VOLCANO NEWS

Updated on 10th of April 2014 (latest news classified according to countries)

Highlight today : increasing of the eruptive activity at the Tungurahua volcano - Ecuador ( information below )

ECUADOR - Guagua Pichincha volcano

February 2nd, 2014

No recent events occured since september 2010. Last news : As of the 14 th of September 2010, IG reported that no significative change between 6-12 September period. Seismic network continues to record important number of events related to fracture of rock to the interior of the volcano, nevertheless did not register any type of additional anomaly. As of the 17th of April 2010, IG reported that there no change, both the seismic activity and fumarole emission remained at a low level. Previous significative information : as of the 20th of February 2009, IG reported that the seismic stations Geophysical Institute have registered for days back a slight increase of the internal activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. In previous days 4 phreatic explosions of moderate size have been registered. These explosions happen due to an increase of the internal steam pressure, possibly related to the increase of precipitations observed in the zone of volcano. Therefore the Geophysical Institute recommends that it is not allowed to descend to the interior of the crater since the phreatic explosions could be repeated and the people could take the rock hit, other materials and/or rarefaction waves that are generated by these events. These phreatic explosions they happen generally at times of much rainfall, this is the reason why these explosions not necessarily are indicative of a substantial increase of the activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. The Geophysical Institute in its preprecautionary eagerness of the security of the people maintains a monitoring permanent of the state of this and other volcanos of the country and will inform opportunely into any change that these can present/display. The activity of the volcano shows a slight increase in its seismic activity with respect to the previous months. 40 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes have been registered, which are related to the fracturing of rocks to the interior of the complex between the 14th and the 18th of February. These earthquakes are of small magnitude, which is the reason why they have not been perceived by the population. It is possible to indicate that during the 2007, an average of 4.2 VT earthquakes per day was had. Also in this time interval 6 events of long period (LP) per day were registered when the average in the 2008 was of 0.3. LP events are related to resonances of cracks full of flowed inside the volcano. In addition it is important to mention the presence of explosions of moderate magnitude, related to the phreatic activity. The 16th of February the guardian of the refuge of the volcano perceived an increase in the scent to sulphur in the high part of the crater. Guagua Pichincha rises immediately W of Quito, Ecuador's capital city. The broad volcanic massif is cut by a large horseshoe-shaped summit caldera, ~6 km in diameter and 600 m deep, that was breached to the W during a slope failure ~50,000 years ago. - Information : I G Quito

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Cratère du Guagua Pichincha - Aôut 1999 -Viracucha

ECUADOR - Tungurahua volcano

April 10th, 2014

IG reported that seismicity at Tungurahua steadily increased from 2-4 April. On 2 April two small explosions, at 0757 and 2305, were accompanied by roaring and incandescent blocks rolling down the flanks. The second explosion ejected incandescent blocks and produced an ash plume that rose 600 m. Ashfall was reported in Cotaló (8 km NW) and Chacauco (NW). Although cloud cover often prevented visual observations, an ash plume generated by an explosion at 1455 on 4 April rose 2 km above the crater and drifted SW; ash fell in Choglontus (SW). On 4 April an explosion at 1810 lasted five minutes and generated pyroclastic flows that descended the NW and N flanks. An ash plume rose 10 km above the crater and drifted SW. Another explosion at 1816 lasted four minutes and possibly generated pyroclastic flows.
Tephra up to 7 cm in diameter fell in Cusúa (8 km NW) and Píllaro. Constant tremor continued, interspersed with explosions. Strombolian activity was observed during the morning of 5 April. Steam-and-gas emissions with small amounts of ash rose less than 1 km and drifted W. At 1040 an ash plume rose 2 km. On 6 April ash plumes drifted W, and Strombolian activity ejected material that was deposited 1.5 km down the flanks. Ashfall was reported on 7 April in Bilbao (W) and Cevallos (23 km NW). On 8 April steam emissions with some ash rose 200 m and drifted SW. Minor ashfall was reported in Bilbao, El Manzano (8 km SW), Juive (7 km NNW), Mocha (25 km WNW), El Manzano. Large lahars descended the Achupashal (NW) and Confesionario drainages (WSW). IG reported that cloud cover occasionally prevented observations of Tungurahua during 26 March-1 April, although on clear days no surface activity was observed. Minor ashfall was reported in El Manzano (8 km SW) and Cahuaji on 26 March. Seismicity was at moderate levels and then declined during 28 March-1 April. Lahars on 31 March traveled down the Vascún (N) and Mapayacu (SW) drainages, carrying blocks up to 1 m in diameter in the latter drainage. IG reported that activity at Tungurahua was at moderate levels during 19-25 March; cloud cover often prevented observations. On 21 March an explosion was later followed by ashfall in Choglontus (SW). Heavy rains caused lahars in the Achupashal drainage (NW) which led to traffic disruption on the Baños- Penipe highway. Lahars also descended the Juive drainage (7 km NNW). On 25 March an ash plume rose 3 km and drifted N. Ashfall was reported in Quero (20 km NW) and Puñachiza. Previously, IG also reported that activity at Tungurahua was at moderate levels during 11-16 March, but then declined during 17-18 March; cloud cover occasionally prevented observations. On 11 March rain caused major lahars in the Achupashal drainage which led to traffic disruption on the Baños- Penipe highway. Ash plumes on 12 March rose 1 km above the crater. On 14 March ash plumes rose 3 km and drifted W and SE. Sounds resembling blocks rolling down the flanks were reported by residents in Runtún (6 km NNE).IG reported that activity at Tungurahua was at moderate levels during 5-11 March; cloud cover occasionally prevented observations. Two explosions during 5-6 March were felt in local areas, and at the Tungurahua Observatory (OVT) in Guadalupe (14 km N). Ashfall was reported in El Manzano (8 km SW) and Palictahua. An explosion on 6 March generated an ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted NE. On 8 March ash plumes rose as high as 2 km and drifted W and NW. The next day an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted NE; ashfall was reported in Minsa.IG reported that activity at Tungurahua was at moderate levels during 26 February-4 March; cloud cover often prevent.Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador's capital city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano.
Tungurahua - Live webcam

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ECUADOR - Reventador volcano

April 10th, 2014

IG reported that cloud cover occasionally prevented visual observations of Reventador during 2-8 April; activity remained high. A steam-and-ash plume rose 3 km and drifted E on 2 April, and a thermal camera detected hot material on the flanks. Four lava flows on the S and SE flanks were observed on 3 April. Ash emissions were observed the next day. On 5 April sporadic ash emissions rose 1 km and drifted W. On 6 April water vapor emissions with low amounts of ash rose 500 m and drifted NW. During 7-8 April lava flows continued to descend the S and SE flanks. On 8 April vapor emissions with small amounts of ash were observed.IG reported that activity at Reventador increased on 25 March. At 1830 an explosion was followed by a pyroclastic flow that traveled 500 m down the flanks. Strombolian activity produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose 1.5 km above the crater. During 26-29 March continuous tremor was interspersed with explosions and long-period earthquakes. Although cloud cover often prevented crater views, video cameras showed a lava flow traveling down the S flank and incandescent material erupting from the crater. Emissions with small amounts of ash rose 1 km on 28 March. Ashfall was reported in Hosteria El Reventador and camp San Rafael on the flanks. A load roar reported at 0300 on 31 March was followed by observations of incandescent material traveling 1 km down the S flank. Cloud cover prevented visual observations the next day. Previously, based on information from IG, the Washington VAAC reported that on 22 January an ash plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified in satellite images. IG noted that an explosions lasting several minutes was recorded.Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 31 December an ash plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified in satellite images due to weather clouds in the area but an occasional thermal anomaly was detected. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. (GVN/GVP)

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Tungurahua volcano 1999 - H. Gaudru

MONTSERRAT - Soufriere Hills volcano - West-Indies

March 24th, 2014

No significant activity since July 2013 - latest reports dated for the period from 8th of March 2013 to 5th of July 2013 - Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 28th of June to 5h of July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 271 tonnes/day with a maximum of 427 and a minimum of 161 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 21st to 28th of June. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 353 tonnes/day with a maximum of 459 and a minimum of 221 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded four rockfalls and nine volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes the week from 14th to 21st.of June. Six of the VT earthquakes occurred in a brief swarm on 16 July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were only possible on three days this week and gave an average flux of 289 tonnes/day with a maximum of 332 and a minimum of 247 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded one rockfall and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 7th to 14 th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 281 tonnes/day with a maximum of 428 and a minimum of 185 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded nine rockfalls, five volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event the previous week frm 31st of may to 7th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 485 tonnes/day with a maximum of 543 and a minimum of 430 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event this week from 24th to 31st of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 395 tonnes/day with a maximum of 588 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. . The seismic network recorded three rockfalls the week from 17th to 24th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 380 tonnes/day with a maximum of 536 and a minimum of 281 tonnes/day. Many residents of Montserrat felt an earthquake at 7:51 pm on 18 May 2013. This earthquake had a magnitude of 4.9 and was located south-west of Barbuda; about 100 km north of Montserrat. It was not associated with the Soufrière Hills Volcano. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic this week from 10th to 17th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 373 tonnes/day with a maximum of 553 and a minimum of 137 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week from 3rd to 10th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 313 tonnes/day with a maximum of 435 and a minimum of 160 tonnes/day. Measurements were only possible on three days this week because of adverse wind conditions. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 26th of April to 3rd of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 379 tonnes/day with a maximum of 466 and a minimum of 254 tonnes/day. The wind has been mainly towards the north and north-east since the night of 1/2 May. This has blown the volcanic plume over inhabited areas and the smell of volcanic gases has been noticeable at times. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 19th to 26th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 366 tonnes/day with a maximum of 535 and a minimum of 181 tonnes/day. There have been no good views of the dome for over a month now. Reports from helicopter pilots suggest that most of the large slab on the eastern side of the dome is now gone; removed by the pyroclastic flow on 28 March 2013. As of the 19th of April, MVO reported that activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes during the week from 12th to 19th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 556 tonnes/day with a maximum of 1155 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. Past week 5th to 12th of April, the seismic network recorded no seismic events related to the volcano this week. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 325 tonnes/day with a maximum of 585 and a minimum of 186 tonnes/day. MVO reported that during 22-29 March activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. A pyroclastic flow traveled down the Tar River Valley (E) at about 0500 on 28 March. The flow was not observed directly, but the deposits indicated that it traveled halfway down the valley, 1-1.5 km from the dome. There were no reports of ashfall; any ash was probably blown over Plymouth and out to sea. The source of the flow was not known due to cloud cover, but was likely from the failure a large slab that had been slowing moving away from the dome. Heavy rainfall during the evening of 28 March generated large lahars in several valleys around the volcano, including in the Belham Valley (NW). These started at about 1900 and lasted for several hours. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded one rockfall and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 15th to 22nd of March.Sulphur-dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 359 tonnes/day with a maximum of 540 and a minimum of 258 tonnes/day. There appear to have been no changes in the large slab recently observed to be peeling away from the dome above the Tar River Valley. The slab is now estimated to have dimensions of 80 by 60 by 4-6 metres. If this slab falls as a single block it will produce a large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas. previously , the seismic network recorded one rockfall this week from 8th to 15th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 251 tonnes/day with a maximum of 264 and a minimum of 227 tonnes/day. During a helicopter inspection on 8 March 2013, we observed a large fissure in the cliff on the eastern side of the dome, part of which has existed since 2007. This fissure is the result of slow cooling and erosion of the dome. It is parallel to the cliff face and is estimated to be two metres wide, suggesting that a large slab is slowing peeling away from the dome. If this slab falls as a single block it will probably produce a moderate-to-large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas The seismic network recorded one rockfall, two volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one hybrid event this week from 1st to 8th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements for the week gave an average flux of 368 tonnes/day with a maximum of 552 and a minimum of 213 tonnes/day. Variable winds blew the volcanic plume over inhabited areas for much of the week, particularly the first half, and the smell of volcanic gases was very noticeable at times. There has been no visible emission of ash from the volcano this week. Montserrat Volcano Observatory - View latest NOAA satellite image of Montserrat ( every 30 mn)
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Soufriere Hills dome on December 6, 2000 (Courtesy Caraibean Helicopter)

 

MEXICO - Popocatepetl volcano

March 13th, 2014

CENEPRED reported that incandescence from Popocatépetl's crater was visible at night during 5-11 March, and steam-and gas emissions visible during the day drifted E, NE, and NW. An explosion at 0334 on 6 March ejected material
600 m onto the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.On 26 February CENAPRED reported that, with support from the Navy, scientists aboard an overflight of Popocatépetl observed that lava dome 48 had been destroyed, leaving a funnel-shaped cavity about 80 m deep. A new dome 20-30 m wide was at the bottom of the cavity. On 27 February activity decreased considerably. During 27 February-3 March gas-and-steam plumes were observed drifting E, ESE, W, and NE. On 2 March an ash plume rose more than 2 km above the crater and drifted NE. On 4 March at 0552 an explosion ejected incandescent tephra 700 m onto the NE flank and produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. CENAPRED reported that at 0944 on 19 February a gas-and-vapor plume containing moderate amounts of ash rose 1.5 km above Popocatépetl's crater and drifted NE and SW. At 2338 a gas-and-vapor plume containing small amounts of ash rose 1 km and drifted E. A small explosion at 0409 on 21 February ejected incandescent tephra which mostly fell back inside the crater, and produced an ash plume that rose 2 km. An explosion at 1233 ejected incandescent tephra 600 m from the crater rim. An ash plume rose 4 km and drifted NE. Another explosion at 1541 produced an ash plume with lower ash content that rose 2 km and also drifted NE. At 0312 on 22 February an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted SE. Explosions at 0615 and 0619 ejected incandescent tephra and produced ash plumes that rose 1 km and drifted SE. On 25 February steam-and-gas plumes drifting SE were occasionally seen during times of good visibility. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. Previous news end 2013 - During 30 October-5 November, CENAPRED maintained Alert Level Yellow, Phase Two. Explosions were frequently detected, varying from 30 to 97 events per day. Though cloudy conditions obscured the view at times, ash plumes were detected on 30-31 October and 1 November. The ash event on 31 October generated a plume that reached an altitude of 1 km and drifted NW. An Mc 2.1 volcanic-tectonic (VT) earthquake was recorded on 31 October and 4 November; an Mc 2.3 VT earthquake was also detected on 4 November. The largest VT earthquake during this time period was a magnitude 2.5 that occurred at 1031 on 5 November. Tremor was frequently detected during this reporting period; on 1 November, 3 hours and 21 minutes of high frequency tremor were detected. CENAPRED reported that during 23-25 October seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing emissions of water vapor, gas, and occasional small amounts of ash; cloud cover sometimes prevented observations of the crater. On 24 October an explosion at 2111 produced an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted SW. Eight low-intensity explosions on 26 October increased gas and steam emissions and produced slight amounts of ash. Incandescence from the crater was observed overnight during 26-27 October. An explosion was detected on 27 October; cloud cover prevented visual observations. An ash plume rose 1 km and drifted W on 28 October. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City and is North America's second-highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21 December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring towns and villages. (GVN/GVP) .
- Live cam of Popocatepetl -

MEXICO - Colima volcano

March 25th, 2014

Based on observations of satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 March small diffuse puffs rose from Colima to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted E, and dissipated almost 30 km away. A diffuse ash plume drifted N on 22 March. Based on observations of satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 12 March an ash plume from Colima drifted 25 km NNE and dissipated.Based on observations of satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 6 March a small ash cloud from Colima drifted NE and dissipated.Based on observations of satellite images and information from the Mexico MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 28 February an ash plume from Colima drifted 15 km SE at altitudes up to 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. On 1 March two emissions formed an ash plume that drifted over 35 km NNW. Three other plumes drifted NNW later that day. Based on observations of satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that a small ash cloud from Colima drifted slowly E and then SE on 7 February; the slow drift was indicative of a low altitude. Another small puff of gas with low amounts of ash drifted SE.The Washington VAAC reported intermittent ash emissions from Colima on 21 January: an ash puff drifted S at an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l., a second ash puff drifted SSW, and a third ash puff drifted S. Previously, the Washington VAAC reported that at 0730 on 17 November 2013 a possible ash emission from Colima produced a plume that drifted almost 20 km E. The Washington VAAC reported that between 2315 and 2345 on 9 November a bright thermal anomaly over Colima was detected in satellite images. A diffuse puff of gas and steam observed at 0115 on 10 November possibly contained ash.Previously, as of the 6th of April, the summit lava dome showed some collapses. (video). Following more than one year without activity, an explosion occurred on 6th of January 2013 generating a volcanic plume that rose to about 2500 m above the summit crater, then quickly drifted toward the small town of Atenquique located 20 km East of the volcano. (video). The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth. Colima's web video camera - Colima data base

