is stable on average values ​​and its location remains close to the south-eastern crater. INGV reported that from 10:16 UTC on November 20, single explosions are observed at the level of the northeast crater of Etna, with emissions of diluted ash which are immediately dispersed in the summit area.The phenomenon is still ongoing. There are no significant variations in the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor, remaining in medium and medium-low values. The source is located in the area of ​​the Bocca Nuova and Voragine craters at an altitude of about 2800 m asl. The infrasonic activity is at low levels, both in terms of number and amplitudes and it is located at the Bocca Nuova. GNSS and clinometric deformations of the soil do not show significant changes. INGV reported that from 12:00 UTC on October 27, sporadic ash emissions from the SE crater of Etna are observed. These emissions generated small puffs of ash which were blown southwest by the wind, dispersing into the atmosphere. No anomalies were observed in the thermal camera images. The mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor shows a fairly stationary trend on medium-low values ​​and the centroid of the sources is located in an area between the south-eastern crater and the Bocca Nuova at an altitude of about 2800 m above sea level. The infrasonic activity is also at low levels, both in number and in amplitude and is located in correspondence with the Bocca Nuova. Soil deformation monitoring networks do not show significant variations.After just over a month of relative calm, the Southeast Crater of Etna produced a new paroxysmal episode during the morning of October 23, 2021. This is the 52nd paroxysm in the sequence that began on February 16, 2021. At 08:48 UTC, a pyroclastic flow detached from the eastern flank of the cone of the South-East Crater, pouring onto the western wall of the Valle del Bove, stopping after traveling just under 1.5 km. A second pyroclastic flow traveled 1.5 km at 09:00 UTC; several smaller streams were observed below the eastern flank of the Southeast Crater. These flows were generated during the opening of a fracture, in the south-eastern side of the cone, from the lower part of which a lava flow originated, also directed towards the western slope of the Valle del Bove. At 09:58 UTC, a further pyroclastic flow poured into two branches to the southeast and south, stopping after a few hundred meters.The eruptive column rose, during the culminating phase of paroxysm, to more than 10 km above sea level (Figure 3). Fallouts of pyroclastic material have occurred towards the east-northeast, along an axis that from the South-East Crater passes to the Citelli Refuge and crosses the villages of Vena, Presa, Piedimonte Etneo, Taormina and up to the province of Reggio Calabria. Fallouts of lapilli and ash have also been reported by Mascali and Linguaglossa. Explosive activity began to decrease around 10:00 UTC, and was essentially over at 10:30, while in the fracture formed in the southeastern flank of the Southeast Crater landslides and slips of hot material continued; the lava flow emitted from the lower part of the fracture was still advancing on the western flank of the Valle del Bove, having reached an altitude of about 2300 m.INGV reported that on October 23, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor continues the gradual upward trend, currently settling in the range of medium-high values, announcing a future paroxysm. The sources of the tremor are located in the SE crater at a depth of about 2900 m above sea level. At the same time, infrasonic activity increases with sources located mainly in the SE crater.INGV reported that from approximately 5:20 pm UT on October 21, 2021, a gradual increase in explosive activity was observed at the level of the southeast crater of Etna.It generates the projection of scraps of incandescent material beyond the edge of the crater. Currently, the current activity produces discontinuous and soft ash emissions which disperse in the direction of the eastern quadrants of the volcano. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor is currently at average levels with a slight tendency to increase. The location of the centroid of the sources of the volcanic tremor remains located in the area between Voragine and Bocca Nuova at an altitude between 2900 and 3000 m above sea level. Infrasound activity remains at low levels. At present, soil deformation monitoring networks do not show significant variations. INGV reported that on October 20 from around 02:47 UTC, a weak resumption of Strombolian activity was observed at the level of the south-eastern crater of Etna. So far, activity has produced sporadic isolated explosions accompanied by small puffs of gas / ash, which move southwest, dispersing into the atmosphere. Over the next few minutes, sporadic faint glows were observed, accompanied by gas emissions. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor oscillates between low and medium-low values. The locations of the tremor sources are concentrated in the area of ​​the central craters with depth between 2600 and 2700 m; altitude. The rate of occurrence of infrasonic events is moderate with sources located in the area of ​​the Bocca Nuova crater and some events at the SE crater. INGV reported that the week of October 4 to 10, 2021 was characterized by degassing at the summit craters. Seismic fracturing activity remains low, as does the magnitude of the volcanic tremor, and infrasonic activity. No significant variation in soil deformation. SO2 flux at an average level. The flux of CO2 emitted by soils is at medium-high values.In addition, on October 4, 2021, an inspection was carried out in the summit area and the data compared to crater observations that were made with drones equipped with visible and thermal cameras during the year. The comparison between the two DEMs shows a deepening of the hemlines to the southwest and east of the SEC identified by the red ellipse in Figure 3.3 B. In addition, the details of the crater rim of the SEC are characterized by some thermal anomalies in correspondence with the fumaroles. As of the 21st of September, INGV reported that the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor, after a first gradual increase started with large oscillations a few hours earlier, showed a sudden increase from 02:20 UTC today and around 02:40 UTC it reached the range of high values. The volcanic tremor source centroid is located in the south-eastern crater area at an altitude of about 2900 m above sea level. From around 6:15 a.m. UTC, images from video surveillance cameras show an ash emission from the southeast crater. At 6:55 UTC we observe the resumption of Strombolian activity at the level of the Southeast crater. The eruptive cloud produced by the current activity reaches a height of about 4500 m and, depending on the model expected, it disperses towards the ENE. The increase in the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor continues with a further increasing trend. The center of gravity of volcanic tremor sources is located in the south-eastern crater area at an altitude of about 2900-3000 m above sea level. INGV reported that after the paroxysm of August 29, whose satellites show the extent of the field of lava flows and the extension of the sulfur dioxide plume following the eruption, a weak Strombolian activity resumed at the south-eastern crater of Etna on August 30 at around 8 p.m. UTC, The trend of the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor, from 20:00 UTC, is characterized by fluctuations on medium-low values. This activity ceased on August 31 at the end of the day. The center of gravity of the volcanic tremor sources is located in the crater of Bocca Nuova at an altitude of about 2,700 m above sea level. Infrasonic activity is kept at low levels. INGV reported that at 3:25 p.m. local time on August 29, 2021, Strombolian activity resumed at the south-eastern crater of Etna.From 12:00 UTC there was a significant increase in the amplitude of the tremor, which reached high values ​​(red area). This phenomenon was also followed by an increase in infrasonic activity, with approximately 1 event per minute. The sources of the tremor were located to the SE of the SE crater, at a level of about 3000 m. altitude Over the past few hours, there has been no significant change in the distortion to the GPS and tilt networks.At 3:45 p.m. GMT, there is an increase in Strombolian activity with passage to a lava fountain. There was a further increase in the amplitude of the tremor, which reaches high values. Infrasonic activity also increased, both in terms of frequency and amplitude of signals. The sources of the tremor are located SE of the SE crater, at a level of approx. 3.000 m. altitude .INGV announced at 18:27 UTC that the explosive activity continued at the South-East summit craters. This activity produced two lava flows, one towards the Valle del Bove and the other towards the southwest, the latter encircling the Monte Frumento Supino. The flow fronts was still active. The fallout of ash and lapilli affected the municipalities of: Milo, Sant'Alfio, Giarre, Fornazzo. The thermal anomalies, noted by Mirova, were very important: VRP 2551 MW on 08/29/9:40 p.m. and VRP 1114 MW on 08/30/00:20 a.m. The explosive activity at the SEC ceased at 20:37 UTC. The lava flows are cooling. The amplitude of the tremor was currently at medium-high levels. The signal sources are located SE of the SE crater. The infrasonic activity has practically ceased. The soil deformations recorded on the clinometric network were exhausted, which revealed, during the lava fountain, variations of up to about 2 microradians at the Cratere del Piano (ECP) station. INGV reported that the week of August 9 to 15 was characterized at Etna by Strombolian activity and an episode of lava fountain from the Southeast Crater (SEC), occasional ash emissions at the Northeast Crater (NEC), degassing ordinary at the crater of Bocca Nuova (BN) and a fumarolic degassing at the crater of Voragine (VOR). Over the past week, there has been no significant change after the previously reported August 9 lava fountain event, and the lava flows in the Valle del Bove. Seismic fracturing activity remained low. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor stagnates on the medium-low level. Large and sudden fluctuations up to high values ​​can be correlated with explosive activity at the Southeast Crater. The infrasound activity is moderate. On August 10 at 07:20 UTC, INGV reported that an explosive event took place in the northeast crater of Etna, generating an ash cloud that reached a height of about 6,000 m. altitude, and which then spread to the southeast.This explosion was followed by further low emissions of ash and steam; currently the phenomenon is decreasing. From 07:19 UTC, a seismic sequence lasting about 1 minute was recorded, consisting of about 5 low frequency events of moderate energy, attributable to the explosive activity of the northeast crater. low values ​​and a subsequent return to low values. Regarding infrasonic activity, no significant variation is recorded, except for a low energy infrasonic signal associated with the reported explosive activity.The INGV reports at 9:39 UTC that the emission of volcanic ash from the northeast crater continues, with a fluctuating intensity, feeding an eruptive cloud directed towards the southeast. The cloud reaches a height of between 5,000 and 6,000 m above sea level. The mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor shows no significant change. The source centroid is located in the area of ​​the Voragine and Northeast craters at a depth of approximately 2800 m above sea level. No significant changes in infrasound activity. As of the 10th of August, INGV reported that from the analysis of Etna's video surveillance network, a weak emission of lava continues from the east and south-east base of the SE crater. The lava flows remain confined to an altitude of about 2900 m. The last ash emission from the SE crater occurred around 13:30 UTC. During the morning of August 9, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed significant and sudden fluctuations between medium-low and medium-high values, linked to the appearance of low-frequency transient phenomena associated with the activity. explosive at the level of the SE crater and whose trace infrasound is also clearly visible. At 20h UTC, the amplitude shows average values ​​and the centroid of the sources is located in the area of ​​the Voragine crater at an altitude of about 2.700 m above sea level. Regarding infrasound activity, except for the aforementioned phases of rapid increase in the rate of occurrence in the amplitude of events at the SE crater, it remained at a medium-low level with sources in the area. from the Bocca Nuova crater. The infrasonic activity is currently low. Since the last update, no significant changes have been observed in the time series of soil deformation monitoring stations. Local observers reported that after an increase in the Etna tremor in average values ​​on August 7 in the evening, new gradually increasing occurred on the evening of August 8 at the level of the southeast crater with beautiful bubbles exploding with "boati", lava fountaining, an impressive plume, and a lava flow. The climax ended around 6 a.m. on August 9.More unusual, a new mouth opened at the eastern base of the southeast crater, at 07:41 local time, with emission of volcanic sand towards the Valle del Bove. INGV reported that from 11:50 UTC on August 4 a discontinuous emission of ash from the northeast crater of Etna was observed. The volcanic cloud produced reaches a height of about 6000 m above sea level and, according to the forecast model, disperses in the NE direction. The temporal trend of the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor does not show significant variations and the values ​​remain low. The center of gravity of the volcanic tremor sources is located in correspondence with the south-eastern crater at an altitude of about 2,900 m above sea level. The infrasonic activity remains at low levels with events localized in correspondence with the Bocca Nuova. High Frequency GNSS Network Data does not show significant changes. At 19:35 UTC, ash emissions from the northeast crater ceased. INGV reported that on July 31, 2021 from around 5.15 p.m. UTC, Strombolian activity was observed at the level of the south-eastern crater of Etna, following a rapid increase in the tremor from 5 p.m. UTC. The activity was currently confined to the crater and generates discontinuous and light ash emissions which were dispersed in the summit area. From 17:50 UTC, the increase in explosive activity at the level of the southeast crater was signaled by the INGV, and produces an ash cloud which reached 5 km above sea level and dispersed in the SE direction. Around 19:15 UTC a lava flow was observed which is propagating in a southwest direction. The observatory signaled at 11:22 p.m. (9:22 p.m. UTC) the gradual passage of Strombolian activity towards the shape of a lava fountain at the level of the southeast crater. Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses in the eastern sector and marginally in that to the south of the volcano; the lava flow produced by the ongoing activity at the Southeast Crater continues to feed and propagate in the SW direction, when the lava front has reached an altitude of about 2,800 m above the sea ​​level. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor is on high values ​​with an increasing trend. The last location of the tremor, at 20:45 UTC, is near the southeast crater at a depth of about 3,000 m above sea level. The lava fountain in the southeast crater ceased at around 11:30 p.m. UTC; a weak strombolian activity continues with a modest emission of ash. The lava flow which extends in the SW direction continues to be fed, another lava flow is also observed which extends along the northern flank of the Southeast crater.Previously, INGV reported that on July 28 from 07:25 UTC a resumption of Strombolian activity at the level of the south-eastern crater of Etna; it remains confined in the crater and generates discontinuous and light ash emissions in the summit area. Around 07:40 UTC the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor of Etna showed a sudden increase reaching high values. The source of the quake is located in the craters of Bocca Nuova and the southeastern crater at an altitude of about 2800 m above sea level. The infrasonic activity is increasing and is located in the south-eastern crater. INGV reported that on 26th of July from 18:20 UTC, a continuous emission of ash was observed at the level of the northeast crater of Etna. In the absence of wind, the ash plume reached a height of about 6,000 m above sea level. The minor event produced no incandescence, infrasound, or significant tremor signal and ended after two hours. INGV reported that from around 22:00 UTC on July 19, 2021, the resumption of Strombolian activity at the level of the south-eastern crater of Etna was observed. According to the forecast model, the volcanic ash produced by the current activity was dispersed in the direction of S. The temporal trend of the mean amplitude of the seismic signal which from the afternoon of day 18 was characterized by large fluctuations, currently showed a fairly stationary trend on medium-high values. The location of the centroid of the volcanic tremor sources was currently located in correspondence with the southeast crater at an altitude of about 2700 m above sea level. From around 02:20 UTC on July 20, a sudden increase in the amplitude of the volcanic tremor was observed which reached high values. The centroid of the tremor sources wa located in correspondence with the southeast crater at an altitude of about 2900 m above sea level. The INGV reports at 05:47 UTC the gradual transition of Strombolian activity towards a lava fountain at the crater of South East. Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity dispersed towards the SSE. In addition, an overflow of lava was observed from surveillance cameras to the southwest. INGV reported that from approximately 07:50 UTC on July 14, an increase in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor of Etna was observed. From around 09:05 UTC, a resumption of the strombolian activity was observed at the level of the south-eastern crater of Etna. According to the forecast model, the volcanic ash produced by the current activity is dispersed in the NE direction. The activity leading to an overflow of lava directed towards the SW around 10:40 am approximately.At around 11:00 UTC, the INGV signaled the gradual passage of Strombolian activity towards the lava fountain stage. At 12:30 UTC, the observatory reported that the analysis of the images of the CCTV cameras and the satellite showed that the eruptive cloud, from approximately 11:40 UTC, reached a height of more than 9000 m. asl. INGV personnel on the ground were also reporting the fallout from large bombs on the southern flank of the Bocca Nuova crater. The fountaining ceased at SEC around 12:30 UTC. From the analysis of satellite images, it was observed that the volcanic cloud moved towards the NE and reached the Calabrian coast from 12:20 UTC. INGV staff present in the field reported abundant fallout of lapilli ash and ash (thickness greater than 1 cm) in the Rocca Campana district. There were reports of volcanic ash and lapilli fallout at Rifugio Citelli and Presa and volcanic ash at Taormina. INGV reported that from around 19:00 UTC on July 8, the resumption of Strombolian activity was observed at the level of the south-eastern crater of Etna andsharply increasing from 19:55 UTC. Based on the forecast model, the ash produced by the current activity is dispersed in the direction of S. Around 8:45 p.m. UTC, a gradual passage of Strombolian activity at the lava fountain stage occurred at the Southeast crater. In addition, there was an overflow of lava in the SW direction. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses in the S direction, reaching a height of about 4000 m above sea level. The INGV reported at 22:47 that the lava fountain of the Southeast crater was complete, while a weak emission of ash continues. The explosive activity produced an eruptive cloud which reached about 11,000 m altitude, based on satellite images, moving first in the S direction then in the SE direction, and a small lava flow from the southern flank of the south-eastern crater cone. The flow, which has moved towards the SW, is currently still fed and is located at an altitude of about 2800 m above sea level. News has been received of fallout of volcanic material on the villages of Zafferana Etnea (E side), Fleri (SE side), Pedara and Cannizzaro (S side). INGV reported that on July 6, 2021 around 9:30 p.m. UTC, resumption of Strombolian activity occurred at the level of the south-eastern crater of Etna. According to the forecast model, the ash produced by the current activity is dispersed in the SE direction. This activity intensifies from 10 p.m. UTC. From 22:30 UTC, the gradual transition from Strombolian activity to the form of a lava fountain is observed at the SE crater. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses in the S direction, reaching a height of about 5000 m above sea level. The lava fountain of the southeast crater ceased its activity a little after midnight, while a weak Strombolian activity with ash emission continues on July 7. The eruptive activity produced a small lava flow from the southern flank of the cone of the southeast crater. The flow, which was heading towards the SW, is currently fed and is located at an altitude of about 2800 m above sea level. As of the 4th of July, INGV reported that from around 11:00 UTC, the average amplitude of the Etna volcanic tremor showed a gradual increase and at around 14:40 UTC it reached the high range. The resumption of Strombolian activity at the level of the southeast crater was observed at 14:56 UTC. From 15:25 UTC, the passage of Strombolian activity to the lava fountain stage is observed. Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses in the ESE direction.After reaching the maximum value around 15:50 UTC, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed a gradual decrease, which became much more evident from 16:40 UTC. The lava fountain in the Southeast Crater ceased its activity at 5 p.m. UTC; a weak strombolian activity remains with ash emission. In addition, only the lava flow of the SW sector remains supplied. INGV reported that on 1st of July.2021 from 22:40 UTC, the resumption of Strombolian activity is observed at the level of the south-eastern crater of Etna. At 22.40 UTC the amplitude of the volcanic tremor is high. The last tremor location, at 9.45pm UTC, is near the southeast crater at a depth of approximately 3.0 km asl. From 22.50 UTC, Strombolian activity changes to the lava fountain stage. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses in the WNW direction. In a report at 11:37 p.m., the INGV reports that the SEC lava fountain activity continues. In addition, there is an overflow of lava in the SW direction. Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses in the ESE direction. On 2nd of July, from 00.50 UTC, the lava fountain in the southeast crater ceased, while weak Strombolian activity persists. As for the lava overflow, there is still fed in the direction of SW. INGV reported that on 28 June at about 16:00 (14:01 UTC), strombolian activity at the South-East Crater of Etna resumed, passing to the lava fountain phase at about 17:00 (15:01 UTC). This explosive activity was accompanied by two lava flows, one towards the SW and the other in the southwest of the South-East Crater. In accordance with the predictive model, the eruptive column dispersed to the south-southeast, reaching a height of about 10 km s.l.m. At about 17.30 hrs the lava fountain stopped. INGV reported that at 07:12 UTC on 27 June , a strombolian activity has resumed at the South-East Crater of Etna, producing an ash cloud that is moving eastwards.Strombolian activity in the southeast crater is gradually increasing, producing modest ash emissions. In addition, a southwestward overflow of lava was underway. At 08:10 UTC, the amplitude of the volcanic tremor was at high values with an increasing trend. From about 09:00 UTC, the surveillance cameras observed the transition from strombolian activity in the southeast crater to a lava fountain. The activity occurred from three vents in the western part of the southeast crater.By 09:50, lava spouting activity in the south-east crater has ceased, but ash emission continued; the eruptive column reached a height of 9-10 km, heading east-southeast. Volcanic ash fallout was reported on the eastern flank of the volcano. The INGV reported at 12.27 pm that explosive activity in the south-east crater has ceased. The lava flow emitted from the "saddle mouth" of the southeast crater was no longer fed, but is still extending southwestwards, with an active front at an altitude of about 2700 m. INGV reported that shortly after 14:30 h UTC on 26 June 2021 a resumption of strombolian activity from two eruptive vents on the South-East Crater of Etna has been observed, which is progressively intensifying, accompanied by the production of small quantities of volcanic ash. In the previous hours, the lava flow emitted by a mouth at about 3050 m on the south-eastern flank of the South-East Crater, which remained active after the previous night's eruptive episode, has been progressively exhausted and is currently cooling. At 14.20 hours UTC, the magnitude of the volcanic tremor is on average increasing. The last location of the tremor, at 13.45 hours UTC, is near the South-East Crater at a depth of about 3.0 km asl. At about 15:40, the strombolian activity in the South-East Crater has progressively changed to the lava fountain stage. The emission of pyroclastic material is intensifying, feeding a high eruptive cloud reaching a height of about 5 km above sea level. At the same time, a southwestward overflow of lava began, superimposed on the previous evening's eruptive episode. Lava fountain activity ceased at around 16:50. A small ash emission from the south-east crater still persists. South-East crater, and the flow continues to extend south-west and south-east. south-south-west. A resumption of effusive activity is also observed at the mouth located at an altitude of 3050 m on the south-eastern flank of the south-eastern crater, which feeds a small lava flow of about 100 m in length. There is a fallout of lapilli with diameters of 1-2 cm in the area of Macchia di Giarre and Zafferana Etnea, and several millimetres at Torre Archirafi (east side of Etna). At about 20:59, strombolian activity ceased, but effusive activity continued from the mouth on the south-eastern flank of the south-eastern crater, feeding a lava flow which, at an altitude of 2900 m, split into two branches. The longer and more northerly of these branches had reached an altitude of about 2600 m at 20:00 UTC and had begun to cool; the other branch had an active front at about 2700 m. INGV reported that from 17:39 UTC on June 25, the resumption of Strombolian activity at the south-eastern crater of Etna is observed from surveillance cameras, increasing around 18:05 UTC, and emerging, according to a pattern now known, around 18:25 UTCon an overflow of lava, which from the southern slope of the southeast crater, spreads in a southwest direction. From around 6:40 p.m. UTC, the transition of Strombolian activity from the Southeast Crater to a lava fountain can be observed from surveillance cameras. The height of the eruptive column reached about 7.6 km above sea level, dispersing to the east. As of 7:15 p.m. UTC, the lava fountain in the southeast crater has gradually depleted. The lava fountain produced an overflow of lava along the southern slope of the southeast crater, which spread in a southwest direction. On the east side, a third small lava flow is still observed, generated from the effusive vent at an altitude of 3050 m., During the last episode of the fountain.INGV reported that a new eruptive episode occurrerd on June 24, 2021, which produced lava fountains of three mouths ( " saddle " zone), an overflow of lava towards the southeast, and an eruptive column which reached a height of about 10 kilometers above sea level. After the paroxysm, the effusive mouth was reactivated on the lower south-eastern slope of the South-East Crater, which emits a small flow of wash.INGV reported 14:38 UTC on 23rd of June that from the analysis of the images of the surveillance cameras and the surveys carried out in the area summit by the staff of the INGV Etneo Observatory, it is observed that the two effusive mouths opened on the south-eastern flank of the south-eastern crater at an altitude estimated at around 3000 m and 2950 m above sea level. Currently, the lava flow of the quote 3000 m mouth was no longer supplied, while that of the Quote 2950 m mouth was still active, although poorly supplied. The front of the latter reached and passed the western edge of the Valle del Bove to reach an altitude estimated at about 2700 m above sea level. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor is maintained at the average level with a gradual tendency to decrease.From approximately 17:45 UTC, a further increase in Strombolian activity at the level of the Southeast crater was observed from the surveillance cameras with the emission of ash which, according to the forecast model, disperse in the direction ESE.Around 18:00 UTC, then the Strombolian activity of the Southeast crater has gradually passed to a lava fountain Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud, which reaches a height of about 9 km above sea level, disperses in an east-northeast direction. In addition, from 18:28 UTC, we observe the opening of an eruptive vent on the upper eastern slope of the Southeast Crater which produces explosive activity and a lava flow which propagates in an easterly direction. From 18:38, we also observe an overflow of lava that propagates in a southwest direction.As of 19:00 UTC, the lava fountain in the southeast crater gradually depleted. After the activity of the lava fountains at the Southeast Crater stopped, a weak Strombolian activity with ash emission continued for a few tens of minutes, which gradually disappeared. During the night and at dawn a weak effusive activity continued at the open mouths at the south-eastern base of the south-eastern crater, which fed a lava flow on the western wall of the Valle del Bove with a front at about 2600 m. At dawn today a small stream was bustling near the effusive mouth, a few tens of meters long. INGV reported that on June 23 from 00:30 UTC, it was possible to observe, from surveillance cameras, the resumption of Strombolian activity at the Southeast crater from at least three eruptive vents. As of 02:13 UTC, there was also an overflow of lava from the southeast crater that extends in a southwest direction. Around 02:44 UTC, the Strombolian activity of the Southeast crater has transformed into a lava fountain. At 03:17 UTC, based on surveillance camera footage, the southeast crater lava fountain was observed to have ceased. The eruptive cloud produced exceeded the height of 9 km asl. and according to the forecast model, its dispersion concerned the eastern sector of the volcano with lapilli falling at Fornazzo and Giarre. Regarding the lava overflow, it seems poorly fed and the front seems to be at the same level as that indicated before, at about 2900 m altitude. In addition, at the end of the lava fountain phase, it was possible to observe that the activity of the Southeast Crater produced a second lava overflow from its eastern edge which headed east without exceeding the base of the crater. The current series of paroxysmal eruptive episodes at Etna continues with intervals of just over a day between eruptive crisis. On June 22, from 02:15 UTC, a resumption of Strombolian activity was observed at the level of the Southeast crater. From around 02:30 UTC, a sudden increasing in Strombolian activity was observed with the fall of the products on the external slopes of the CSE crater. In addition, the continuous emission of ash produced by the current activity, according to the forecast model, is dispersed in the NE direction. Strombolian activity in the southeast crater turned into a lava fountain around 02:55 UTC. In addition, there was an overflow of lava to the southwest. According to the images of the surveillance cameras, the INGV reported in its 04:13 UTC communication that the explosive activity at the Southeast crater has ceased, the lava overflow that extended in a southwest direction still seems weakly powered. As of the 20th INGV reported that From 21:00 UTC a modest Strombolian activity resumed at the southeast crater of Etna, and around 21:53 UTC, a sudden increase in Strombolian activity is observed with a fall of the products on the external slopes of the CSE crater. In addition, the continuous emission of ash produced by the current activity, according to the forecast model, is dispersed in the direction of SEE. From 10:15 p.m. UTC, the Strombolian activity of the southeast crater turned into a lava fountain 600-700 m high. The moonlit eruptive column, bent east-south-east, reached a height of 8-9 km. In addition, there is an overflow of lava to the southwest. The National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Etneo Observatory, reports at 00:13 that from the images of the surveillance cameras, we observe that the explosive activity at the level of the Southeast Crater has ceased, the overflow of lava which s The extension in a southwest direction is still active.INGV reported that from 6.15 p.m. on 06.19.2021, a Strombolian activity began at the level of the south-eastern crater of Etna. This activity is accompanied by a modest emission of ash. From 6.30 p.m. a southwest-directed lava overflow began, and from around 6.40 p.m. UTC, a sudden increase in Strombolian activity was observed at the south-eastern crater, which produced a continuous emission of ashes. On the basis of the forecast model, the emission of ash and lapilli is dispersed in the direction of Tremestieri Etneo, Mascalucia, Nicolosi, Catania and the regions further south. From 19:00 UTC, the Strombolian activity in the southeast crater turned into a lava fountain. Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses in the S direction. The effusive activity produced by the lava overflow in the southwest direction continues to be well fed. According to the images of the surveillance cameras, around 19:30 UTC, explosive activity at the Southeast crater has ceased, the lava overflow that extends in a southwest direction is still active. The center of gravity of the volcanic tremor sources is located in the southeastern crater region at an altitude of about 2900-3000 m above sea level.INGV reported that from approximately 20:20 UTC on June 17, 2021, a sudden increase in Strombolian activity is observed at the level of the south-eastern crater of Etna, producing a continuous ash emission which disperses in the summit zone and an overflow which propagates towards the SW. The products of Strombolian activity protrude from the rim of the crater falling along the sides of the crater. From approximately 23:20 UTC, the Strombolian activity of the southeast crater passed to a lava fountain phase. This stopped at 00.10 UTC. June 18. From 8:50 am The INGV reports that from the images of the surveillance cameras, we observe that the explosive activity at the level of the South-East crater has ceased, the lava overflow extending in a south-west direction is cooling. INGV reported that Strombolian activity continues at the south-eastern crater of Etna. This activity is accompanied by ash emissions which vary in intensity and frequency. On June 17, 2021 from approximately 20:20 UTC, a sudden increase in Strombolian activity is observed at the level of the Southeast crater, which produces a continuous emission of ash which disperses in the summit area and an overflow that is propagates to the SW. The products of Strombolian activity go beyond the rim of the crater falling along the sides of the crater. From approximately 23:20 UTC, the Strombolian activity of the southeast crater passed to the lava fountain stage. Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses in the SE direction. The tendency to increase the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor continues with very high values. The center of gravity of the volcanic tremor sources is located in the area of ​​the Southeast Crater, at an altitude of about 2900-3000 m above sea level.The fountaining ceased at 00:10 UTC. As for the lava overflow directed to the southwest, it continues to be fed.INGV reported that from approximately 11:32 UTC on June 16, a sudden increase in Strombolian activity was observed at the level of the southeast crater, which produces a continuous emission of ash scattered in the summit area. The products of Strombolian activity protrude from the rim of the crater falling along the sides of the crater. At 11:47:22 (UTC) the INGV reported that Strombolian activity has passed to the lava fountain stage. In addition, an overflow of lava was observed from the southern flank of the southeast crater which extended in a southwest direction. The southeast crater lava fountain ceased at 12:50 UTC. Regarding the lava flow the one directed towards the southwest continues to feed and there was also a second lava flow produced by a second overflow of the southeast crater which extends towards the Valle del Bove.And at 3:20 p.m. UTC, there was the resumption of Strombolian activity at the Southeast Crater. The effusive activity produced by the two overflows was terminated and the lava fronts were cooling. Since approximately 9:10 p.m. on June 14, a new increase in Strombolian activity at the Southeast Crater of Etna has been observed by INGV. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by this activity disperses in the SE direction. In addition, an overflow of lava is observed from the south side of the southeastern Crater which spreads to the southwest. At the same time as the increase in Strombolian activity, we observe a further increase in the average magnitude of the volcanic quake at the high level, located in the Southeast Crater region at about 2900 m. above sea level. The INGV announces at 21:46 UTC that the Strombolian activity has passed to the lava fountain. The fountain ceased to be active at 10:44 UTC / 12:44 local time on June 15. INGV reported that from approximately 11:30 UTC on June 12, 2021, an increase in the intensity and frequency of Strombolian activity is observed at the level of the southeast crater of Etna, which produces a discontinuous ash emission which is scattered in the summit area. From approximately 11:30 UTC, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed a clear increase and around 12:15 UTC, it reached the high range; At present, the parameter still shows a clear increasing trend. The centroid of volcanic tremor sources is located in the area of ​​the southeastern crater at an altitude of 2900-3000 m above sea level. At the same time, infrasonic activity has also intensified and shows a clear trend of increase, both in terms of the rate of occurrence and in the energy of infrasonic events, which are located in the south-eastern crater. A further increase in Strombolian activity at the southeast crater is observed from around 12:50 UTC. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by this activity disperses in the SW direction. In addition, an overflow of lava is observed from the southern flank of the southeast crater which extends in a southwest direction. The mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor continues to show an increasing trend, in the range of high values. The center of gravity of the source of the volcanic tremor is located in the south-eastern crater area at an altitude of 2900-3000 m above sea level. From around 7:30 p.m. the Strombolian activity of the southeast crater passed to a lava fountain. Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses to the south. As for the lava overflow, it is well fed and its front has reached an altitude of about 2800 m above sea level. In addition, an additional flow is observed which extends in an easterly direction and which around 19:00 UTC reached the upper western edge of the Bove valley.From around 21:15 UTC, the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed a rapid decrease and reached the base of the high value range around 22:50 UTC. Currently, this parameter shows a new downward trend.At 11:16 pm we observe that the lava fountain of the southeast crater has ceased; instead, Strombolian activity continues. The eruptive cloud produced during the fountain dispersed towards the SSE and news of a fallout of volcanic material was received at the Sapienza refuge. Lava overflows are reported.The decrease in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, reported in the same press release, also continued in the following hours and around 00:30 the parameter reached the range of low values. Currently, the amplitude of the tremor shows a stationary trend within this level. The center of gravity of the springs of the volcanic tremor is located in the area between the Bocca Nuova crater and the southeast crater, at an altitude of 2900-3000 m above sea level. Previously INGV reported a few eruptive episodes at Etna's Southeast Crater (SEC) during 31 May-6 June. Occasional ash emissions were noted during 4-5 June, and the lava flow had ceased.As of the 4th of June INGV reported that a weak intracrater Strombolian activity that continues at the south-eastern crater of Etna; the lava overflow generated during the last lava fountain event cooled. In addition, intracrater explosive activity at the Bocca Nuova crater and at the same time occasional ash emissions are observed at the north-eastern crater which disperse rapidly in the summit area. From the seismic point of view, the mean amplitude values ​​of the volcanic tremor are at a medium-high level, still showing small fluctuations. The centroid of the volcanic tremor sources remains located in the area of ​​the SE crater at an altitude of about 2900 m s.l.m. Around 13:30 UTC, the images from the surveillance cameras show an increase in Strombolian activity at the level of the Southeast crater. The activity produces discontinuous ash emissions which disperse rapidly near the summit area of ​​the volcano. From the seismic point of view, from around 13:30 UTC, it is observed that the average amplitude values ​​of the volcanic tremor are at a medium-high level showing a clear tendency to increase. The centroid of the volcanic tremor sources remains located in the SE crater area at an altitude of about 2900 m asl.From around 4:20 p.m. UTC, the passage of Strombolian activity from the Southeast crater to the lava fountain can be observed from surveillance cameras. The eruptive cloud formed by the Lava fountain, which according to the forecast model disperses in the SE direction, reaches a height of about 6500 m above sea level.From about 17:00 UTC, we observe a rapid decrease in the average amplitude values ​​of the volcanic tremor, which is placed at a high level with a tendency to decrease.At around 5:30 p.m. UTC, the lava fountain in the southeast crater gradually depleted. In accordance with the forecast model, the dispersion concerned the south-eastern sector of the volcano. INGV staff in the field report the impact of the products to Aci Castello, Tremestieri and Catania (Ognina). INGV report of 21:22 UTC announced that the explosive activity at the Southeast crater has ceased, however the lava overflow which extends in the southwest direction; the lava flow is still fed and the flow front is located at an altitude of about 2800 m above sea level. INGV reported that after a first increase around 06:00 UTC on June 2, showed around 08:00 a sudden increase reaching high levels. From around 08:30 UTC, the transition of Strombolian activity from the Southeast Crater to a lava fountain is observed from surveillance cameras. Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud disperses eastward. At approximately 10:45 UTC, the lava fountain in the southeast crater ceased. In accordance with the forecast model, the dispersion concerned the eastern sector of the volcano. INGV staff in the field report the fallout from the products north of Zafferana, in the town of Petrulli and in Santa Venerina. Due to cloud cover, it was not possible to determine the height of the eruptive cloud, but from information received from INGV personnel in the field, the cloud reached a height of about 5-6 km above sea level. In addition, the lava fountain produced an overflow of lava from the southern slope of the southeast crater, which spread to the southwest. From around 10:20 UTC a rapid decrease in the mean amplitude values ​​of the volcanic tremor is observed, which always remains at a high level, with even an increasing trend; it results from 2:00 p.m. UTC by an increase in the explosive activity of the SEC.From around 6:50 p.m., a small strombolian activity is observed at the SEC. INGV reported that from 03:45 UTC on May 30, 201, we observe the resumption of Strombolian activity at the Southeast crater.From around 01:10 UTC, there is a gradual increase in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor whose values ​​reached high levels around 03:30 UTC. The volcanic tremor source centroid is located in the southeastern crater region at an altitude of about 2900 m s.l.m. From around 03:40 UTC, an increase in infrasound activity was observed. Analysis of soil deformation data shows the onset of a very weak disturbance at some stations of the clinometric network around 03:30 UTC. At 04:40 UTC,a lava fountain was in progress at the level of the Southeast crater. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity is dispersing towards the SE. The amplitude of the volcanic tremor has reached very high levels and, at the same time, the appearance of an infrasonic tremor is observed, both located in the Southeast crater. The analysis of the deformations of the ground shows, from 04:00, an increase in the disturbance of the clinometric signals. INGV reported that the day of May 28 at the south-eastern crater of Etna was marked by three intense eruptive episodes. The first eruptive episode occurred between 7 am and 8:30 am Analysis of the CCTV images shows that the eruptive cloud reached a height of approximately 6500 m above sea level. A second fairly brief and relatively light episode of explosive activity marked the southeastern crater in the afternoon of May 28, 2021, barely 9 hours after the previous eruptive episode and from 15:40 UTC the resumption of explosive activity at the Southeast crater is observed. Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses towards E. Analysis of the CCTV images shows that the activity of the lava fountain described above, started around 4:00 p.m. UTC, was very discontinuous and by 4:15 p.m. UTC it was already over. In addition, the eruptive cloud, dispersed in the E direction, did not exceed 5000 m altitude.Third eruptive episode in Etna in a little over 12 hours, on the evening of May 28, 2021. Lava fountains 300 to 400 m high, lava flows towards the upper southwest flank (far from inhabited areas) and ashes and lapilli fall to the east. From around 19:00 UTC an increase in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor is observed, whose values ​​are currently at high levels. The location of the center of gravity of the sources of volcanic earthquakes is located in the region of the south-eastern crater at an altitude of about 3000 m above sea level. In addition, from around 19:00 UTC, an increase in infrasonic activity is observed, localized in the south-eastern crater. INGV reported that on May 27th from around 07:40 UTC, there was a gradual increase in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor whose values ​​reached high levels around 10:50 UTC. The center of gravity of the volcanic tremor sources was located in the south-eastern crater area at an altitude of about 3000 m above sea level. Ashes were produced by a strong explosive activity underway at the southeast crater. The poor visibility conditions did not allowed observing the explosions, while the hot material produced which abundantly covers the sides of the cone. Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses in the ESE direction.From around 12:50 UTC, despite the presence of cloud cover in the summit area, Strombolian activity at the southeast crater was observed to intensify, presumably passing into a lava fountain. It was not possible to estimate the height of the eruptive cloud which, according to the forecast model, was dispersing in the ESE direction. Ash falls on the ground have been reported in Giarre, Milo and Fornazzo. From around 13:00 UTC, we observe a decrease in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, whose values ​​are currently falling to average levels. INGV reports on May 26 at 03:19 loc. / 01:19 UTC the resumption of weak Strombolian activity at the SE crater. At 03:45 (01:45 UTC), Strombolian activity increases at the SE crater. Based on the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses towards E. From around 00:40 UTC there is a sudden increase in the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor which is currently at high levels. The center of gravity of the sources of volcanic tremor is located in the region of the south-eastern crater at an altitude of 2800 m s.l.m. Strombolian activity evolves towards the lava fountain around 01:55 UTC. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity disperses to the east. From around 02:00 UTC, a decrease in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor was observed which continued, with some fluctuations, in the following hours. At 05:47 (03:47 UTC) the analysis of the images of the CCTV cameras shows that the lava fountain has ceased its activity. INGV reported that on May 24, 2021, from 18:58 UTC, the resumption of Strombolian activity at the SE crater is observed; The forecast model indicates the dispersion of the eruptive cloud in the ENE direction. Simultaneously with the resumption of Strombolian activity, a sudden increasing in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, which has reached medium-high values.he location of the center of gravity of the sources of the volcanic tremor is in the area of ​​the SE crater at an altitude of about 2800 m slm .. Also at 18:58 UTC there is an increase in both the rate of occurrence of infrasound. events and their magnitude. The events are located in the SE crater area. At around 8:10 p.m. UTC, a further increase in the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor is observed, which in a few minutes reaches very high levels. The center of gravity of the volcanic tremor sources continues to be located in the SE crater region at an altitude of about 2700 m s.l.m. At approximately 20:25 UTC, Strombolian activity at SE crater turned into a lava fountain with the formation of an eruptive cloud which disperses according to the forecast model in the ENE direction. The eruptive column reached 7,000 meters asl. during Fountaining. A decrease in the value of the parameters begins around 9.45 p.m. UTC, and the INGV announces at 10:07 p.m. UTC the end of the lava fountain activity. A lava flow is observed which propagates in a southwest direction.  INGV reported that on May 22, 2021 from 17:30 UTC, an increase in the amplitude of the volcanic tremor is observed, which is currently on average values. An increase in the explosive activity of the southeast crater is observed. The current Strombolian activity is accompanied by an abundant emission of ash. The forecast model indicates the dispersion of the eruptive cloud to the east. In its report of May 22 at 20:39 UTC, the INGV indicates that Strombolian activity at the southeast crater has turned into a lava fountain. The forecast model indicates the dispersion of the eruptive cloud in the ENE direction.Beautiful lava fountains up to 500 m high are described and a small lava flow on the upper southwest flank. The volcanic tremor is still increasing to very high values. The sources of the tremor are located near the SE crater. at a depth of approximately 2.8 km above sea level. The rate of occurrence of infrasonic events is very high. At 22:38 UTC, the lava fountain is over. The forecast model indicates the dispersion of the eruptive cloud to the east. From 01:51 UTC to 23.05.2021 through surveillance cameras, the resumption of explosive activity at the southeast crater with emission of ash was observed. This activity lasted continuously until approximately 02:03 UTC. Currently, discontinuous intracrateric explosions are observed with low ash emissions which disperse rapidly. The forecast model indicates the dispersion of the eruptive cloud towards E. Between 01:30 and 02:15 UTC, the amplitude of the volcanic tremor recorded a sudden increase and a subsequent decrease in accordance with volcanological observations. Infrasound activity remained at low levels, both in the rate of occurrence and in the energy of events.INGV reported that Etna presented two strong explosions on the night of April 24-25 and on the morning of April 26 at the Southeast Crater; the ash emissions quickly dispersed. From around 6.30 p.m., there is a slight resumption of Strombolian activity at the CSE. Activity remains modest for now. In the evening of April 27, a slight Strombolian activity is observed at the south-eastern crater, seen from Monte Fontane on the eastern flank of the volcano, with falls of incandescent materials on the slopes. INGV reported that after a series of paroxysmal episodes between February 16 and April 1 (and all the activity that preceded it in the last two years), Etna presented two strong explosions on the night of April 24-25 and in morning of April 26 at the Southeast Crater; the ash emissions quickly dispersed. From about 6.30 p.m., there is a slight resumption of Strombolian activity at the CSE. Activity remains modest for now. From a seismic point of view, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor shows an increasing trend, currently focusing on medium-low values. The location of the source of the tremor is located near the SE crater area at 2,500 m. altitude. Regarding infrasound activity, it remains at medium-low levels, with events localized in the area of ​​the SE crater. Deformation data does not show significant changes. INGV reported continuing episodes of lava fountaining, intra-crater explosive activity, and discontinuous ash emissions at Etna's Southeast Crater (SEC) during the week of 29 March-4 April, though weather conditions often prevented visual observations. Gas emissions rose from the other summit craters and occasional explosive activity was visible; puffs of ash sometimes rose from Voragine Crater during 31 March-2 April.INGV report on 1st of April at 9:37 p.m. noted from surveillance cameras, that the lava flows that took place in the upper western sector of the Valle del Bove (at least three main ones can be distinguished) seem less fed by the fronts which are located between approximately 2100 m and 1700 m of altitude. In addition, still on the western edge of the Valle del Bove, there are thermal anomalies probably attributable to the fronts of other lava flows which have not yet overflowed from the edge and therefore remain confined to an altitude of around 2700 m. above sea level. The lava overflows from the eastern edge of the SE crater cool down further, mainly blocks are observed which, standing out from the fronts, roll towards the Valle del Bove. Finally, the flow that has developed in the SW direction no longer appears powered and cooled. From the surveillance cameras, no explosive activity was observed at the SE crater; the intracrater