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GUATEMALA - Fuego volcano

February 27th, 2014

INSIVUMEH reported that during 20-21 March explosions at Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 500-800 m above the crater and drifted 9-10 km W. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m high. Later on 21 March seismicity increased. The number of explosions also increased to 7-9 moderate to strong explosions per hour. Ash plumes rose 750-950 m and drifted 15 km WSW. Shock waves vibrated structures in areas 8 km away, including Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), and Morelia (9 km SW). During 22-23 March explosions generated ash plumes that rose 500-800 m and drifted 10-12 km S and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m high. Ashfall was reported in Santa Sofía, Panimaché, Panimaché II (8 km SW), and Morelia. On 25 March INSIVUMEH noted that activity remained high; 8-14 explosions per hour generated ash plumes that rose 850-1,050 m and drifted 12 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported in Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW) and surrounding areas. Explosions again vibrated structures in Santa Sofía, Panimaché, Panimaché II, and Morelia. Previously,INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-14 February explosions at Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 500-1,000 m above the crater and drifted 8-10 km N and NE. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m high, and avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda drainages. On 16 February explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500-700 m above the crater and drifted 10 km SW, S, and SE. Shock waves were detected 20-25 km away in Escuintla (20 km SSE), Santa Lucia Cotzulmaguapa (20 km SW), Yepocapa (8 km WNW), Alotengando (8 km W), and Antigua Guatemala (18 km NE). Explosions continued during 16-17 February; ash plumes rose 300-1,100 m above the crater and drifted 15-17 km. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m high, and avalanches descended the Taniluyá (SW), Ceniza, Trinidad, and Santa Teresa (S) drainages, reaching vegetated areas.INSIVUMEH reported that during 16-18 January explosions at Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 450-550 m above the crater. A lava flow in the Trinidad (S) drainage was 400 m long and generated avalanches. Other avalanches from the crater descended the Taniluya (SW), Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda (E) drainages. Explosions during 19-20 January produced ash plumes that rose 500-800 m and drifted 10 km SE. Incandescent material was ejected 100-150 high and avalanches continued to descend multiple drainages. In a special report, INSIVUMEH reported that on 7 January seismicity at Fuego increased. Explosions generated shock waves that vibrated structures more than 15 km away, and rumbling noises were audible 30 km away. Ash plumes rose 4.2 km above the crater and drifted 10 km SW. Lava flowed 500 m down the SW flank and produced avalanches that reached vegetated areas. During 9-10 January Vulcanian explosions generated shock waves detected within 10 km, ejected pulses of incandescent material 100 m high, and produced ash plumes that rose 300 m and drifted 10 km NE. Avalanches descended the Ceniza (SSW), Trinidad (S), and Taniluya (SW) drainages, and lava flows continued to descend the flanks. During 10-11 January explosions produced shock waves, and ash plumes that rose 650 m and drifted S, SW, and W. Crater incandescence was observed at night. During 12-13 January explosions caused shock waves that vibrated structures in Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Ceilán, La Rochela, and San Andrés Osuna. Ash plumes rose 350-650 m and drifted 10 km SW and W. Incandescent material was ejected 200 m above the crater and avalanches descended the Taniluya, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas (SE), and Honda (E) drainages. A 200-m-long lava flow traveled down the Trinidad drainage. Seismicity remained high on 13 January. Ashfall was reported in Panimaché, Morelia, and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). A 500-m-long lava flow remained active in the Ceniza drainage. From (INSIVUMEH) - Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3,763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the N, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene, after which growth of the modern Fuego volcano continued the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

GUATEMALA - Santa Maria - Santiaguito

March 20th, 2014

INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-14 March an explosion from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated an ash plume that rose 700 m and drifted SW, causing ashfall in areas within 3 km including La Florida and Monte Claro. During 15-18 March gas plumes rose as high as 150 m and small avalanches from lava flows descended the E and SE flanks.In a special bulletin on 11 February, INSIVUMEH noted that activity at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex had increased in recent days. Explosions from Caliente dome were accompanied by block avalanches and pyroclastic flows that traveled NE. Ash plumes rose 3.5 km and drifted over 15 km S and SW. Some explosions were audible in areas as far as15 km S. During 13-14 February explosions generated ash plumes that rose no more than 200 m above the crater. During 16-17 February the E part of the lava dome was incandescent and lava flows descended the E and W flanks. Gas plumes from Caliente dome rose 300 m. Previously,in another special report INSIVUMEH noted that a lava flow on the SE flank of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex became active; collapses from the lava-flow front generated avalanches and small pyroclastic flows that reached the base of the volcano. The report also noted that in recent months activity at Santa María was high, with explosions sometimes ranging from 40 to 45 explosions per day, generating ash plumes that rose 3-3.4 km. A change in wind direction on 23 January pushed the ash plume E and NE, causing ashfall in areas 10 km away. On 24 January explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500-700 m above the complex. A lava flow on the NE flank generated avalanches. (scientific blog about Santiaguito). The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santa Maria has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars

GUATEMALA - Pacaya volcano

March 13th, 2014

INSIVUMEH reported that during 6-7 and 9-10 March small explosions from Pacaya generated diffuse ash plumes. Minor avalanches descended the W flank. During 8-9 March lava flows were active, and white and gray steam plumes rose 200 m above the crater and drifted SE. INSIVUMEH reported that during 27-28 February gas-and-vapor plumes from Pacaya rose 400-500 m above the crater. Ejected tephra drifted 600 m S and SW. INSIVUMEH and CONRED noted increased activity on 2 March; at 0515 Strombolian activity at Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 800 m and lava flows descended the W flank. Explosions produced dense ash plumes that rose 2.5 km and drifted 15 km S, SW, and W. Ashfall was reported in El Rodeo (4 km WSW), Patrocinio (about 5 km W), and Francisco de Sales (5 km N). By the next day activity had decreased, but lava flows traveled as far as 1.3 km S. Ejected tephra again drifted 600 m S and SW.
INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-10 January explosions at Pacaya ejected lapilli up to 70 m above the crater. White and blue fumarolic plumes drifted SE, and the seismographs recorded constant tremor. On 11 January Strombolian activity was observed, and new craters on the E, S, and W flanks produced lava flows as long as 1.5 km. Activity from the main crater increased; explosions ejected tephra 75 m high and gas plumes rose 200-600 m. CONRED reported evacuations from Villa Canales (14 km NW), El Chupadero (2-2.5 km S), and San Vicente Pacaya (5 km NW). INSIVUMEH noted that RSAM values decreased throughout the day. Activity further decreased on 12 January. Explosions ejected tephra 100 m above the crater and gas plumes rose 200-300 m. Lava effusion, Strombolian activity, and seismicity declined. During 12-13 January lava effusion remained low and lava flows reached 2.8-3 km long. Bluish-white gas plumes rose 300 m. During 13-14 January Strombolian activity ejected lapilli as high as 70 m, and blue and white plumes drifted S. Previously, Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

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COSTA RICA - Arenal volcano

September 16th, 2013

OVSICORI-UNA conducted an overflight of Arenal on 14 September to measure gas emissions, and found low concentrations of carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen sulfide. An infrared camera detected a ring of thermal anomalies along the rim of Crater C.OVSICORI-UNA reported that plumes composed mainly of water vapor rose from the NE and SE edges of Arenal's Crater C on 8 and 9 September. Tremors indicative of hydrothermal and magmatic activity were detected on 8 September. The report noted that seismic and fumarolic activity had been very low in the past three years; however steam plumes associated with heavy rains had been frequent. The 1657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterised by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank. New webcam

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COSTA RICA- Poas Volcano

April 2nd, 2014

OVSICORI-UNA reported that a strong phreatic eruption from Poás was recorded at 1532 on 30 March. The explosion ejected water, steam, gases, sediment, and fragments of altered rock 150 m above the crater lake's surface. The report noted several small phreatic eruptions that ejected material less than 50 m high, as well as large gas bubbles and vapor in the middle of the lake, during February and March.OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 0800 on 25 February officials at the Parque Nacional Volcán Poás noted that the gray crater lake had convection cells and weak fumarolic activity at the S edge of the lake around a cryptodome. At 1203 a strong phreatic explosion from Poás was recorded by webcams at the N end of the lake. The explosion ejected water, steam, gas, sediment, and rock fragments over 400 m above the lake's surface. Most of the material fell back into the lake, and onto the W, N, and E parts of the crater walls. Fumarolic activity around the cryptodome and lake convection both increased after the explosion. Previously, two other smallest phreatic explosions already occured on 14th and 21st of February. The lake of Poás currently presents a temperature between 45 and 50°C and a pH around 0, sometimes negative. The temperature of the fumaroles of the dome are around 400°C these days and were above 500°C in May 2013 and above 800°C in 2011. Previously, OVSICORI-UNA reported that during May temperatures of the cryptodome at Poás were high enough to produce nighttime incandescence. Maximum temperatures of 575 and 450 degrees Celsius were recorded on 8 and 30 May, respectively. Activity of the lake was very similar to that reported for May 2012, characterized by sporadic phreatic eruptions and a slow decline in the water level. On 8 May 2013 the water level was 0.5 m below the level measured on 8 May 2012. Phreatic eruptions occurred at 1100 on 1 May, at 1700 on 8 May, and at 1125 and 1510 on 28 May. Fumarolic activity was variable. During the early morning hours on 2 and 3 June, residents reported a gas plume rising 1 km above the crater floor. OVSICORI-UNA noted that recent plumes were high-temperature (450-575 degrees Celsius) and rich in sulfur dioxide, giving the plumes a bluish-white color. Previously past year - OVSICORI-UNA reported that on October 27, 2012 at 5:57 pm a phreatic eruption at Lake Poás ultra-acid of moderate energy was recorded by seismographs OVSICORI-A located at the top of the volcano. This eruption produced the ejection of agua, sulfur-rich sediments and rock fragments out of the lake. Hours earlier, at 11:20 am, there was a small phreatic eruption was also recorded by seismographs. According to a news article, local residents heard a loud rumble at about 0100 on 28 October; a phreatic eruption ejected sediment 500 m above the lake, and produced ashfall several hundreds of meters away. Previously, OVSICORI-UNA reported that phreatic eruptions at Poás occurred on 6, 15, 20 and 26 May. The eruption on 15 May 2012 was preceded by about 6 hours of very-low amplitude harmonic tremor. Administrators of the Poás Volcano National Park witnessed the eruption and reported that sediment, water, rock fragments, and plumes were ejected 500 m above the lake surface. The level of the lake dropped ~0.9 m between 8 and 29 May. Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2,708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7,500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. Web camera from OVSICORI-UNA.

COSTA RICA - Turrialba volcano

July 24th , 2013

OVSICORI-UNA reported significant seismic activity at Turrialba starting on 14 July. Low-frequency signals indicating fluid movement grew from an average of less than 200 events per day to over 600 events on 14 July,
reaching a peak of activity with over 1,000 events on 15 July. Low-frequency tremor was detected during 18-19 July. Elevated seismicity remained at least through the report posting on 20 July. No morphological
changes at the surface were observed. OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 29 May a pilot flying past Turrialba about 40 km away observed a blackish plume. Officials from the Parque Nacional Volcán Turrialba observed a gas plume that was slightly darker than usual between 0730 and 0745; seismic records showed no abnormal activity at those times or during the previous 48 hours. In addition, web camera images showed no noticeable ash emissions since 23 May. Gas plumes over 750 degrees Celsius were emitted from Boca 2010 (on the W wall) and Boca 2012 (on the E wall). The plume from Boca 2010 was whiter than the plume emitted from Boca 2012, mainly due to the difference in the ratio of magmatic gases and aerosols, and no ash. On 4 June slight ashfall was reported in Pacayas and San Pablo in Oreamuno de Cartago (25 km SW). An observer in the National Park noted that between 1400 and 1500 gas emissions were slightly stronger and also grayish. OVSICORI-UNA reported that an eruption from Turrialba's West Crater on 21 May 2013 was preceded by seismic activity characterized by more than 150 volcanic earthquakes per day since 18 April. Increased gas emissions were detected on 20 May, producing a sky-blue plume visible from nearby areas. Hybrid earthquakes also increased and became numerous at 0452 on 21 May. Continuous harmonic tremor followed and then increased at 0720. Eruptions from West Crater occurred at 0830 and after 1100 from two vents which opened in January 2010 (Boca 2010, on the W wall) and January 2012 (Boca 2012, on the E wall). The eruptions generated ash plumes that rose more than 500 m; ashfall was reported in the area of Picada (N), and in San José (35 km WSW) and Heredia (38 km W) of Ipís de Guadalupe, Goicoechea (28 km WSW), la Fazio, Zetillal (43 km W), San Isidro-San Pedro de Coronado, and San Luis de Santo Domingo (28 km W). At around 1200 ash emissions ceased and seismicity decreased.
Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.INFORMATION from OVSICORI - SVE Volcanic fieldtrip on group request.

COSTA RICA - Rincon de la Vieja volcano

February 28th, 2013

OVSICORI-UNA received reports at 0530 on 26 February 2013 of pulsing white plumes rising from Rincon de la Vieja's active crater about every four minutes. The seismic records showed no signals associated with a phreatic eruption or sudden gas output. Cloud cover prevented views of the active crater during an overflight later that day, however clear views of the N and S flanks and areas SW showed no changes.
Previous 2012 news . At 2pm (20:00 GMT) on sat 14th april 2012, OVSICORI reported that a small phreatic eruption took place within and around the hot, acidic, active lake of the volcano. Witnesses from nearby communities; north of the volcano reported some deposition of sediments along the outer north flanks of the main active crater. No communities, visitors or even lower streams were affected by such ejection.Previously, OVSICORI-UNA reported that seismic data revealed two eruptions on 19 and 20 February 2012 from Rincón de la Vieja's active crater. Two more eruptions also occurred on 23 February. Explosions were heard in Guachipelin (11 km SW) between 0400 and 0430.
Rincon de la Vieja, a composite stratovolcano in Northwestern Costa Rica forms a NW-trending ridge consisting of several eruptive centers that have coalesced through time. Elevations of the individual cones range from 1670 to 1920 meters and nine craters are readily identified by their topographic expression. Numerous phreatic eruptions have occurred since 1851 (as recently as November, 1995), all from the Active Crater. The last major eruption involving juvenile magma occurred at ~3,500 ybp, producing the Rio Blanco tephra deposit. Ash, pumice, and lithics ejected during this eruption were deposited in a highly asymmetrical dispersal pattern WSW of the Active Crater, indicating strong easterly prevailing tradewinds at the time of the eruption. Historical descriptions of the summit crater morphology suggest that conditions there have changed little over the past century.
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NICARAGUA - Telica volcano

September 26th, 2013

As of the 25th of September, INETER reported that a moderate explosive activity occurred from the summit crater at 12:50 AM GMT. An eruptive plume rose to about 1500 m above the crater. Telica, one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua, is a group of overlapping cones and craters on a broad NW line. The most prominent vent is a 700 m wide and 120 m deep double crater at the summit. Its southern summit crater has been the source of Telica's recent eruptions. The older Santa Clara vent at the SW end of the edifice erupted in 16th century and is now covered with vegetation. Another vent El Liston, immediately SE of Telica, is another volcanic edifice with several nested craters. Fumaroles and boiling mudpots are found at Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica. This prominent geothermal area is popular among tourists and the site of nearby geothermal exploration. (GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Cerro Negro volcano