activity at the NE and BN crater remains, and the intracrater explosive activity of the Voragine crater which generates discontinuous ash emissions which are rapidly dispersed in the summit area.As of the 1st of April, at around 11:20 UTC, the decrease in explosive activity at the SE crater was observed. Due to the cloud cover, the observation of the current activity from the surveillance cameras is very limited and discontinuous, but the lava flows and the the first lava overflow, which took place in the Valle del Bove, and the second overflow, which reached the eastern base of the SE crater, appear to be less fueled than previously reported. The cloud cover does not currently allow any observation of the lava flows which have spread to the SW, S and ESS. INGV staff on the ground this morning confirms that the front of the SW lava flow is about 2,600 m above sea level. and that the SSE flow front also reached an elevation of approximately 2600 m. at the time of observation.INGV reported that the thermal anomaly, observed by surveillance cameras from around 09:00 UTC on March 31, 2021 at the south base of the southeastern crater of Etna, was produced by the site of a flow of lava. This, observed by INGV staff in the field, wasgenerated by the same field of fractures that fed the lava flows that developed in the same area from March 2021. The eruptive activity at the level of the other summit craters remained unchanged. From approximately 17:50 UTC, an increase in Strombolian activity was observed with the emission of ash at the SE crater. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud disperses in the SSW direction. Concerning effusive activity, the lava flow expanding in the SSE direction was well fed and the front has reached the high edge of the western part of the Valle del Bove. From around 11:00 p.m. UTC on March 31, Strombolian activity in the SE crater gradually turned into a lava fountain. According to the forecast model, the ash cloud, which reached a height of about 7000 m above sea level, disperses in the SSW direction. At the same time, starting at 12:18 UTC on April 01, an overflow of lava is observed from the eastern edge of the SE crater which expands in the upper part of the Valle del Bove. The effusive vent was active at 2:30 UTC and was feeding a lava field made up of several lava flows that were propagating in the SSW, S and SSE direction. In the observation period, the SSW and S lava flows appeared to be poorly fed and their fronts The flow of the SSE was well fed and its front, which rose to about 2,750 m above sea level, had almost reached the edge of the Valle del Bove. INGV reported that a powerful explosion, followed by a loud noise and a compression wave occurred at 07:07 local time today March 30, 2021 at the southeastern crater of Etna. Since then, a weak resumption of Strombolian activity has been observed at the SEC, with a center of gravity of the tremor from 1:30 p.m. under the southeast crater.On the other hand, the explosive activity continues in the other summit craters - Bocca Nuova, northeast crater and Voragine -, especially with frequent puffs of ash at the Voragine crater.The infrasonic activity, located in the SEC is increasing. INGV reported that a new increase in Strombolian activity was observed at the SE crater on March 23, 2021 at around 8:32 p.m. UTC. At around 10 p.m. UTC, a lava fountain is underway at SE Crater. According to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity if it is dispersed towards the southwest. At 02:37 GMT a pyroclastic flow was also used for the INGV-OE surveillance cameras, even confirmed for the INGV staff present on the scene. The flow was oriented towards the Bove valley reaching about 2900 m in height. On the seismic level, the increase in the magnitude of the volcanic tremor on very high values ​​continued.From 02:30 UTC, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor is decreasing, while still remaining on high values.Two flows were generated by the activity, one well fed towards the Bove Valley which reached around 1900 to 1800 m, and another less fed towards the south which settled in the summit area. The INGV announced at 5:43 am UTC that according to the forecast model, the eruptive cloud produced by the current activity if it was dispersed towards the south-east. The maximum height estimated by satellite east of 6000 m at sea level. It was also reported by staff INGV-OE to relapse of ash in Catania. INGV reported that on 19th of March, two strong explosions that occurred at 06:15 h 06:15 and 06:29 h were heard at the Southeast crater. The amplitude of the tremor increased, reaching the high level threshold. The sources of the signal were located under the southeast crater at a depth of about 2500 m. asl. Infrasound activity was currently increasing with 1 to 2 events per minute. Explosive activity at the southeast crater continued. The forecast model indicates the dispersion of the eruptive cloud in the ENE direction. As of the 17th of march, INGV reported that from 00:55 UTC, there was an increase in Strombolian activity at the Etna CSE. The level of tremor increased rapidly to reach high values. The source of the tremor was located southeast of the SE crater at a level of approximately 2,800 meters above sea level. Strombolian activity from the southeast crater shifted to a lava fountain from around 02 a.m.  UTC. Due to the cloud cover, it was not possible to continuously observe the activity in progress. From surveillance cameras from 02:25 UTC, an overflow of lava occurred from the southeast crater towards Valle del Bove was observed.At around 6 a.m., the INGV reported that the amplitude of the tremor was clearly decreasing and at average levels. The sources were located south-east of the SE crater at a depth of about 2000 m above sea level. The infrasonic signal did not detect volcanic activity. The lava fountain activity at the South Crater ends after 6 a.m.A moderate Strombolian activity persisted. INGV reported that the 13th climax in a month at the southeastern crater of Etna occurred under heavy cloud cover on the night of March 14 to 15, 2021. From the surveillance cameras from 20:10 UTC on 14.03.2021, the resumption of Strombolian activity at the Southeast crater was observed. At the same time, Strombolian activity continued at the craters of Voragine, Bocca Nuova and the northeast crater. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed an increase reaching high values. The sources of the quake were located in the CSE at a depth of about 2.5 km asl. Following a further increase in the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor, the second level threshold is reached, the source being located in correspondence with the south-eastern crater at about 3000 m altitude. Infrasound activity was also supported both in the rate of occurrence and in the energy of events. The strombolian activity of the south-eastern crater has turned into a lava fountain. Due to the cloud cover, it was not possible to observe the activity in progress.Around midnight, the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Etneo Observatory, reports that an overflow of lava is observed from the East zone of the SE Crater which extends towards the Valle del Bove. In its report of 03.15 / 03.43 am, the INGV indicates that the activity of the lava fountain at the South-East crater is over. Moderate Strombolian activity persists and the lava flow that expands along the western slope of the Valle del Bove continues to be fed. From the seismic point of view, the amplitude of the volcanic tremor has decreased, returning to average values. The source of the tremor is located near the SE crater at a depth of 2500 m above sea level. Analysis of the clinometric data of the paroxysmal event showed variations at different stations, with cumulative maximum values ​​(less than 3 microradians) recorded at the Cratere del Piano (ECP) station. GNSS network data over the past few hours did not show significant changes.As of the 12th of March, INGV reported that a weak strombolian activity occurred at the southeastern crater of Etna at the start of the day, at the same time the intracrater explosive activity continued at the Voragine craters, at Bocca Nuova and at the crater. The average amplitude of the volcanic tremor showed an increase reaching high values ​​and the sources of the tremor were located in the CSE at a depth of about 2.5 km s.l.m. From approximately 05:30 UTC, there was an increasing in the intensity and frequency of Strombolian activity at the southeast crater. The activity produced an eruptive cloud which reached a height of about 4000 m above sea level, and based on the forecast model provides a dispersion of the eruptive cloud and relapse of ash to the east. Eruptive activity towards the other craters continues.From 06:30 UTC, Strombolian activity at the southeast crater intensified further; in addition, from 06:54 UTC, an overflow of lava was observed from the eastern area of ​​the CSE which expands towards the Valle del Bove; at this time, the lava front was at an altitude of about 3000 meters above sea level. From the seismic point of view, the increase in the amplitude of the volcanic tremor continued to reach high values ​​and the source of the tremor is near the south-eastern crater at a depth of about 2.5 km s.l.m. The number of infrasound events