June 13th, 2013

INETER reported that the seismic station at the base of Cerro Negro recorded the onset of tremor at 0845 on 4 June. Seismicity fluctuated; Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement (RSAM) values increased to 60
units, from an average value of 14. From 1535 to 1731 the network recorded 49 earthquakes that were too small to be located. Central America's youngest volcano, Cerro Negro, was born in April 1850 and has since been one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua. Cerro Negro is the largest, southernmost, and most recent of a group of four youthful cinder cones constructed along a NNW-SSE-trending line in the central Marrabios Range 5 km NW of Las Pilas volcano. Strombolian-to-subPlinian eruptions at Cerro Negro at intervals of a few years to several decades have constructed a roughly 250-m-high basaltic cone and an associated lava field that is constrained by topography to extend primarily to the NE and SW. Cone and crater morphology have varied significantly during its eruptive history. Although Cerro lies in a relatively unpopulated area, its occasional heavy ashfalls have caused damage to crops and buildings in populated regions of the Nicaraguan depression (GVN/GVP) - INETER

NICARAGUA - San Cristobal volcano

February 10th, 2014

INETER reported that a gas emission with small amounts of ash rose from San Cristóbal between 0641 and 0850 on 4 February. Although there was no increase noted, the report stated that seismicity decreased to background levels. By the afternoon sulfur dioxide emission values were 2,000-3,000 tonnes per day, the normal levels, and on 7 February they were 1,000 tonnes per day INETER reported that seismic tremor at San Cristóbal increased at 0340 on 17 January; RSAM values increased from a baseline of 70 to 460 units. Twelve gas emissions were observed between 1259 and 1315, and RSAM climbed to 649 units. A report at 1700 noted that RSAM values decreased to 100 and no additional gas emissions were observed. The next day, 18 January, RSAM values fluctuated between 90 and 190 units.Previously, INETER reported that on 7 June 2013 seven explosions at San Cristóbal ejected gas and ash, and were detected by the seismic station located on the W flank. The explosions occurred at 0615, 0645, 0653, 0911, 1137, 1139, and 1143, and were also observed by civil defense and INETER staff. The largest explosion, at 1139, generated a plume that rose 100 m. Sulfur dioxide emissions, which had been low, increased. A report later that afternoon stated that gas-and-ash explosions decreased, but Real-time Seismic-Amplitude easurement (RSAM) values almost tripled to between 80 and 100 units due to increased tremor. INETER noted that tremor is frequently detected at San Cristóbal, and for the public not to be alarmed. A small lahar occurred at 1710. INETER reported that on 26 December four explosions at San Cristóbal produced ash plumes that were observed in satellite imagery drifting W and reaching the Pacific Ocean. Ashfall was reported in areas within 5-6 km of the volcano. The next day explosions produced ash plumes that rose 200 m above the crater. On 28 December gas-and-ash plumes drifted NW, W, and SW, reaching the Pacific Ocean and the coast of El Salvador. Explosions were detected until 1100. Sulfur dioxide emissions continued and drifted W and SW; the emissions decreased the next day. As of the 25th of December, INETER reported that on 25 December at 1800 seismicity at San Cristóbal increased. A series of explosions starting at 2000 produced ash-and-gas plumes that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted SW and likely W. Ash fell near the volcano. Seismicity increased significantly the next day. Explosions continued to generate ash-and-gas plumes that rose 2.5 km above the crater and drifted N, W, and SW as far as the Pacific Ocean (30-40 km SW and W, respectively). Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Puerto Morazan, Jiquilillo, Aposentillo, Tonalá, El Viejo, Santa Marta, and the cities of Chinandega, Chichigalpa, Corinth, and Realejo. According to news articles, some families near the volcano self-evacuated.(video). The San Cristóbal volcanic complex, consisting of five principal volcanic edifices, forms the NW end of the Marrabios Range. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.San Cristobal's last such activity occurred three years ago. GVN/GVP - NOTE : a SVE fieldtrip in Nicaragua is planned for November 2014- registration open here

NICARAGUA - Apoyeque caldera

September 12th, 2012

INETER reported that a seismic swarm near Apoyeque started at 1627 on 6 September in an area between the volcano and Managua (less than 10 km SW). At the time of the report, almost four hours after the start of the event, 17 earthquakes had been detected; three events were M 2.3-3.7, at depths ranging from 2.8 to 6 km. No earthquakes were recorded on 9 September. The Apoyeque volcanic complex occupies the broad Chiltepe Peninsula, which extends into south-central Lake Managua. The peninsula is part of the Chiltepe pyroclastic shield volcano, one of three large ignimbrite shields on the Nicaraguan volcanic front. A 2.8-km wide, 400-m-deep, lake-filled caldera whose floor lies near sea level truncates the low Apoyeque volcano, which rises only about 500 m above the lake shore. The caldera was the source of a thick mantle of dacitic pumice that blankets the surrounding area. The 2.5 x 3 km wide lake-filled Xiloá (Jiloá) maar, is located immediately SE of Apoyeque. The Talpetatl lava dome was constructed between Laguna Xiloá and Lake Managua. Pumiceous pyroclastic flows from Laguna Xiloá were erupted about 6100 years ago and overlie deposits of comparable age from the Masaya plinian eruption. (GVN/GVP)

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El SALVADOR - San Miguel volcano

February 13th, 2014

As of the 13th of February, SNET reported that a new moderate explosive activity occurred yesterday 12th of February at 4:44 PM. The eruptive phase - duration about 10 mn - produced a volcanic plume that rose to about 500 m high above the volcano. SNET reported that during 15-20 January RSAM values at San Miguel fluctuated between 14 and 97, except for a period starting at 1500 on 19 January where the values were 102-215. Gas emissions were haracterized by light gray plumes that rose 100-250 m above the crater and drifted S and SW.SNET reported that during 8-10 January activity at San Miguel was low. The number of seismic events fluctuated but remained at low levels, sometimes lower than values recorded before the eruption on 29 December 2013. Gas emissions were also low and characterized by light gray plumes that rose 100-150 m above the crater and drifted S. RSAM values and sulfur dioxide emissions increased for a period of time during 11-12 January, but decreased again to low levels.SNET reported that sulfur dioxide gas flux in tonnes per day from San Miguel was high: 2,200 on 31 December 2013, 1,740 on 1 January 2014, and 700 on 2 January. The report noted that the measurement on 2 January was likely low due to changes in wind patterns that day. During 1-2 January RSAM values ranged from 17 to 28 units. On 5 January gas plumes rose as high as 150 m above the crater. The next day light-gray gas plumes rose 200 m and drifted SW. RSAM values during 5-6 January were between 15 and 33 units. According to news articles, an explosive eruption at San Miguel that began at 1030 on 29 December prompted an evacuation of 1,400-2,600 people. A dense ash plume rose from the crater. Based on wind data, the Washington VAAC reported that the ash plume rose to an altitude of 9.7 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE at higher altitudes and W at lower altitudes. SNET reported that sulfur dioxide flux was 637 tonnes per day on 29 December and 1,244 tonnes per day on 30 December. During 30-31 December seismicity decreased significantly. Through the morning of 31 December emissions had consisted of gas and slight amounts of ash that drifted WSW. . The symmetrical cone of San Miguel volcano, one of the most active in El Salvador, rises from near sea level to form one of the country's most prominent landmarks. A broad, deep crater that has been frequently modified by historical eruptions (recorded since the early 16th century) caps the truncated summit of the towering volcano, which is also known locally as Chaparrastique. Radial fissures on the flanks of the basaltic volcano have fed a series of fresh lava flows, including several erupted during the 17th-19th centuries that reached beyond the base of the volcano on the N, W, and SE sides. The SE-flank lava flows are the largest and form broad sparsely vegetated lava fields. GVN - (SNET)

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COLOMBIA - Galeras volcano

April 22nd, 2013

INGEOMINAS reported that during 15-21 May seismicity at Galeras was at a low level; during 19-20 May earthquakes with magnitudes 2.6 or less were concentrated in an area 3 km SW at depths near 4 km. Gas plumes rose 500 m above the crater and contained small amounts of ash during 15-16 and 20-21 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). INGEOMINAS reported that during 10-16 April 2913 earthquakes at Galeras were located in various areas as far as 13 km from the crater, at depths no greater than 14 km and with maximum magnitudes of 2. Moderate levels of sulfur dioxide were detected; plumes drifted NW. Cameras recorded ash emissions all week, especially on 9, 11, 12, and 14 April, when pulsating activity produced plumes that drifted W. Plumes rose no more than 1 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").INGEOMINAS reported that during 30 October-6 November 2012 seismicity at Galeras fluctuated but was slightly lower compared to the previous week. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were low. Cameras around Galeras recorded gas-and-ash plumes rising from the crater on 30 October and 1 November. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. Webcam image

COLOMBIA - Nevado del Ruiz

April 18th, 2013

INGEOMINAS reported that during 13-14 April seismicity associated with fluid movement beneath Nevado del Ruiz was detected along with volcano-tectonic earthquakes. The earthquakes were located NW of Arenas
Crater at depths between 5 and 9 km; the largest was a M 2.6, felt by officials of Los Nevados National Park in the area of Brisas (50 km SW). During the early morning of 14 April webcams recorded a gas-and-ash plume that rose 630 m and drifted NW. On 15 April a M 3 volcano-tectonic earthquake was located NW of Arenas Crater at a depth of 6.6 km. Later that day a M 2.5 volcano-tectonic earthquake was located again NW of Arenas Crater at a depth of 5.78 km. On 16 April at 0714 a M 3.2 earthquake was located in the same area at a depth of 6.22 km. Earthquakes continued to be felt by officials in the National Park. A gas-and-steam plume rose 1 km above the crater and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions were significant and deformation was detected. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow;"changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 16 January a diffuse plume from Nevado del Ruiz possibly contained ash and drifted almost 55 km NE. A thermal anomaly was also detected. INGEOMINAS reported significant emissions of mostly gas and steam during 14-20 January; plumes rose 1.6 km above the crater and drifted E and SE, and then W during the later part of the week. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and reported seismic activity, the Washington VAAC issued a notice about a possible eruption from Nevado del Ruiz on 15 November. Cloud cover prevented observations of a possible ash plume but elevated seismicity was detected. A few hours later seismicity decreased and a faint thermal anomaly was detected. About six hours after that seismic activity remained low and no anomaly was detected. According to INGEOMINAS, on 5 September 2012 the Observatorio Vulcanológico and Sismológico de Manizales reported that seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz significantly decreased, both in the number and magnitude of the earthquakes. Field measurements and analysis of satellite imagery continued to show a significant amount of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere. A steam-and-gas plume rose 400 m and drifted W. Later that day, INGEOMINAS decreased the Alert Level to III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity. According to INGEOMINAS, reported that during 30-31 August 2012 variations in volcanic tremor amplitude were detected at Nevado del Ruiz, possibly associated with continuing gas and ASH emissions. Seismic activity was low during 2-4 September. Cloud cover mostly prevented observations of the volcano; a white gas plume rose 200 m on 4 September and drifted W and SW. During 3-4 September field measurements and analysis of satellite imagery showed a significant amount of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere. The Alert Level remained at II (Orange; "eruption likely within days or weeks").
Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers >200 sq km. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the summit caldera of an older Ruiz volcano. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks of Nevado del Ruiz. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption. (GVN/GVP)

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PERU - Ubinas volcano

April 10th, 2014

IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) reported that during 29 March-2 April seismicity at Ubinas increased significantly. The increase began at 1000 on 29 March with energetic tremor (indicating magma ascent and degassing) and small explosions. On 2 April harmonic tremor was detected. Gas-and-ash plumes rose 0.9-2.2 km above the crater and drifted SE and E. Minor ashfall was reported in Tonohaya (7 km SSE), San Miguel, and Ubinas (6.5 km SSE). Based on webcam views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 3 April gas-and-steam plumes possibly containing ash rose 6.1-7.3 km (20,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipated around the crater. IGP-OVA noted that on 4 April there were 23 explosions detected; ash plumes drifted S and SE. During 5-7 April explosions generated ash plumes that
rose as high as 2 km and drifted S and SW. During 7-8 April explosions also ejected incandescent fragments, up to 20 cm in diameter, no more than 1 km away. Ash plumes rose as high as 3 km. IGP's Observatorio Volcanologico de Arequipa (IGP-OVA) reported that volcanologists visiting Ubinas on 19 March observed that lava had continued erupt, covering the 120-m-wide crater floor. Seismic signals detected during 20-21 and 23 March indicating increased lava emissions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater almost daily during 10-25 March; ashfall was reported on 25 March in nearby villages and noises from the volcano were audible in areas as far as 6 km SE. INGEMMET reported that on 26 March gas-and-ash emissions rose 1.2-1.7 km and drifted NE, E, and SW. Small amounts of fine ash fell within 4 km of the crater. Ash emissions on 27 March caused ashfall in Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Querapi (4 km S), and Tonohaya (7 km SSE). Rockslides traveled down the SE flank. On 28 March residents of Ubinas reported noises from the volcano. Seismicity increased the next day and was characterized by long-period earthquakes and harmonic tremor. On 30 March gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 1.2 km. A news article stated that residents of Querapi had started to evacuate. A low-energy explosion occurred at 0743 on 31 March and produced an ash plume that rose 1.2 km. More low-energy explosions followed: at 1119, 1306, 1518, and 1616. The explosions produced ash plumes that rose 1-1.8 km. Ashfall was reported in Ubinas and Querapi. In a 23 March news article IGP volcanologists noted that the seismic network at Ubinas indicated a large output of lava during 10-11 March; sulfur dioxide emissions also increased during this period. Lava in the crater was incandescent. Based on analysis of satellite images and the INGEMMET web cam, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an emission of gas and steam on 23 March possibly contained diffuse ash. The plume drifted NE before dissipating about 55 km away. The next day another steam-and-gas emission possibly containing some ash drifted NE. On 25 March Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that in the previous days bluish white gas plumes rose 1.3 km above the crater rim and sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 2,200 tons per day. The report also noted that lava had continued to erupt in recent weeks. Previously, based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that diffuse plumes from Ubinas, possibly containing ash, drifted WNW on 13 March and SW on 15 March. A small, 1.2-km-wide caldera that cuts the top of Ubinas, Peru's most active volcano, gives it a truncated appearance. Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Peru. The upper slopes of the stratovolcano, composed primarily of Pleistocene andesitic lava flows, steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include some of Holocene age. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor explosive eruptions.

PERU - Misti volcano

January 23rd, 2014

Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that seismicity at El Misti increased during January, and a seismic swarm consisting of 119 volcano-tectonic events was detected during 14-15 January. Despite the increase, activity remained at a low level. El Misti, Peru's most well-known volcano, is a symmetrical andesitic stratovolcano with nested summit craters that towers above the city of Arequipa. The modern symmetrical cone, constructed within a small 1.5 x 2 km wide summit caldera that formed between about 13,700 and 11,300 years ago, caps older Pleistocene volcanoes that underwent caldera collapse about 50,000 years ago. A large scoria cone has grown with the 830-m-wide outer summit crater of El Misti. At least 20 tephra-fall deposits and numerous pyroclastic-flow deposits have been documented during the past 50,000 years, including a pyroclastic flow that traveled 12 km to the south about 2000 years ago. El Misti's most recent activity has been dominantly pyroclastic, and strong winds have formed a parabolic dune field of volcanic ash extending up to 20 km downwind. An eruption in the 15th century affected Inca inhabitants living near the volcano. Some reports of historical eruptions may represent in creased fumarolic activity. Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and (GVN/GVP)

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CHILE - ARGENTINA - Copahue volcano

April 6th, 2014

On 4 April OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Copahue continued to fluctuate at an elevated level however did not indicate an impending eruption. The Alert Level was lowered to Yellow. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that cameras installed around Copahue recorded white gas plumes rising 100-600 m above the crater during 25-29 March; clouds prevented observations on 30 March. Sulfur dioxide measurements in tons per day were 270 on 26 March, 1,400 on 27 March, 2,000 on 28 March, 1,400 on 29 March, and 920 on 30 March. The Alert Level remained at Orange.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that a gradual increase of volcanic tremor was detected at Copahue starting at 0230 on 20 March; from 0230 to 1100 the signal fluctuated and intense periods lasted up to 3 hours. Cameras showed minimal activity at the surface while concentrations of sulfur dioxide increased. The Alert Level was raised to Orange. Residents and visitors were prohibited within a 3-km radius of the active crater. During 21-24 March gas plumes rose at most 500 m and drifted E. Seismicity continued to increase. As of the 21st of March, SERNAGEOMIN that an increasing of the seismic activity occurred during the past day that could be a precursor of a new volcanic activity. Alert level was raised to orange. Previously - Based on satellite images, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 22 November a 5-km-wide steam plume possibly containing ash extended over 35 km SE of Copahue. A few hours later the webcam recorded a possible ash plume drifting SE at low altitudes. Based on ODVAS webcam views and satellite images, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 15 November a low-level diffuse plume from Copahue drifted almost 40 km NW. Later that night a thermal anomaly was detected by satellite and light from a full moon allowed webcam views of a possible ash emission. The next day steam-and-gas emissions were observed with the webcam. The Alert Level remained at Yellow. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 16-31 October the webcam installed 18 km SW of Copahue recorded steady fumarolic activity from Del Agrio Crater, which produced plumes that rose 1.8 km above the crater rim. On 28 October the plume changed color, suggesting ash content, and was accompanied by a small explosion recorded at 1252. The Alert Level remained at Yellow.Previously, based on web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 26 June steam-and-gas emissions from Copahue possibly contained ash. Ash was not detected in clear satellite images. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 11-12 June seismicity at Copahue had significantly decreased with respect to the previous 24-hour period; the majority of the signals were low-magnitude hybrid events, detected at an average rate of one per hour. White plumes recorded by a web camera rose at most 100 m and drifted E. Seismicity remained low during 12-13 June; an average of one event per hour continued to be detected. Meteorological cloud cover prevented views of the crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 4-11 June white plumes recorded by a web camera rose at most 200 m above Copahue and drifted N and E. During 4-5 June seismicity had decreased with respect to the previous 24-hour period; the majority of the signals were low-magnitude hybrid events, detected at an average rate of 42 per hour. During 5-6 June seismicity was similar to the previous period, with an average of 50 events per hour being detected. Seismicity increased during 6-7 June; an average of 84 events per hour was detected. During 7-8 June seismicity fluctuated with a high average of 124 events per hour then decreased to a low average of 8 events per hour; the overall average was 62 events per hour. Seismicity decreased during 8-9 June; only 5 events per hour were detected. On 9 June OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN scientists aboard an overflight to locate sites for the installation of three additional seismic stations observed fumaroles inside Del Agrio Crater, and gas emissions that rose at most 200 m and drifted NE. They noted that no lava dome was present. During 9-10 June the number of earthquakes increased to an average of 20 events per hour. The Alert Level remained at Orange.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 28-29 May seismicity at Copahue had decreased with respect to the previous 24-hour period; the majority of the signals were low-magnitude hybrid events, detected at an average rate of 127 per hour. Meteorological cloud cover prevented visual observations. During 29-30 May seismicity again decreased; earthquakes were detected at a rate of 40 events per hour. A camera near the volcano recorded a white plume that rose 100-200 m and drifted SE. The seismic network continued to record a downward trend during 30-31 May, with 120 events per hour detected during the night. By the time of the release of the report at 1700 on 31 May about 20 events per hour were being detected. Visual observations were again inhibited due to weather conditions. About 42 events per hour were recorded during 31 May-1 June, about 52 events per hour were detected during 1-2 June, and about 102 events per hour were detected during 2-3 June. A small plume rose 80 m above the crater during 2-3 June. ONEMI reported on 3 June that about 280 people, of 2,440 people, remained within the 25-km evacuation zone. That same day SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level to Orange. On 27 May OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN noted that the intensity and type of seismicity observed in recent days, in conjunction with the deformation data, suggested the rise of a magmatic body to shallow depths. The Alert Level was raised to Red. According to ONEMI, the government ordered a precautionary evacuation of the 2,440 people living within a radius of 25 km. During 27-28 May seismic signals were detected at an average rate of 130 events per hour. Cloud cover prevented visual observations. ONEMI noted that 44 people had evacuated by 28 May. On 24 May cameras recorded white plumes that mostly rose 250-400 m; at 1900 a plume rose 1.9 km, and another drifted NE. Seismicity increased sharply during 24-25 May. The seismic network detected 8,556 low-magnitude earthquakes with an average of 356 events per hour, and a gap of a few seconds between events. Seismicity increased again during 25-26 May, with an average of 455 events per hour, and then decreased to 269 events per hour during 26-27 May. An explosion on 26 May generated crater incandescence and a plume that rose 400 m. Weather conditions often prevented views during 25-27 May. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that a gradual increase of seismicity at Copahue had been detected since 15 May. A camera recorded periodic small explosions and corresponding ash emissions, along with nighttime incandescence. On 19 May satellite images detected increased sulfur dioxide emissions, which produced a plume that rose 300 m above the crater and drifted SE. Images from 20 and 22 May showed large plumes drifting 100 km SE that appeared translucent gray, suggesting a significant presence of volcanic gases. On 23 May the Alert Level was raised to Orange. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that an explosion from Copahue at 1015 on 7 May recorded by a webcam produced a gas, steam, and ash plume that rose 350 m and drifted SE. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and a pilot observation, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 28 March steam-and-gas emissions with small amounts of ash rose from Copahue. Previously, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 29 January-4 February the web camera near Copahue recorded white gas plumes rising 350-1,550 m above the crater and drifting E and SE. Seismicity fluctuated but mostly remained at low levels. The Alert Level was lowered to Yellow on 4 February. The Buenos Aires VAAC noted that although a pilot reported an ash plume between the altitudes of 3-4.6 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. on 4 February, no ash was detected in mostly clear satellite images. The VAAC also noted that steam emissions with possible ash were recorded by the OVDAS webcam. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 22-28 January the web camera near Copahue recorded white gas plumes rising 100-800 m above the crater and drifting E and SE. Seismicity remained at low levels. An explosion at 2355 on 22 January produced a gas plume (with no ash) that rose 1.45 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that the web camera near Copahue recorded white gas plumes rising 250-1,300 m above the crater during 15-18 January and drifting W and NW. Seismicity remained at low levels. The Alert Level was lowered from Orange to Yellow on 18 January. A seismic swarm of long-period earthquakes started at 1420 on 22 January. The earthquakes were initially deep but became shallower, and volcano-tectonic events were more frequently detected, until the next report posted at 2200. Web camera and satellite images did not show any changes. The Alert Level was raised to Orange. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that the web camera near Copahue recorded white gas plumes rising 0.9-1.5 km above the crater during 9-15 January and drifting NNE, E, ESE, and SSE. Incandescence from the crater was observed on some nights. Satellite images showed plumes drifting 10 km E and SSE during 10-12 January. The Alert Level remained at Orange. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity at Copahue during 31 December, and 2 and 4-5 January indicated magma movement focused at 4 km below the crater and moving to shallower depths. On 5 January seismicity increased as well as gray emissions observed with a web camera. The Alert Level was raised to Orange. Incandescence on the crater was noted during 5-6 January, and plumes rose 200 m above the crater and drifted E during 5-7 January. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 25-29 December white plumes observed with a web camera installed near Copahue rose 450-850 m and drifted NE and E. Plumes detected in satellite imagery drifting 16 km NE on 26 December. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night during 26-28 December; explosions were detected during 27-28 December. Seismicity had decreased during the reporting period. The Alert Level was lowered to Yellow on 29 December. As of the 25th of December, SERNAGEOMIN reported that the activity decreased to low values and tremor was not detected. Cloud cover obscured web camera views. Diffuse plumes visible in satellite images drifted 70 km SE. On 24 December seismicity decreased. The camera recorded crater incandescence which increased to heights of 200 m with explosions. Incandescent blocks were again ejected with Strombolian explosions. Plumes rose 300 m and drifted SE; they were mostly white, but turned dark with ash during explosions. The Alert Level was lowered to Orange. On 23 December incandescence from the crater increased with explosions, as high as 450 m. Strombolian activity ejected incandescent blocks, and mostly white plumes turned dark during explosions. The plumesrose 1 km and drifted SE. As of the 23rd of December in the morning , SERNAGEOMIN reported that an eruptive activity started on Saturday 22nd of December at 10:45 am (local time) at the Copahue volcano. An explosive activity started and a volcanic plume rose at about 1500 m high and drifted 300 km toward the Southeast according to MODIS satellite image taken at 2:45 pm (TU). Following this phreatic phase, magmatic activity started and local scientific authorities decreted alert level orrange then Red. No evacuation was planned for the moment. Scientists aboard an overflight observed a low plume rising 1.5 km above a vent in Del Agrio Crater, in the same area as the previous eruption in 2000, and drifting SE. The scientists noted that at 1600 the emissions changed from ash to gas. Later that day web cameras showed incandescence from the crater reflecting in the clouds. The Alert Level was raised to Red, and people within a 15-km-radius and along drainages were warned about potential increases in activity or lahars. Volcán Copahue is an elongated composite cone constructed along the Chile-Argentina border within the 6.5 x 8.5 km wide Trapa-Trapa caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.4 million years ago near the NW margin of the 20 x 15 km Pliocene Caviahue (Del Agrio) caldera. The eastern summit crater, part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters, contains a briny, acidic 300-m-wide crater lake (also referred to as El Agrio or Del Agrio) and displays intense fumarolic activity. Acidic hot springs occur below the eastern outlet of the crater lake, contributing to the acidity of the Río Agrio, and another geothermal zone is located within Caviahue caldera about 7 km NE of the summit. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Copahue since the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions from the crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments. The previous eruption in June 2011 of Chile's Puyehue volcano interfered with air travel in much of the southern cone of South America and as far away as Australia. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcano

February 27th, 2014

Based on analyses of satellite images, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 24 February a diffuse plume possibly containing ash from the Cordón Caulle rift zone, part of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex, was lifted from the surface by the wind. Previously, based on analyses of satellite images, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 16 January steam-and-gas emissions with minor amounts of ash rose from the Cordón Caulle rift zone, part of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex, to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. The plume quickly dissipated. The Alert Level remained at Green (lowest on a four-color scale). The Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex (PCCVC) is a large NW-SE-trending late-Pleistocene to Holocene basaltic-to-rhyolitic transverse volcanic chain SE of Lago Ranco. The 1799-m-high Pleistocene Cordillera Nevada caldera lies at the NW end, separated from Puyehue stratovolcano at the SE end by the Cordón Caulle fissure complex. The Pleistocene Mencheca volcano with Holocene flank cones lies NE of Puyehue. The basaltic-to-rhyolitic Puyehue volcano is the most geochemically diverse of the PCCVC. The flat-topped, 2236-m-high Puyehue volcano was constructed above a 5-km-wide caldera and is capped by a 2.4-km-wide summit caldera of Holocene age. Lava flows and domes of mostly rhyolitic composition are found on the eastern flank of Puyehue. Historical eruptions originally attributed to Puyehue, including major eruptions in 1921-22 and 1960, are now known to be from the Cordón Caulle rift zone. The Cordón Caulle geothermal area, occupying a 6 x 13 km wide volcano-tectonic depression, is the largest active geothermal area of the southern Andes volcanic zone. Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)

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Volcan Popocatepetl - 19 December 2000 CENAPRED

JAPAN - Asosan volcano (Kyushu)

February 22nd, 2014

JMA reported that a very small explosion from Asosan's Nakadake Crater occurred on 19 February. An off-white plume rose 200 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. During fieldwork on 21 February volcanologists noted that sulfur dioxide emissions remained high. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).JMA reported that a very small explosion from Asosan's Nakadake Crater occurred on 16 February. An off-white plume rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).According to a JMA report, volcanologists conducting a field survey of Asosan's Nakadake Crater on 5 February detected decreased sulfur dioxide emissions and fewer volcanic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Based on pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 29 January an ash plume from Asosan rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Later that day a plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. JMA reported that a very small explosion from Naka-daka Crater occurred on 31 January. An off-white plume rose 100 m above the crater rim and drifted S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that seismicity at Asosan increased from 21 to 23 January, and then decreased on 24 January. On 23 January a volcanologist observed ash plumes rising from the central vent on the crater floor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). On 27 December 2013 JMA raised the Alert Level for Asosan to 2 (on a scale of 1-5) because volcanic tremor amplitude had been increasing since 20 December. However, on 2 January 2014 the amplitude rapidly decreased. Sulfur dioxide emissions were 1,200 tons per day during 2-9 January and 1,500 tons on 10 January. Volcanic tremor amplitude increased between 0800 and 1900 on 12 January. At 1215 on 13 January a very small eruption from Naka-dake Crater generated a grayish white plume that rose 600 m and drifted S, producing ashfall downwind. The 24-km-wide Aso caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 80,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Naka-dake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 AD. The Naka-dake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 AD. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic Strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. The summit crater of Naka-dake is accessible by toll road and cable car, and is one of Kyushu's most popular tourist destinations. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Nishinoshima island ( Izu-Bonin islands)

January 24th, 2014

Photo and video posted by the Japan Coast Guard showed that on 20 January the Niijima portion of Nishinoshima was larger than the original island; the two islands had merged on 24 December 2013. White and brown plumes rose from Niijima and the water to the SW was discolored. According to a news article, since mid-December lava flows from the newly formed Niijima island expanded NE towards Nishino-shima, and on 24 December the two islands joined. The Niijima area was about 500 m long and 450 m wide. As of the 12th of December, JMA reported that strombolian explosions ended and only degassing generating a small plume above the crater was visible during the past days. However, it seems that a lava flow is still active on the flank of the volcano. As of the 28th of November. JMA reported that strombolian activity is still continuing. During a japanese overflight on 24th of November, a lava flow was visible on the cone of the volcano. Thislava flows from the crater extended to the coastline of the island, and bombs continued to be ejected. As of the 23rd of November, JMA reported that the eruptive activity is still continuing. During the past hours eruptive activity shifted from Surtseyan to Strombolian style. Explosions occurs with intervalle 2-3 mn ejecting incandescent material to some hundred meters hight. Since the beginning of the eruption the volcanic island enlarged from about 200 m to 400 m in diameter and developed a crater 150m wide. As of the 21st of November, JMA reported that a powerful eruption has created a new small island close to the uninhabited volcanic island called Nishinoshima. The eruptive activity started on Wednesday 20th of November and the same day at 10:20 AM japanese overflight noted smoke and ash billowing above the eruptive site with surtseyan explosive activity. Some hours after, at about 4 PM, a new island of 200 m in diameter was clearly visible at the sea surface. The Nishisnoshima volcanic island (38 m high) lies to 1000 km South from Tokyo in the Izu-Bonin volcanic chain also know as Ogasawara chain. This volcanic chain is made up of over 30 volcanic islands. Present Nishino-shima island was in enlarged in 1974 after fresh eruptions created a new section of the island. Previous to 1974, Nishino Shima formed a small, green island which had no eruptions in the past 10,000 years. The volcano takes the form of a caldera. The volcano has many large, submarine, satellite cones to the south, west and northeast. The southern cone rises to within 214 m of the surface, around 9 km SSE of Nishino-shima.

JAPAN - Suwanose-Jima volcano (Ryukyu Islands)

February 27th, 2014

The Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanosejima on 19 February. Explosions during 23-24 February produced plumes that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. An ash plume on 24 February drifted E. The Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanosejima during 12-14 February. On 12 February a plume rose to an altitude of 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, and on 14 February a plume rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Suwanosejima on 24 January generated a plume that rose to an altitude 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Suwanosejima during 8-9 January sometimes generated plumes that rose to an altitude 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and SE. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 1-3 and 6 January. Explosions during 1-2 January generated plumes that rose to altitudes 0.9-1.8 km (3,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. JMA noted that the Alert Level remained at 2. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima during 26-30 December. Explosions during 27-28 December generated plumes that rose to an altitude over 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion from Suwanose-jima on 27 November generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. According to the Tokyo VAAC, a pilot observed an ash plume from Suwanose-jima on 21 October. Based on information from JMA the VAAC noted that a plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S that same day According to the Tokyo VAAC, the JMA reported that on 12 September an eruption from Suwanose-jima generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.According to the Tokyo VAAC, the JMA reported that during 5-6 September explosions from Suwanose-jima generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and N. According to the Tokyo VAAC, the JMA reported that on 28 August pilots observed ash plumes from Suwanose-jima that rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and NW. Suwanose-Jima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent Strombolian activity from On-take, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted nearly a half century. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, after which the island was uninhabited for about 70 years. The SW crater produced lava flows that reached the western coast in 1813, and lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884.