was high and their location seems to be close to the Southeast crater. At 07:41 UTC, the INGV announced that the Strombolian activity has turned into a lava fountain with the production of an eruptive cloud up to a height of about 6000 m. in an easterly direction. The lava flow continued to expand towards the Valle del Bove and has reached altitude 2800. At 8:39 UTC, the observatory reported that the eruptive cloud, produced by the activity in progress, reached an altitude of about 8,500 meters and dispersed towards the east; an ash fall on the town of Fleri has been reported. The lava flow produced by the overflow was fed and the flow has reached an altitude of about 2,100 meters above sea level. INGV reported that strombolian activity resumed at the level of the SE crater of Etna on March 9, 2021. As for the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor from 17:30 GMT, there was an increase, which remained in average values -high. The source of the quake was located at the SE Crater at a depth of about 2,500 meters above sea level. The infrasound activity also increased and is localized in the SE crater. Data from GNSS soil deformation monitoring networks and clinometry showed no significant changes.Surveillance camera showed simultaneous explosions at the Voragine crater and the southeast crater. March 9, 2021 in the evening. From around 19:13 UTC, an overflow of lava could be observed from the SE crater towards the Valle del Bove. From 20:00 UTC, there was an increase in strombolian activity at the CSE, accompanied by the emission of ash which rapidly dispersed in the atmosphere towards the NE. The lava flow continued to be fed and the front is at an altitude of about 2900 meters above sea level advancing towards the Valle del Bove. The intracrateric explosive activity at the summit craters continued. After a short return phase, the average amplitude of the volcanic tremor, from 9:30 p.m. GMT, began to increase again to reach the second level threshold, with the Strombolian activity located at the southeast crater, which increases to a lava fountain; the lava flow is fed and reached an altitude of about 2200 meters above sea level. Due to cloud cover, it is not possible to observe the ongoing activity continuously. The activity of the lava fountain at the southeast crater ended at 03:30 UTC, the lava emission that is developing along the western slope of the Valle del Bove continues to be moderately fed and at the time the lava front reached the altitude of about 1800 m asl. From the seismic point of view, the amplitude of the volcanic tremor has returned to average values. INGV reported that rom around 1.00 UTC on 7th of March,, a small lava flow is observed emitted by the effusive vent which opened on March 4, 2021 at the base of the SE crater. At the same time, the resumption of Strombolian activity at the level of the SE crater was also observed. Strombolian activity continues confined to the craters of Voragine, Bocca Nuova and and NE. Also from 1.00 UTC there is an increase in the volcanic tremor which at the moment was on medium-high values. The source of the tremor is located near the SE crater. Infrasound events were few in number and low in energy. From 01:30 UTC there was a further rapid increase in the amplitude of the volcanic tremor which is currently at high values. The source of the tremor was located near the SE crater.From around 06:00 UTC, the Strombolian activity at the SE crater (SEC) passed through a lava fountain and from 06:20 UTC, it formed an eruptive column which exceeded the height of 10,000 m above sea level. . dispersing eastward. As for the lava flows, which develop in the Valle del Bove, due to the cloud cover, it is not possible to make observations to estimate the share of the fronts. The volcanic tremor of the last half hour reached a very high average amplitude and is constantly located near the SE crater The number and energy of infrasound events are high and their locations are in the crater of the SEC. From around 07:20 UTC, the SE Crater lava fountain ceased. INGV reported that ninth paroxysm occurred in two weeks at Etna. As of 4th of March from 00:20 UTC, a resumption of weak strombolian activity at the SEC is observed. A slight increase in the mean amplitude of the volcanic tremor is observed. Infrasound activity also shows an increase in the number of events. The locations of the tremors indicate a movement from the source to the SEC. From 01:00 UTC, there was an increase in strombolian activity at the SEC, accompanied by the emission of ash which rapidly disperses in the atmosphere towards the NE. At the same time, the Voragine crater also shows lively Strombolian activity with episodic explosions that rise above the level of the crater rim. the Strombolian activity at the SEC gradually increased and to pass at around 02:20 UTC to the stage of  lava fountain. At the same time, there was a further gradual increase in the amplitude of the volcanic tremor, the source of which was located in correspondence with the SEC at nearly 3000 m. Then from 03:05 UTC, an overflow of lava can be observed from the SEC towards the Valle del Bove.From 02:50 UTC, there was a decrease in the amplitude of the tremor which is at an average level; from 3:15 a.m., there wa also a decrease in infrasonic activity, both in the frequency of occurrence and in the amplitude of the signals. At 4:15 a.m., the strombolian activity at the SEC  was also significantly reduced while the lava overflow towards the Valle del Bove remains active. From around 06:00 UTC, the tremor has started to rise, returning to a high level, while intrasonic activity remains low. The small flow continues to be fed through an open mouth at the eastern base of the CSE which shows spattering activity. The activity also continues at the other summit craters. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank. (webcam). . www.ct.ingv.it . Live cam Etna - Etna monitoring page - New Etna Southwest crater webcam

ITALY - Stromboli volcano (Eolian Islands)

September 26th, 2022

As of the 25th of September, INGV reported that from about 02:10 UTC, an intensification of the explosive activity of the North crater area of ​​Stromboli was observed, with some stronger explosions such as the one recorded at 02:29 UTC. The materials produced fell abundantly in the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco, rolling down the slope. In conjunction with the increase in explosive activity, from 02:30 UTC, a modest overflow of lava is observed from the area of ​​the North crater which is located in the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco. In correspondence with the explosion at 02:29 UTC, a seismic signal lasting about 3 minutes is detected. As of the 12th of August, heavy rainfalls over the Eolian archipelago yesterday triggered a series of devastating mud flows that descended the flanks of the volcano and invaded the village of Stromboli where they caused great damage. Fortunately, there are no reports of fatalities and there seem not to have been serious injuries, but a large number of houses and other structures in the village, a popular tourist destination during the summer months, were affected.As of the 27th of July, INGV reported that Stromboli monitoring networks recorded an overflow of lava from the northern area of ​​the crater from 17:30 UTC / 19:30 local. Note that this day from 17:04 UTC (19:04 Local), the monitoring network of the Laboratory of Experimental Geophysics / LGS - Department of Earth Sciences of the University of Florence UNIFI highlights a small overflow of lava from the Central Crater area, accompanied by a modest increase in tremor and weak ground deflation. There are currently no other changes in the monitored parameters. The explosive activity is currently normal and the activity index remains at the average level. INGV reported that the analysis of video surveillance cameras, on 25th of July from 02:56 UTC, recorded a series of explosions from the area of ​​​​the North crater of Stromboli, the most strong occurred at 02:56:30 UTC. The material produced fell abundantly along the entire Sciara del Fuoco, while there were no significant fallouts of coarse material in the Pizzo area. After the more intense initial explosive phase, Strombolian activity continues at the N2 vent of the North Crater area, with frequent low-intensity explosions.INGV reported that during the week of July 11th-17th, 2022, a normal Strombolian-type explosive activity was observed at Stromboli.The total hourly frequency of explosions varied at low values ​​(3-5 events/h) with the sole exception of 6 events/h on July 17. The intensity of the explosions was low and medium in both the North Crater area and the Center-South Crater area.From July 15, an intense degassing activity was continuously observed at the mouth positioned on the outer side of N2 (Sciara side). This degassing produces an incandescence due to the heating of the rocks by the gas, visible during the day thanks to drone overflights and at night in the form of a persistent glow. The N2 crater produces mostly gas explosions every few tens of minutes which can be heard as dry rumblings.For the period from June 13th to 19th, 2022 INGV reported the observation of normal explosive activity of the Strombolian type. The total hourly frequency of explosions fluctuated between low values ​̴