JAPAN - Sakurajima volcano

April 10th, 2014

JMA reported that during 31 March-4 April two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally detected at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that. During 2 and 5-7 April plumes rose to altitudes JMA reported that 20 explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano during 24-28 March ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected at night on 25 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion on 26 March. During 27-29 March plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, N, and NW. JMA reported that during 17-20 March five explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected at night during 17-18 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 20-25 March plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (4,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, SW, N, and NE.JMA reported that during 10-14 March two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected at night. Volcanologists conducting a field survey on 10 March noted that sulfur dioxide emissions were 190 tons per day, lower than the 1,900 tons per day they measured on 4 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported explosions during 12 and 15-17 March. On 12 March pilots observed ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.8 km (4,000-6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. During 15-18 March plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and S. Pilots observed ash plumes drifting SE at an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. on 16 March, and drifting SE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 18 March. JMA reported that during 3-7 March six explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported explosions during 5-11 March. Plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-3 km (4,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, and S. Pilots observed ash drifting SE at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. on 6 March, SE at an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. on 9 March, and NE at an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. on 11 March. JMA reported that during 24-28 February two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Incandescence from the crater was detected during 24-26 February. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76. Sakurajima webcam

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USA - Kilauea volcano ( Hawaian islands)

April 10th, 2014

During 2-8 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. The Kahauale'a 2 lava flow continued to advance, with breakouts from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. During an overflight on 7 April geologists observed that the farthest point of activity was 8.2 km NE of
Pu'u 'O'o.During 26 March-1 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. The Kahauale'a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, continued to advance, with breakout lava flows from the main stalled lobe, and burn adjoining forest. A satellite image acquired on 27 March showed active breakouts 5.5 and 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.During 19-25 March HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N and S portions of the crater floor, and from the lava pond in the NE spatter cone. Lava from the pond periodically spilled over the rim during 18-19 March. Breakouts from the main stalled lobe of the Kahauale'a 2 lava flow, fed by the NE spatter cone, continued to advance and burn adjoining forest. Overflight mapping on 21 March showed that the edge of the most distant breakout flow was 8.2 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.
January 2014 marked the 31st anniversary of Kilauea's East Rift Zone eruption, which began on January 3, 1983, and continues today. The Webcam images, which are updated every five minutes, can be accessed at : http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/cams/NCcam/ . From HVO - Near real-time web cam Pu'u'O'o. Halemaumau webcam

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U.S.A. - Mauna Loa ( Hawaii)

January 12th, 2014

No recent news about Mauna Loa since 2010 - News 2010 - As of the 11th of January 2010, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) has reported there has been no recent significant change in line length across the summit or the flanks of Mauna Loa as measured by GPS receivers on opposite sides of the volcano. Tiltmeters have recorded no significant changes other than abrupt offsets that are related to instrumental issues, severe weather, or significant earthquakes. Sensors within a fissure in Moku`aweoweo crater floor reported gas concentrations within normal values; fumarole temperatures continued to slowly decrease. Line lengths have been increasing at a slightly faster rate since September, 2008,due mostly to slippage on basalt faults beneath Mauna Loa's east flank and not to an increase in magma supply to the volcano. Tiltmeters have recorded no significant changes other than abrupt offsets that are related to instrumental issues. Diurnal tilt, or the tilting due to daily heating and cooling of the ground, was diminished by snowfall starting Christmas Eve, 2008. Sensors within a crack in Moku`aweoweo crater floor continued to record background gas concentrations and temperatures. Since the beginning of January, 2005, HVO analysts have rarely located more than 10 earthquakes per week beneath Mauna Loa summit. Each week, 1-5 earthquakes are also located beneath the Kealakekua area of west Mauna Loa. These levels are typical of the past several years. The Kao`iki seismic zone between Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcano summits remained active with an average of about 10-40 earthquakes per week; these numbers may reflect increased seismic activity nearer Kilauea summit rather than increased Kao`iki activity.

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USA - Cleveland volcano (Alaska)

February 27th, 2014

AVO reported that small explosions from Cleveland were detected by infrasound and lightning alarms at 1917 on 24 February and 0135 on 25 February. Small ash clouds from the explosions were detected in satellite images several hours after the events drifting at an altitude of about 5 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Advisory and the
Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. AVO reported that no further activity at Cleveland had been detected after three brief explosions on 28 and 30 December, and 2 January; satellite images suggested no new lava effusion. On 10 January AVO lowered the Volcanic Alert Level to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow. AVO reported that at 1229 on 28 December 2013 an explosion at Cleveland was detected on distant seismic and infrasound instruments. Although satellite images did not detect ash it was possible the explosion generated minor ash emissions. Elevated surface temperatures following the explosion were detected. Another similar explosion was detected at 1906 on 30 December, and a third brief explosion was detected at 1900 on 1 January 2014. Following the second and third explosions, satellite images detected distinct ash plumes, detached from the summit, drifting 75-100 km N at unknown altitudes. On 2 January AVO raised the Volcanic Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. No further activity was detected during 3-7 January. Previously, as of the 18th of October, AVO reported that satellite and web camera images have been mostly obscured by clouds throughout the week. No new explosion signals were detected on distant infrasound (pressure sensor) networks during the last week and no eruptive activity has been observed in satellite data. As of the 11th of October, AVO reported that low-level unrest continues at Cleveland. Over the past week, several small explosions were detected by distant infrasound (pressure) sensor networks. Satellite images showed no volcanic ash emissions or any other evidence of eruptive activity. As of the 4th of October, AVO reported that over the past two days, AVO has detected three short duration explosions from Cleveland volcano using distant infrasound (pressure) sensor data. None of these explosions produced an ash cloud that could be detected in satellite images. Previous explosions in May 2013 preceded the extrusion of a small volume lava dome in the summit crater, but recent satellite observations do not show an increase in surface temperatures due to lava extrusion. AVO will continue to monitor Cleveland with distant infrasound sensors and satellite images.On 4 June AVO reported that no explosions from Cleveland had been detected since 6 May, and there was no evidence of lava effusion since 13 May. Weakly elevated surface temperatures detected in recent clear-weather satellite images were consistent with cooling of a newly emplaced lava flow. AVO lowered the Volcanic Alert Level to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow. The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

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USA - Shishaldin volcano (Alaska)

April 10th, 2014

AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures over Shishaldin's summit area were detected in satellite images during 2-8 April. No activity was detected in the seismic data. The webcam showed a steam plume rising from the crater on 6 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that ground-coupled air waves from small explosions at Shishaldin's summit area were detected in seismic data during 25-27 March, although the energy and rate of occurrence both declined over that time. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images on 27 March. Based on the elevated surface temperatures and explosions persistent since 18 March AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch on 28 March. Analysis of the data showed that the temperatures were consistent with an eruption of lava within the summit crater. Web-camera images, satellite data, and pilot observations during the previous week indicated only minor steam emissions from the summit crater; there had been no evidence of ash emissions. Explosions were detected during 29-30 March; elevated surface temperatures were identified during 30-31 March. AVO reported that ground-coupled air waves from small explosions at Shishaldin's summit area were detected in seismic data during 19-25 March. Elevated surface temperatures were identified on most days during this period. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. Previously, AVO reported that no activity from Shishaldin was observed in party-to-mostly-cloudy satellite images during 12-18 February. The nearest working seismic station detected low seismicity. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.AVO reported that elevated surface temperatures in Shishaldin's summit crater were detected in satellite images during 5-6 February. No unusual seismicity was detected by the nearest working station off the flanks of the volcano. A possible ash-poor gas cloud was detected in satellite images beginning at 0645 on 7 February that may have been from a small explosion, too small to be detected by the seismometer but coinciding with a local tiltmeter signal. Satellite image analysis suggested that the short-lived cloud may have risen to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. Elevated surface temperatures were not detected after the event, so very little if any hot material was ejected. The beautifully symmetrical volcano of Shishaldin is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes of the Aleutian Islands. The 2,857-m-high, glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. Constructed atop an older glacially dissected volcano, Shishaldin is Holocene in age and largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the W and NE sides at 1,500-1,800 m elevation. Shishaldin contains over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of Strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, sometimes producing lava flows, have been recorded since the 18th century.

U.S.A. - Veniaminof (Alaska)

October 24th, 2013

On 17 October AVO noted that seismicity had decreased during the previous week and satellite observations during periods of clear weather showed no evidence of eruptive activity. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. Seismicity remained above background levels during 17-22 October The recent phase of eruptive activity at Mount Veniaminof that began on October 6 has paused. Seismic activity has decreased over the past week but remains above background levels. Satellite observations during periods of clear weather show no evidence of eruptive activity. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory on Thursday October 17. It is possible that this is only a temporary pause of activity in the eruption that began in June 2013, and that more vigorous activity could resume. Pauses in eruptive activity such as this are not uncommon at this volcano. AVO will continue to monitor the volcano closely.The latest phase of the 2013 eruption of Veniaminof resumed on October 6, 2013 after a month-long pause in activity. Similar to activity observed during the summer of 2013, the eruption is characterized by lava effusion and fountaining and production of intermittent small steam, gas, and ash plumes that rise hundreds of feet above the active vent. These plumes are typically restricted to within a few miles of the caldera, however a trace of ash fall was reported today from residents of Chignik Lake and Chignik Lagoon located 25-35 miles (40-55 km) to the east of the active vent, respectively. Seismic tremor associated with this activity has been gradually declining in amplitude over the past week, but numerous air waves associated with small explosions have been detected. These small explosions are similar to those observed during activity this past summer, when small ash plumes were generated. Elevated surface temperatures, consistent with lava effusion, have been detected over the past week in satellite images.As of the 4th of October, AVO reported that low-levels of seismicity continued at Veniaminof over the past week. Satellite images during clear periods show no evidence of elevated surface temperatures that were commonly observed during eruptive activity from June to mid-September, 2013. Web camera images show no evidence of steaming or ash emissions. Although it appears that the eruption has ended, it is possible that this is only a temporary waning of activity, and that more vigorous activity could resume. Pauses in eruptive activity such as this are not uncommon at this volcano. AVO will continue to monitor the volcano closely. On 20 September AVO reported that, based on a decrease in seismicity at Veniaminof and no eruptive activity observed by satellite or the web camera over the previous week, the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. Low-level seismic tremor continued during 21-24 September.AVO reported continuous seismic tremor at Veniaminof during 11-17 September, and elevated surface temperatures detected in satellite images that were consistent with lava effusion and fountaining. On 11 September a diffuse steam plume possibly containing ash was recorded by the web cam in Perryville, 32 km SSE. Weak thermal anomalies and decreased levels of tremor during 14-16 September possibly indicated ongoing but diminished lava effusion. No unusual or eruptive activity was observed in web cam images through 17 September. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color code remained at Orange. AVO reported continuous seismic tremor at Veniaminof during 4-10 September, and elevated surface temperatures detected in satellite images consistent with lava effusion and fountaining. Cloud cover sometimes prevented web cam views (from Perryville, 32 km SSE) of the intracaldera cone, although on 4 September a diffuse ash plume was observed rising several hundred feet above the cone and drifting E. On 7 September the web cam recorded a plume more steam-rich than in recent days. No ash emissions were visible in web cam images on 10 September. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color code remained at Orange.AVO reported that during 27-29 August seismicity at Veniaminof was characterized by discreet episodic tremor bursts, likely associated with lava effusion and minor ash emissions. Satellite images detected prominent thermal anomalies at the intracaldera cone. Activity increased on 30 August and was some of the strongest detected since the eruption began in early June; intense seismicity, lava fountaining, and ash emissions to 4.6-6.1 km (15,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. were observed. Ash plumes drifted SE and caused ashfall in areas downwind including Perryville (32 km SSE). Elevated and continuous tremor persisted during 31 August-3 September; cloud cover and fog obscured web-cam and satellite views. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color code remained at Orange. AVO reported that on 20 August residents of Perryville (32 km SSE) reported hearing loud explosions coming from Veniaminof, and air waves were detected by infrasound equipment in Dillingham (322 km NE). Trace amounts of ash fell in Perryville. During 20-21 August seismic activity at Veniaminof decreased; seismicity became more episodic and fluctuated between periods of relative quiet and short periods of low-level, nearly continuous tremor. Minor ash-and-steam emissions likely continued, but effusion of lava may have slowed down or possibly stopped. Elevated surface temperatures at the cone were observed in satellite data. Seismicity during 22-26 August remained low; small ash bursts were probably produced during short periods of elevated tremor. During 23-26 August satellite data showed weak thermal anomalies at the intracaldera cone and very minor ash emissions were occasionally observed in web camera views from Perryville. During 26-27 August seismicity was characterized by nearly continuous, gradually fluctuating tremor possibly indicative of low-level ash emission and probable lava effusion. Satellite images detected a thermal signal at the intracaldera cone. Web camera views from Perryville showed a slightly more robust ash plume, extending ESE beyond the caldera rim. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color code remained at Orange. AVO reported that during 13-15 August seismic tremor at Veniaminof was high, and persistent elevated surface temperatures consistent with lava effusion were visible on satellite imagery. During 16-17 August the high levels of tremor became sustained; seismicity remained high through 20 August. Very high surface temperatures were detected in images during 16-17 August; only weak thermal signals were evident through the cloud cover in satellite data during 17-18 August. Clear views on 18 August from the FAA web-camera in Perryville (32 km SSE) showed minor ash emissions. During a helicopter overflight on 19 August geologists observed two active lava flows from the cone, and lava flowing passively over ice at the foot of the cone. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite data during 19-20 August. Clear web-camera views showed minor ash emissions rising to an altitude of 3.7 (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W and then SSE, just past the caldera rim. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color code remained at Orange. Massive Veniaminof volcano, one of the highest and largest volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3,700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the N, is deeply notched on the W by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the S. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which reaches an elevation of 2,156 m and rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface. (GVN/GVP)

U.S.A. - Pavlof volcano (Aleutian Islands)

August 10th, 2013

On 8 August AVO reported that no lava or ash emissions had been observed at Pavlof since 26 June and the volcano exhibited gradually declining levels of unrest. Seismicity was at background levels. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Green and the Volcano Alert Level to Normal. According to news articles, ash plumes from Pavlof caused local airlines to cancel one flight and reroute six more on 25 June. AVO reported that during 25-26 June seismicity declined, and consisted of intermittent bursts of tremor and occasional small explosions. Satellite images showed a plume containing small amounts of ash drifting NW, and strong thermal anomalies at the summit. Pilot reports on 26 June indicated that plumes rose to altitudes between 6.1-7.6 km (20,000 to 25,000 ft) a.s.l., and then to heights just above the summit later that day. Seismicity during 26 June-1 July continued at low levels and consisted primarily of periodically continuous, low-level tremor. Thermal anomalies at the summit detected in satellite images were strong during 26-29 June and weak during 30 June-1 July. Activity further declined during 1-2 July; tremor and explosions were no longer detected in seismic and pressure sensor data. Satellite images did not detect elevated surface temperatures, volcanic gas, or ash emissions, and there were no visual observations from pilots or from webcam images of any eruptive activity since 26 June. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. AVO reported that during 19-25 June the eruption at Pavlov continued; seismic tremor and occasional explosions were detected. Cloud cover prevented web camera views. During 19-20 and 24 June elevated surface temperatures detected in satellite images were consistent with lava effusion. A small ash plume from the summit vent was also detected in satellite image on 19 June, and possibly detected during 20-22 June. At 2250 on 24 June seismicity increased and became the strongest seismic activity detected so far during 2013. The seismicity was characterized by continuous intense tremor and frequent small explosions likely associated with lava fountaining and ash production. Seismicity remained high on 25 June. Satellite images and pilot observations indicated that a plume drifted W at altitudes as high as 8.2-8.5 km (27,000-28,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images also detected a strong thermal anomaly at the summit. Trace amounts of ash fell in King Cove, 48 km SW. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that ash emissions from Pavlof were intermittent and minor during 12-14 June; ash plumes below an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. mostly drifted SE. Elevated surface temperatures consistent with lava effusion persisted until 1620 on 14 June. Seismicity decreased during 14-15 June. Minor emissions likely stopped, but web-camera views were cloudy. On 17 June no plumes were visible in satellite images, and web camera views showed mostly cloudy conditions. During 17-18 June seismic tremor amplitude increased slightly, and elevated surface temperatures consistent with lava effusion were detected in satellite images. A small ash plume rose from the crater. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that ash emissions from Pavlof that began on 4 June continued during 5-11 June, and were accompanied by seismic tremor and explosion signals. Overnight during 4-8 June satellite images detected elevated surface temperatures near the vent consistent with lava effusion and fountaining. On 5 and 6 June an ash plume observed in images drifted 40-45 km W and SW, at altitudes of 4.3-5.5 km (14,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l., based on pilot estimates. During 8-10 June images showed an ash plume drifting 20-53 km SE. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. AVO reported that ash emissions at Pavlof began at approximately 1100 on 4 June as observed in satellite images and by pilots. Satellite images showed an ash cloud drifting SE, and pilots estimated that the cloud was at an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. Weak seismicity that began at 1057 accompanied the emissions, and then continued. The Volcanic Alert Level was increased to Watch and the Aviation Color Code was increased Orange.The eruption continued but at a lower level during 24-26 May. Neither evidence of elevated surface temperatures nor a plume were observed in partly clear satellite images during 24-25 and 27 May. Clouds obscured views on 26 May. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow on 28 May. AVO reported that seismic tremor at Pavlof markedly declined around 1100 on 21 May, and was followed through 23 May by the detection of small discrete events, likely indicative of small explosions, by pressure sensors. Although cloud cover prevented satellite observations, elevated surface temperatures at the vent were detected. On 22 May both a pilot report and photographs indicated weak steam-and-gas emissions containing little to no ash. During 18-19 May a narrow plume of steam, ash, and gas, occasionally rising up to 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l., and drifting southeast, was visible in satellite images. Pilot reports indicated that lava fountaining and ash emission continued. Overnight, trace amounts of ash fell on the community of Sand Point. During the afternoon on 19 May pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.6-6.7 km (15,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. Trace amounts of ash fell in Nelson Lagoon, 78 km NNE, during 19-20 May. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. A news article stated that on 20 May a regional airline canceled about a dozen flights to several remote communities, including Sand Point. Another regional airline canceled a few flights, but mostly re-routed flights. On 21 May AVO reported that a low-level plume of steam, gas, and ash occasionally rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE. Trace amounts of ash again fell in Nelson Lagoon. On 16 May lava fountaining at the summit was observed and photographed, and a continuous ash, steam, and gas cloud extended downwind 50-100 km at an altitude of about 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed persistent elevated surface temperatures at the summit and on the NW flank, commensurate with the summit lava fountaining and resulting lava flow. Pavlof Volcano began erupting following an increase of seismic activity on the morning of May 13. Seismic tremor and intense elevated surface temperatures heralded the onset of lava fountaining from a vent high on the north flank, which immediately began supplying a lava flow that advanced down the northwest flank. Lava contact with ice and snow produced voluminous steam and ash plumes readily visible from the nearby communities of Cold Bay and Sand Point. Incandescence at the summit has been observed during clear nighttime views of the volcano. Satellite images and aerial photographs show several debris-laden meltwater flows down the northwest flank and possibly into drainages heading at the base of that flank. Continuous steam, ash, and gas clouds, occasionally up to 20,000 ft. above sea level, have been carried downwind to the northeast, east, and southeast as much as 100 km before dissipating. A light ashfall was reported the evening of May 14 in a mining camp 80 km northeast of the volcano. No other nearby communities have reported ash fall. Seismic activity remains elevated with nearly continuous tremor recorded on the local seismic network. Although the activity to date has been characterized by relatively low-energy lava fountaining and gas emission, more energetic explosions could occur without warning at any time that could place ash clouds above 20,000 ft. AVO reported that on 13 May seismicity at Pavlof increased at 0800 commensurate with the presence of an intense thermal anomaly at the summit observed in satellite imagery. Several spikes in seismicity occurred between 0900 and 1000. AVO noted that similar patterns of seismicity and elevated surface temperatures have previously signaled the onset of eruptive activity at Pavlof. Although not yet visually confirmed at the time of the report, a low-level eruption of lava had likely begun from a summit vent. No ash clouds were detected. The Volcanic Alert Level was increased Watch and the Aviation Color Code was increased Orange. On 14 May pilot reports and satellite images confirmed activity; a spatter-fed lava flow advanced about 0.5 km down the N flank. Minor steam-and-ash emissions from the summit were visible from Cold Bay (60 km SW). The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavolf, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing strombolian to vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption of Pavlof took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode; a fissure opened on the northern flank of the volcano, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.(AVO)

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Pu'u' O'o cone ( Kilauea ) - HVO -

ITALY - Etna volcano ( Sicily)

April 10th, 2014

INGV reported that during the night of 1-2 April emissions of minor lava flows from the NE base of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone decreased. Strombolian activity gradually intensified during the evening of 2 April and then decreased the next morning. Some collapses from the E flank of the cone were also observed that morning. Poor weather conditions
prevented views of Etna for a few days, but by 7 April the lava flows had ceased and Strombolian activity had sharply declined. No activity was observed on 8 April INGV reported that Strombolian activity from Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone ceased during the night of 26-27 March, after 64 days of persistent activity. Lava emissions from the lower side of the NSEC significantly decreased; on the evening of 28 March a small lava flow continued to advance but had stopped and was cooling the next day.INGV reported on 24 March that during the previous week Strombolian activity with occasional diffuse ash emissions continued from one or two vents at the base of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. Strombolian activity intensified during 18-22 March, producing more ash, and then decreased; no ash was emitted on 23 March. Lava flows originating from a vent on the upper wall traveled towards the upper part of the W wall of the Valle del Bove and also NE in the direction of Monte Simone. Previously, INGV reported on 17 March that during the previous week Strombolian activity with occasional diffuse ash emissions continued from one or two vents at the base of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. Lava flows originating from a vent on the upper wall traveled towards the upper part of the W wall of the Valle del Bove. During 14-15 March lava also flowed NE in the direction of Monte Simone. INGV reported that during 6-10 March Strombolian activity and occasional diffuse ash emissions continued to rise from one or two vents at the base of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. After several days of lava emissions from a vent on the lower part of the NSEC cone, during 5-6 March lava flows originated only from a higher vent and traveled 1.5 km towards the lower part of the W wall of the Valle del Bove. On 8 March sporadic emissions of hot material with small amounts of volcanic ash originated from Bocca Nuova. INGV reported that during 28 February-4 March Strombolian activity and diffuse ash emissions continued at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC). An unstable part of the lower E flank of the cone that collapsed on 11 February continued to produce small collapses with reddish ash clouds. Lava continued to flow from a vent on the lower part of the NSEC cone to the W wall of the Valle del Bove, and during 2-3 March the flows reached the base of the wall. INGV reported that during 19-22 February Strombolian activity continued at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and produced diffuse ash plumes. Lava continued to flow from a vent on the lower part of the NSEC cone to the W wall of the Valle del Bove. An unstable part of the lower E flank of the cone that collapsed on 11 February continued to produce small collapses with reddish ash clouds, and thermal anomalies.INGV reported that Strombolian activity continued at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and slightly intensified on 12 February. An unstable part of the lower E flank of the cone that collapsed on 11 February continued to produce small collapses and reddish ash clouds. Lava continued to flow from the cone towards the Valle del Bove, and by nightfall had reached the base of the steep W wall of the valley, then advanced on the flat land to the N of Mount Centenarians. Strombolian activity continued during 14-15 February. Lava emissions declined, but produced lava flows a few hundred meters long. At 1208 on 15 February an explosion generated a vapor-and-ash plume, and was then followed by more explosions from the same area. During the afternoon a small lava flow emerged from a new vent at the N base of the NSEC cone. The flow traveled 100 m towards the W wall of the Valle del Bove, and remained active the next day. During 16-17 February Strombolian activity continued to produce small quantities of ash. Lava continued to flow from the vent at the base of the cone.previouly,INGV reported that during 4-5 February activity at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) was characterized by intermittent ash emissions accompanied by jets of incandescent pyroclastic material, and a constant emission of lava from one or two vents at the E base of the NSEC cone. The lava flows reached the base of the W slope of the Valle del Bove. On 6 February ash emissions ceased and small Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent pyroclastic material 100 m above the crater. On 7 February Strombolian explosions ejected material onto the flanks of the cone, and the next day ash puffs were observed. During 9-11 February activity continued to be characterized by Strombolian activity, periodic ash emissions, and advancing lava flows. At 0707 on 11 February a large quantity of reddish brown ash emitted from an area near the vents formed a very dense hot flow which quickly reached the base of the W wall of the Valle del Bove. Reddish brown ash emissions continued after the event. Previously, INGV reported that on 28 January there was a gradual but steady decrease of activity at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC). Weak and sporadic Strombolian explosions were detected at night, but then the thermal cameras recorded no anomalies associated with Strombolian activity. Lava flows from two vents at the base of the NSEC cone continued to effuse at a very low rate. Weather conditions almost entirely prevented observations of Etna from the morning of 30 January until the evening of 3 February. Late on 3 February observers noted that the lava flow remained active and was several hundred meters long. Almost continuous ash emissions from NSEC began at about 1300 on 4 February and continued into the night; about 5-10 ash puffs were separated by steam emissions. Ash plumes drifted E. After sunset jets of hot material were observed rising 100 m above the crater rim. At 2000 the ash emissions and injection of incandescent material ceased, but the lava flow continued and reached 1 km long. INGV reported that during 4-13 January nearly continuous emissions of reddish ash from Etna's Northeast Crater were visible. Strong degassing continued at least through 22 January. Strombolian activity at New Southeast Crater (NSEC) began on the evening of 21 January, following 20 days of quiet. Some explosions generated very small ash emissions that barely rose above the crater rim. Late on 22 January a small lava flow from the vent on the high E flank of the NSEC cone traveled a few hundred meters in a few hours. Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent pyroclastic material onto the cone flanks. The frequency and intensity of the explosions decreased early on 23 January, and the lava flow stopped advancing. At 0105 a small puff of gas and/or ash from the E base of the cone heralded a new lava flow that traveled W towards the Valle del Bove. Weak Strombolian activity and the advancing lava flow continued during 24-28 January, although on 25 January the amount of ash produced by the Strombolian activity increased. On 26 January an ash plume drifted E. By evening the intensity of the Strombolian activity as well as the amount of ash in the emissions decreased. The lava flow was 4 km long. INGV reported that during 31 December 2013-1 January 2014 lava flows from a vent located on the NE flank of the cone of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) continued to travel towards the N part of the Valle de Bove; the lava flows had been active since activity resumed on 29 December. On 3 January staff doing field work noted that the effusive activity had stopped. INGV reported that on 28 December a helicopter overflight of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) revealed a crater floor partially covered with snow, and weak fumarolic activity on the N, W, and S crater rims. During the early morning hours on 29 December a camera recorded weak and sporadic incandescence from NSEC. Strong pulsating degassing also occurred at Northeast Crater. At 1115 NSEC produced a single Strombolian explosion, accompanied by an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted E. After the explosion mild Strombolian activity continued and then progressively intensified in the evening. Frequent powerful explosions from two vents located within the crater were audible in a vast sector around the volcano. Diffuse ash plumes drifted NE. Contemporaneously, two lava flows are active, one from a vent on the E flank of the NSEC cone, and the second, fed directly from the crater, traveled down the NE flank of the cone.
(webcam). . www.ct.ingv.it . Live cam Etna - Etna monitoring page

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ITALY - Stromboli volcano (Eolian Islands)

July 3rd, 2013

As of the 3rd of July, INGV reported that activity is still continuing at the Stromboli with about 60 explosions per day during past weeks from 3 eruptive vents. A new episode of spattering and low lava fountaining started on the afternoon of 17 April 2013 at the small cone sitting on the northwestern rim of the crater terrace, producing a well-fed lava overflow onto the northwestern portion of the Sciara del Fuoco. Differently from earlier communications, the lava flow has not reached the shore at the base of the Sciara del Fuoco, but the active lava flow front currently are at about 500 m elevation. As of 07:30 GMT on 13 April 2013, the activity is continuing without significant variations. A second episode of lava overflow started on the evening of 1 March and ceased the next afternoon. Both overflows were fed by continuous spattering from vent N2, which lies at the top of a hornito perched on the N rim of the crater terrace. As of the 28th of February, INGV reported that the lava overflow from the crater terrace, which began on the afternoon of 27 February, ceased during the late evening of the same day. Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that a new phase of intermittent effusive activity at Stromboli, which consisted of small overflows of lava from the crater terrace, began on 8 February and continued until the morning of 17 February. During this interval several episodes of effusive activity occurred in the N and NW sectors of the Sciara del Fuoco, producing lava flows that traveled several tens to a few hundred meters. Lava overflows ceased on the afternoon of 10 February, but effusive activity resumed in the early morning hours of the next day. On the afternoon of 11 February, three small lava flows were visible on the upper slope of the Sciara del Fuoco; the westernmost flow traveled a few hundred meters. That evening two of these flows remained active and continued to be fed until the morning of 12 February. The more westerly of the flows then stopped, whereas the flow traveling N continued until the early afternoon. After an interval of non-visibility due to inclement weather conditions, a new lava flow traveled NW in the evening of 12 February. This flow progressively diminished, but was still active at about 1100 on 13 February. On 9 February Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that after about three weeks of normal explosive activity, new, small lava overflows again occurred on Stromboli's crater terrace. The first overflow started in the morning of 8 February, producing a small lava flow that descended the upper NW slope of the Sciara del Fuoco, and ceased during the afternoon. The second overflow began shortly after midnight on 9 February and produced a lava flow that traveled N. Bad weather prevented surveillance video transmission after 0125; when the transmission resumed at 1000, the feeding of the lava flow had diminished, and the active flow front was retreating upslope, generating frequent rockfalls. In the late afternoon of 9 February lava effusion ceased altogether, but resumed once more during the early morning hours of 10 February, generating a small flow that slowly advanced downslope for a few tens of meters. The lava front continuously produced incandescent rockfalls. During the day, lava emission progressively diminished, and ceased completely in the late afternoon. As of the 18th of January, INGV reported that the volcano was still erupting with lava flows went down to the Sciara del Fuoco. There is no signs of stopping for the moment. At daybreak on 15 January, only a small lava flow was active, but on the afternoon the effusion rate once more increased, feeding a flow that was well visible at sunset. Around 04:20 GMT on 14 January, a second lava lobe developed next to the already active flow, but further to the north, reaching a length of about 100 m ; after one hour, the lobe was no longer fed and started cooling. The main lava flow, however, continued its downslope movement without significant variations, and around 06:20 GMT another overflow began to take the same path as the small lobe of 04:20 GMT. This time supply of lava to the flow was rather vigorous, forming a fan-shaped lobe (Fig. 6, top right), which descended rapidly next to the earlier main flow. During the daylight hours, interaction of hot material from the lava flow and sea water generated dense vapor clouds, mixed with ash generated by numerous small landslides; these phenomena reached their maximum intensity during the early afternoon. At dusk, three lava flows were active on the upper slope of the Sciara; of these, only one remained active on the late evening As of the 13th of january, INGV reported that on the late evening of 13 January, renewed lava effusion started to produce an overflow toward northwest, which continued in a pulsating manner through the night, intensifying notably after 03:30 GMT on 14 January. Since the morning of 23 December 2012, there have been repeated lava overflows from the crater terrace of Stromboli, generating small lava flows down the northern and northwestern sectors of the Sciara del Fuoco (see images below). Furthermore, the rapid accumulation of fluid spatter during intense explosive activity often generated small flows; these phenomena were accompanied by numerous landslides. The major lava flows occurred on the evening of 23 December (toward north), on 25-27 December 2012 (toward northwest), and on the morning of 7 January 2012 (toward northwest). Lava emission occurred from vents lying just below the rim of the northernmost explosive vent on the crater terrace. During the intervals between the main effusive episodes, lava was extruded at extremely low rates from the effusive vents, resulting in the descent of numerous incandescent blocks down the Sciara. At times, small lava flows advanced for a few tens of meters before disintegrating into blocks, such as on the morning of 10 January 2013 (see the last photo in the sequence below). In all cases, the effusion of lava was preceded, and often accompanied, by intense explosive activity on the crater terrace . e Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean."Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout historical time. The small, 926-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a horseshoe-shaped scarp formed as a result of slope failure that extends to below sea level and funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli since Roman times.www.ct.ingv.it

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ICELAND - Grimsvotn volcano

April 2nd, 2014

According to the Icelandic Meteorological Office, a small glacial outburst flood (jokulhlaup) from Grímsvötn's subglacial lake was occurring on 27 March, increasing the water level in the Gígjukvísl River; it was expected to peak by the end of the week and remain small. Electrical conductivity measurements indicated a considerable increase of a geothermal contribution to the river water. Seismic tremor had increased due to the flood and not volcanic activity. The report warned that hydrogen sulfide released from the floodwater as it drains is particularly potent at the river outlet at the ice margin, where concentrations may reach poisonous levels. Previously, according to the Icelandic Meteorological Office, the level of the Skaftá river at Sveinstindur and electrical conductivity both rose during 18-19 January indicating a glacial outburst flood (jokulhlaup), originating from Grímsvötn's western Skaftá ice cauldron. The jokulhlaup was unconfirmed without visual observations, however. Flood waters peaked on 20 January and then began to subside on 21 January. The report noted that floods in Skaftá source from two ice cauldrons formed by persistent geothermal activity beneath Vatnajökull. The cauldrons drain an average every two years, producing floods of up to 1,500 cubic meters per second. Grímsvötn, Iceland's most frequently active volcano in historical time, lies largely beneath the vast Vatnajökull icecap. The caldera lake is covered by a 200-m-thick ice shelf, and only the southern rim of the 6 x 8 km caldera is exposed. The geothermal area in the caldera causes frequent jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) when melting raises the water level high enough to lift its ice dam. Long NE-SW-trending fissure systems extend from the central volcano. The most prominent of these is the noted Laki (Skaftar) fissure, which extends to the SW and produced the world's largest known historical lava flow during an eruption in 1783. The 15-cu-km basaltic Laki lavas were erupted over a 7-month period from a 27-km-long fissure system. xtensive crop damage and livestock losses caused a severe famine that resulted in the loss of one-fifth of the population of Iceland. ( Icelandic Met Office)


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SPAIN - Hierro island (Canary)

March 24th, 2014

No significant seismic activity reported since early 2014 - Previous news dated on 18 March 2013 when seismic activity at El Hierro sharply increased. Earthquakes were initially located around the NW tip of the island, at about 20 km depth, then later migrated W about 12-15 km offshore W of El Hierro Island, at similar depth. About 100 earthquakes of Mb 3.5 (body wave measurement) or greater had been located, many of them felt by residents. The biggest events occurred on 29 March (Mb 4.7) and 31 March (Mw 4.6, moment magnitude) both at 20 km depth. IGN's GPS data showed inflation of the island, with maximum deformation at the westernmost station of about 10 cm in the horizontal component and about 11 cm in the vertical. Deformation rates reached a maximum during 23-24 March. An increase in carbon dioxide flux was observed in the W area. Rockfalls were reported on the steep slopes, especially during 26-29 March. On the evening of 27 March the Plan de Protección Civil por Riesgo Volcánico (PEVOLCA) raised the Volcanic Alert Code for the population to Yellow, and closed the access to the W part of the island. As of the 2nd of January 2013, IGN and AVCAN reported that a serie of seismic events started on 31st of December accompanied by ground deformation of the North part of the island. Earthquakes were located at 17km depth close the North submarine wall of the El Golfo Caldera of avalanche. Previous news - The Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 11-17 July 2012 both seismic activity and deformation at El Hierro decreased. There were 87 seismic events located, most of them offshore SW of El Hierro Island at about 20 km depth. Only six earthquakes were M 2.7 or higher, and the maximum magnitude recorded was 3.4, corresponding to two events: 14 July at 1952 and 17 July at 0746. The deformation rate decreased, with maximum values of less than 1 cm in the horizontal components. On 11 July Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that seismic activity and deformation at Hierro had decreased since the previous week. During 4-10 July there were 650 seismic events located, most of them offshore SW of El Hierro Island at 20 km depth. The maximum magnitude recorded was 3.8, which occurred on 10 July at 0504, and 77 arthquakes were M 2.7 or higher. The total number of located events had reached more than 2,200 since the anomalous activity began on 24 June. The deformation during this period had maximum values of about 1.5 cm in the horizontal component and 1.5 cm of vertical displacement. As of the 27th of June, INVOLCAN posted data and figure showing the seismicity and carbon dioxide emissions from the HIE01 station at eruptive activity over the past year at El Hierro and they suggest that a brief increase in carbon dioxide emissions during April and early May of this year could be the precursory events for this new intrusion of magma, with the new seismicity showing magma is now on the move to the surface. However, the direct connection between the CO 2 spike (which coincided with a lull in seismicity) is still very unclear because as magma intrudes and rises, it can also loses dissolved gases like carbon dioxide, so an increase in CO 2 could be new (undegassed) magma being introduced into the magmatic system. Previously, Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 29 February-6 March the seismic amplitude detected by every IGN station in El Hierro remained at very low values. Neither water discoloration nor activity was observed on the sea surface over the emission area. On 5 March, the Scientific Committee stated that the submarine eruption was over, but the volcanic process that started on mid July 2011 had not finished. The Canary Islands Government lowered the Volcanic Alert Code from Red to Yellow, maintaining a maritime exclusion zone around the emission area. Thirty four seismic events were located, most of them in the central part of the island, extending offshore to the S. Depths of the hypocenters varied between 7 and 24 km, and magnitudes were 0.1-2.1 (twenty eight events were magnitudes equal to or greater than 1). One of these events was felt by residents and had a maximum intensity value of II (EMS-98). GPS data did not show persistent trends in any horizontal or vertical components.Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 22-28 February the seismic amplitude recorded at every IGN station on El Hierro Island remained at very low values. Weak and intermittent discoloration was observed on the sea surface over the emission area. Only once were emitted lava fragments observed during the reported period. One-hundred and seven seismic events were located, most of them in the central part of the island, with a few extending offshore to the S. Depths of the hypocenters varied between 8 and 20 km and magnitudes between 0.1 and 2.6 (46 events with magnitude 1 or greater). Three events were felt by residents with a maximum intensity value of III (EMS-98). GPS deformation analyses showed a slight trend to N in the stations located at the N of the island.(new IEO high definition image of the cones) Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 15-16 February the amplitude of the tremor showed very low values, and after 17 February the tremor signal could not be clearly recognized in the seismic records. Very weak and intermittent discoloration was observed in the emission area. By the end of the reported period, there was no clear instrumental evidence of continuous eruptive activity. One hundred and thirty-five seismic events were located, most of them in the central part of the island, with offshore events extending to the S. Depths of the hypocenters varied between 6 and 20 km and magnitudes between 0.2 and 2.5 (91 events with a magnitude equal or greater than 1). One event was felt by residents with a maximum intensity value of II (EMS-98). GPS data pointed to a slight uplift in some stations located at the N of the island. Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 8-14 February the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island. The mean amplitude of the tremor remained low overall, but was variable. Very few emissions of lava fragments were observed over the vent area. Fifty seven seismic events were registered during this period, most of them located in the central part of the island, with offshore events extending to the S. Depths of the hypocenters varied mainly between 6 and 17 km and magnitudes between 0.6 and 2.2. GPS data pointed to a slight subsidence at some of the stations Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 1-7 February the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island. The amplitude of the tremor signal started to increase on 1 February around 0700, maintaining significant values until 6 February, when it dropped again to almost no signal. On 7 February the amplitude values increased for a few hours. Scarce emissions of lava fragments were observed over the vent area. Fifty seismic events were registered during this period, most of them located in the central part of the island, with offshore events extending mainly to the S. Three of them were felt by residents, with a maximum intensity value of III (EMS-98). Depths of the hypocenters varied between 6 and 23 km, and magnitudes between 0.6 and 3.2. Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 25-31 January the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island. Mean tremor amplitude maintained very low values during this report period. Frequent and persistent emissions of large steaming lava fragments were observed on the sea surface, some of them about 3 m wide. Seventy-eight seismic events were registered during this period, most of them located in the central part of the island, with offshore events extending primary to the S. Depths of the hypocenters varied between 10 and 23 km, and magnitudes between 0.4 and 2.8. Analyses of GPS deformation showed stability both in vertical and horizontal components. Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 18-24 January the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island. Mean tremor amplitude has oscillated considerably since 19 January, including abrupt changes from rather high values to periods of almost no tremor which lasted a few hours. Emissions of large steaming lava fragments were observed every day of this report period. Thirty-two seismic events were registered during this period, most of them located in the central part of the island, extending offshore to the S, at depths between 8 and 19 km with a maximum magnitude of 2.2. Analyses of GPS deformation showed stability both in vertical and horizontal components. As of the 20th of January, new bathymetric images were published. Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 11-17 January, the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island. The mean amplitude of the tremor moderately increased during the week. Eighteen seismic events were located during this period, two of them felt by residents of the island. Most of the events were grouped in the central part of the island, extending offshore to the S, at depths between 6 and 29 km, with a maximum magnitude of 2.5. Analyses of GPS deformation showed stability both in vertical and horizontal components.Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 4-10 January, the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island. The mean amplitude of the tremor slightly increased during the week. During this period, large floating lava fragments were observed close to the vent area and generating steam. The production of these fragments was especially intense during 6-8 January. Nineteen seismic events were located during this period, most of them were grouped in the central part of the island, extending offshore to the S, at depths between 10 and 18 km, with a maximum magnitude of 2.0. GPS data analyses showed little deformation, with a trend to subsidence in the stations at the S of the island. Instituto Geográfic Nacional (IGN) reported that during 28 December-3 January, the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island. The tremor signal almost disappeared for a few hours on 28 December, after three hours with pulses every 30 seconds. The tremor amplitude started increasing again at approximately 16:35. Most of the days, large lava fragments and fine material could be observed on the emission area. Twenty-four seismic events were located during this period, most of them grouped in the central part of the island, extending offshore both to the N and S. The depth of most of these events ranged between 9 and 23 km, with a maximum magnitude of 2.5. GPS data analyses showed very little deformation, with a slight trend to the N in the stations located at the N of the island. Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 21-27 December the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island. The mean amplitude of the tremor signal remained stable during the week. Twelve seismic events were located during this period, most of them offshore, both to the N and S of the island, at depths between 12 and 26 km with a maximum magnitude of 2.8. GPS deformation data analyses showed stability in the horizontal components and trends to stability in the vertical component. Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 14-20 December the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island. During the beginning of the week, high-amplitude pulses were registered in the tremor signal every 5-10 minutes. On 15 December there were two long pulses around 7 minutes each, and after the second one the mean tremor amplitude values remained similar to those of previous weeks. Six seismic events were located during this period, both offshore to the N and inland, at depths between 3 and 22 km. GPS deformation data analyses showed stability in the horizontal components and deflation in the vertical component. As of the 16th of December, IGN reported that the amplitude tremor signal dropped yesterday from 7:30 PM but today morning re-increased to a moderate signal. Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) noted that during 7-13 December the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island, with steaming lava fragments sporadically observed floating on the sea. During this period, the mean tremor amplitude oscillated between decreasing and increasing trends during the first days of the week, and since 10 December high-amplitude pulses occurred every 5-10 minutes. Only seven seismic events were located during this period, most of them offshore to the N of the island at depths of 17-23 km and with a maximum magnitude of 2.0. GPS data analyses showed stability in the horizontal components and trends to deflation in the vertical component. Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 30 November–6 December the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island, with lava balloons sporadically observed floating on the sea. During this period, the mean tremor amplitude was similar to the previous week. Twenty-eight seismic events were located, most of them offshore to the N of the island at depths of 15-24 km and with a maximum magnitude of 2.8. Only one of these events was felt by residents at a maximum intensity value of II using EMS-98 (European macroseismic Scale). GPS data analyses showed stability in the horizontal components; the vertical component at stations located on the S and NE parts of the island showed subsidence. (webcam) .As of the 1st of December, IGN reported that a short phase of increasing activity (2 hours) in the morning generated new pillows lava at the sea surface. Few large size fragments could be observed floating simultaneously. Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 23-29 November the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island. During this period, the mean amplitude of the tremor showed a slight increase. (INVOLCAN) has created a new video channel for Hierro. As of the 28th of November IGN reported that from Sunday afternoon to Sunday evening the submarine activity increased and many pillows lava flotting at the sea surface were visible ( photo) however the eruptive tremor showed no significant change during this phase. On 26 November large steaming fragments of lava appeared intermittently floating over the emission center. On 27 November, the emissions were more intense and a few hundred fragments could be observed floating simultaneously, with mean dimensions between 0.5 and 2 m. Some samples of the fragments were collected from a ship near the emission area. During the period, 121 seismic events were located, most of them offshore to the N of the island at depths of 15-23 km and a maximum magnitude of 3.3. Seven of these events were felt by residents at a maximum intensity value of III using EMS-98 (European Macroseismic Scale). GPS data analyses trended towards stability in the horizontal components, while in the vertical component most of the stations showed subsidence while stations in the NE of the island also trended towards stability. As of the 23rd of November, Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 16-22 November the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island. During this period, the amplitude of the tremor showed two rapid changes, a decrease in amplitude at 2200 on 17 November and an increase at 1710 on 19 November. Seismic amplitudes decreased between late 20 November and mid-day on 21 November, and then remained stable at values similar to those noted during 19-25 October. Superficial activity over the emission center was rare, characterized by alternating days without seawater discoloration and days where there was minor gas and tephra content in the water and persistent discoloration. During the period, 200 seismic events were located, most of them offshore to the N of the island at depths of 16-23 km and a maximum magnitude of 3.7. Seventeen of these events were felt by residents at a maximum intensity value of III using EMS-98 (European Macroseismic Scale). GPS data analyses showed little deformation in the horizontal components, while in the vertical component stations located in the N of the island showed uplift and the rest showed subsidence. (webcam) As of the 11th of November, IGN reported that the submarine activity close to the South of the Hierro island was still continuing without significant changes. But new fact is that during the past days many earthquakes also occurred to the North of the island, close to the Frontera village. This important seismic activity was accompanied by gas emissions from several fissures around the village. As of the 9th of November, IGN reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing. The eruptive tremor increased today in the La Restinga area. Yesterday, 8th of November 16 h GMT a gas bubble about 25 m high was observed at the sea surface. About 17GMT another gas bubble was visible. (video). Both was accompanied with a strong sulphur odor (H2S). Some of the most recent estimations published reported that the vent will be at about 70 m from the surface (?). Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) also reported that during 2-8 November the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island. Tremor amplitude reached higher values than during previous weeks, getting closer to the values detected during 11-12 October, just after the beginning of the eruption. During 2-8 November, 364 seismic events were recorded, most of them located offshore to the N of the island, at depths of 16-23 km. The maximum magnitude was 4.4, and 32 of these events were felt by residents at a maximum intensity value of V using EMS-98 (European Macroseismic Scale). The total number of located events since 17 July was 11,294. GPS deformation analysis showed trends towards no deformation during the first days of the reported period, and a slight trend towards deformation to the S at the stations located on the N side of the island in the last days. Close to sunset on 5 November, big bubbles rose to the sea surface and ejected sea water and volcanic material a few meters above the water. Some new video images of the area shows small explosive plumes/jets from the ocean surface that suggest the eruption could be entering a Surtseyan phase (?). Volcano ash is to be expected while water can still get into the crater. As of the 4th of November, information reported that it seems that the eruption is gaining strength and power. The harmonic tremor on the seismometer located on the El Hierro Island it self has started to get saturated again. It also have been unconfirmed reports of the south fissure growing in size (?). As of the 3rd of November, the eruption continued. The first eruption vent that did open south of El Hierro Island has continued to erupt during the past days. As many web images can attest, the stains in the Atlantic Ocean persist, with a strong indication that at least limited degassing is occurring at the original vent sight. A new vent was imaged with sonar to show a new cone with an associated lava flow with almost the same morphology of the terrestrial scoria cones that are scattered on the island itself. Since yesterday, November 2nd, around 06:00 UTC the harmonic tremor has been increasing. During the past two weeks the earthquake activity have been growing in the North-west part of El Hierro Island. The largest earthquake so far took place this morning, it size was ML4.0 with the depth of 20 km. As of the 30th of October, IGN reported that the current tremor data now suggests that a new vent or vents could open up just outside north-west coast of El Hierro volcano island. Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 26 October-1 November tremor continued to be registered by every seismic station on El Hierro Island; 540 seismic events were registered and located, and the mean amplitude increased slightly during the last two days. Most of the events were located offshore to the N of the island, at depths of 16-23 km. The maximum magnitude was 3.9, and 36 of the total events were felt by residents at a maximum intensity value of IV using EMS-98 (European Macroseismic Scale). The total number of located events since 17 July was 10,930. Preliminary analysis of GPS deformation data showed an inflation-deflation sequence at one station on the N side of the island, with the main deformation trending N-S and in vertical components. GPS stations located in the W and S showed different behavior, with mean deformations to the SW and NE, respectively. First digital image. Since 21 October, most of the events were located in the N part of the island, aligned NNW-SSE from the center of the island to around 13 km offshore. Most of these earthquakes occurred around 20-25 km depth. Superficial analysis of GPS deformation data from the last few days of the reporting period showed different behaviors between the stations located at the N of the island and the station located at the S, close to the submarine eruptive vent. As of the 22nd of October, IGN reported that eruptive tremor increased. Huge bubble reapeared at the sea surface since yesterday. Alert level remains at red lavel for the Restinga area. As of the 20th of October local newspaper confirmed that the eruptive activity seems decreased regarding tremor signal and seismicity, however IGN reported from this morning 3:00 am slight elevation of the tremor occured. Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that tremor, registered by every seismic station on El Hierro Island, continued during 12-18 October. Deformation decreased during this period, with significant inflation-deflation episodes registered by the stations located in the NW part of the island. In the same area, during 15-17 October, frequent episodes of emission, forming big turbulent rings of gas and foaming, were observed on the sea surface. Since the night of 17 October, the amplitude of the tremor signal had decreased slowly. On 18 October, deformation further decreased and the sea-surface disruption from gases was not observed. As of the 17th of october, IGN reported that from 10h45 am, villagers noted huge bubble forming in the sea. This phenomenon was visible from the road to La Restingua, become checkpoint of the Civil Guard.. These large bubble are probably related to higher gas emission. This type of activity seems similar with the underwater eruption off the coast of Teirceira in 2000 ( read SVE article about this mission). Fluctuation observed in the tremor may indicates explosisions in connection with a move toward the surface to 100 m depth (?). According to some observers, during the weekend pillows lava where floating on the ocean. As of the 14th of October, the volcanic tremor remains at the same level. New video shows the effect of the submarine activity at the sea surface. The Spanish geographic institute reported two large sea stains that were caused by the eruption coming through two openings. According to CSIC scientist the fissure might propagate closer to the coast with time, but there is no danger until the rift is under 50-60 meters of seawater, rather than the ~200 meters of the shallowest part now. At 50-60 meters, the chances of explosive eruptions increases as the seawater and magma interact in shallower conditions. The threat of an eruption on Hierro island has eased after pressure in the area was reduced following the present undersea event. As of the 13th of October, it seems that eruptive activity from Hierro submarine is still continuing but dropped from yesterday. However, also it seems this activity migrated closest the South coast of Hierro. Yesterday, people reported strong smell of sulfur and discoloration of the sea surface at about 2,5 km off La Restinga - Video .Spain's Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) confirmed on Tuesday afternooon that an underwater eruption is occurring 3 miles (5km) off the southern coastline of El Hierro, the smallest of the Canary Islands, which are located in the Atlantic off the coast of Morocco. IGN confirmed that all three of its seismic stations on El Hierro registered low frequency volcanic tremors in the south of the island at the southernmost village in the Canaries, La Restinga. The present volcanic activity is believed to be occurring at a depth of nearly 2,000 feet (600 meters) below sea level. Scientists from ING, CSIC, and the University of Cadiz are trying to determine if the subsea volcanic vent is widening and, if so, if it is widening in the direction of El Hierro. Officials on Spain's El Hierro Island in the Canaries said on Tuesday that they are evacuating some 600 residents from a small coastal town due to volcanic activity in the area. On Tuesday morning this eruption was only been confirmed by harmonic tremors seen on seismometers on El Hierro island. Based on the harmonic tremor plots, it seems that the eruption has been growing in size since it started well over 12 hours ago. At 04:18 UTC on 10 October, 2011 it seems a submarine eruption started somewhere close to the El Hierro volcano Island (but inside El Hierro volcano system). As of the 10th of October local paper reported that four ships have alerted the maritime authorities of the existence of possible volcanic activity (unconfirmed yet), four miles south of La Restinga (El Hierro) and about 500 meters deep. The latest data collected by the National Geological Survey stations on the island of El Hierro suggest a submarine eruption up to 2,000 meters deep in the Las Calmas area. Spanish scientists from IGN are going to try get some special undersea cameras out to El Hierro to confirm or not the activity. This eruption looks to be fairly benign in terms of threat to life and property, but very little is known about the nature of the eruption so far. El Hierro has suffered, since mid-July 2011, around 9,600 earthquakes caused by magma activity in the base of the island, the strongest of them on Saturday night, which reached a magnitude of 4.3 degrees on the Richter scale. If confirmed, this eruption will be the first recorded in Spain since 1971, when the Teneguía volcano emerged on the island of La Palma. (news next). Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported a drastic increase in the seismic activity at Hierro during 27 September-3 October, with more than 1,100 new seismic events detected, 83 of them felt by residents, with a maximum intensity value of IV using EMS-98 (European Macroseismic Scale). Most of the hypocenters were located offshore, SW of the island, at around 14 km depth. The maximum magnitude recorded during this week was 3.8. The total number of located events had reached more than 9,300 since the anomalous activity began on 16 July. The superficial deformation measured by the GPS network had reached 35 mm. Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported more than 900 new seismic events at Hierro during 20-26 September, five of them felt by residents. The maximum magnitude recorded was 3.4. The total number of located events had reached more than 8,100 since the anomalous activity began on 16 July. The rates of both GPS deformation and seismic energy release had significantly increased during the previous seven days. On 23 September, the Canarian Autonomous Government raised the Alert Code to Yellow. As of the 23rd of September, The local authorities at have raised the alert status to yellow based on increased seismicity - both in terms of number of earthquakes and intensity, some earthquakes as large as M3. This new alert level means that the government of the island will release regular updates on the activity and make sure that appropriate emergency measures are in place. As of the 21st of September, IGN reported that more than 900 seismic events at Hierro island during 8-19 September, three of them felt by residents. The total number of located earthquakes had reached more than 7,200 since anomalous activity began on 16 July, with patterns alternating between relatively calm and high-energy periods (4D animation eathquakes between July and September). The GPS local network showed similar deformation rates compared to previous weeks. The Spanish Geographic Institute (IGN) reported that since 16 July, seismicity at Hierro was high above the background levels. Until 7 September more than 6,200 events had been located, most of them in the El Golfo area with hypocenters that were 10 km deep, all magnitudes were below 3. The seismic activity alternated between relatively calm periods and high-energy periods. GPS local network stations showed deformations of about 2 cm. High rates of carbon dioxide flux were measured in the anomalous area. The triangular island of Hierro is the SW-most and least studied of the Canary Islands. The massive Hierro shield volcano is truncated by a large NW-facing escarpment formed as a result of gravitational collapse of El Golfo volcano about 130,000 years ago. The steep-sided 1500-m-high scarp towers above a low lava platform bordering 12-km-wide El Golfo Bay, and three other large submarine landslide deposits occur to the SW and SE. Three prominent rifts oriented NW, NE, and south at 120 degree angles form prominent topographic ridges. The subaerial portion of the volcano consists of flat-lying Quaternary basaltic and trachybasaltic lava flows and tuffs capped by numerous young cinder cones and lava flows. Holocene cones and flows are found both on the outer flanks and in the El Golfo depression. Hierro contains the greatest concentration of young vents in the Canary Islands. Uncertainty surrounds the report of an historical eruption in 1793. (GVN/GVP)

 

FRANCE - Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion island)

December 11th, 2013

No recent activity ocsured since 2010 - As of the 10th of December 130PM, OVPLF reported that the eruption already ended. No tremor signal has been recorded since this hour. As of the 9th of December, following a seismic crisis and inflation a new eruption started at 730 PM (TU) from an eruptive fissure oriented North-South and located just above puy Mi-Côte, at about 2500 m elevation. The eruption was characterized by laval fountaining and two lava flows emission. As of the 31st of October. OVPLF reported that the eruption ended. Seismic signal associated with the eruption and degassing ended at 10:50 in the morning. As of the 29th of October, OVPLF reported that observation carried out during a fligh above the volcano showed that a part of the summit cone 3 (only active now) collapsed. Some lava ejecta and gas emissions occured from this cone which contained a small active lava pond. The eruptive activity was feeding a small lava flow with slow movement. A part of this lava flowed in a lava funnel close to the active crater. The lava field remains upstream of the cone named « Gros Benard ».As of the 28th of october, OVPLF reporteds that the eruption is sill continuing and charaterized by a sudden increasing activity and tremor since yesterday 4:30 PM. As of the 26th of October, OVPLF reported that the eruptive activity is still slowly continuing in the same area. No change occured during the past days. As of the 22nd of October, OVPLF reported that activity is continuing close to the Château Fort area, South part of the Enclos Fouqué. Now, only one cone is active et only few lava fountains observed. Volcanic tremor was stable. No earthquakes was recorded yesterday. GPS ground deformation showed a weak deflation under the volcano. As of the 20th in the morning, OVPLF reported that the eruption is still continuing. Eruptive activity is still characterized by low lava fountains from the main events along the fissure. Lava flows field extending East-Southeast at distance about 2 km. Volcanic tremor remains stable. As of the 19th of October, OVPLF reported that eruptive activity is still continuing without important changes. Weak ejection and small lava fountains still occurs from the main eruptive vents located along the eruptive fissure ; lava flows go down slowly toward the East-Southeast. The explosive activity and degassing dropped. The volcanic tremor remains stable. As of the 18th of October, in the morning, OVPLF reported that eruptive activity was still continuing, but the explosive and degassing phase decreased since yesterday 17th of October. The volcanic tremor also decreased (1/7 in comparison from the beginning of the eruption). The number of volcano tectonic events remained low (7/day); the most important event occured at 11:23 PM with a mag 1.4 and localized at about 1600 m depth under the summit crater Bory. The base and the summit of the volcan remained in inflation. Preliminary estimation of the lava volume emitted was 600.000 m3. As of the 16th on the morning, OVPLF reported that eruptive activity is still continuing and characterized by low lava fountains along the eruptive fissure which feeding a lava moving towards the East, Southeast. Lava is issued from an area close to the old crater of Chateau Fort at the base Southeast of the flank of the Dolomieu crater and remains within the enclos Fouqué. Four small cones were active along the eruptive fissure, and lava fountaining occured from three of them. The lava flow run slowly about 1,6 km toward East and Southeast and gets closer to the break of slope of the " Grandes pentes".Temperature measurement carred out by a team of the OVPLF showed 1100°C. The volcanic tremor remained stable. (OVPLF full report in french). As of the 15th of October OVPLF reported that a new eruption started yesterday 14th of October since 7:10 PM. The eruptive activiy is localized close the Chateau Fort, within the Enclos Fouqué, Southeast of the Dolomieu crater. During the day of the 14 October, the observatory recorded an increasing seismicity between 4h AM and 2 PM. Then, a seismic crisis occured (more than several hundred earthquakes) occured between 2 PM and 3:45 PM. During this phase important ground deformation occured close the summit and generated many rockfalls inside the Dolomieu crater. At 14:11 PM, the seismicity moved toward the Southeast part of the volcano (Chateau Fort). As of the 15th in the morning the ereutive activity was still continuing. According to OVPLF this eruption is associated with a dyke intrusion beneath the summir crater Dolomieu. As of the 27th September, OVPLF reported that following a decrease of the seismicity, the alert level has been dropped. As of the 24th of September, OVPLF reported that probably an eruption is impending. During the night, between 2 am and 3:50 am (a local time GMT 4) a seismic crisis was observed on the volcano. A Series of several tens of earthquakes was localized directly below the summit zone, under the crater Dolomieu. From 5 h local time a slighly decrease of this seismicity occured.The seismic crisis was associated with inflation (approximately 3 cm) of the volcano, in particular close the summit part. The most significant deformations were measured on the edge and the north side of the Piton de la Fournaise and also on the south edge. These data indicate that a distribution of the magma towards the surface took place directly below the volcano. (Dolomieu). The magma did not reach yet the surface ( Friday 5:15 (GMT+4) . Starting on 14 August and continuing through 10 September, OVPDLF recorded a slow but steady increase in the number and magnitude of earthquakes from Piton de la Fournaise. Inflation of the summit area began in late August. A report on 13 September noted localized deformation W of Dolomieu crater and a small number of landslides in the crater. On 20 September a significant increase in earthquakes was recorded, although the average magnitude was low. The earthquakes were located at the base of Piton de la Fournaise, W and S of Dolomieu crater. PREVIOUS NEWS : as of the 12th of January 2010, OVPLF reported that the eruption ended. Following a slight increasing of the eruptif tremor yesterday, eruption within the Dolomieu crater dropped during this night at about 2 am. Nowthe moment only a weak degassing occurs. As of the 7th of January, the volcanic eruption begun January 2nd of this year is always was still progress in the crater Dolomieu. Yesterday evening, the eruptive trémor weakly increased but remained stable. As of the 5th of January, OVPLF reported that intensity of the at present current volcanic eruption in the sommital crater Dolomieu is stable. It is however necessary to indicate from time to time some renewals of activity comparable to one pulse of more important intensity. This day two of these phases were observed at 9:30 am and 11:30 am (GMT 4).A mission of measure of the deformations of the sommitale zone led this morning also allowed a visual recognition of the activity. Some lava flows and a main eruptive vent remained active. As of the 4th of Jnanuary OVPLF reported that eruptive activity was continuing but with a reduced outflow.. Only lava fountains with small high and one active lava flow were visible. Tremor was slighly decreasing but remained stable. An aa lava flow covered about 90% of the 2008 flow on the floor of the Dolomieu crater. As of the 2nd of January, OVPLF reported that Piton de la Fournaise volcano erupted this day at 14:30 local time (GMT +4). The eruptive fissure is situated in the cliff around the Bory and Dolomieu summit craters. Some lava fountains tens of metres in height have been observed during a reconnaissance jointly carried out by the Gendarmerie Nationale (PGHM) and the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory. During this reconnaissance, lava flows were observed flowing in the interior of Dolomieu crater. significant landslides and cliff collapses within Bory crater were also recorded. These collapses fuel eruption plumes of ash and gases that are rising above the summit craters of Piton de la Fournaise. This eruption was preceded over two hours by a seismic crisis commencing at 12:00 local time. A small plume of volcanic gas from the eruptive zone was already observed around 12:00. After some minutes of calm, an eruptive tremor appeared on the screens of the seismological network of the observatory at 14:25. PREVIOUS ERUPTION : As of the 15th of December, OVPLF reported that the Piton de la Fournaise volcano erupted Monday, December 14, 2009 at 18:45 (local time GMT +4). The eruption was preceded by a seismic crisis and a raise of the summit area deformations, which started at 17:30 (GMT +4). The eruptive tremor began at 18:30 (GMT+4). A system of sub-parallel fractures along the summit of Dolomieu crater fed lava flows on the southern slope of the Piton de la Fournaise, inside the Enclos Fouqué. A second fissures system opened on the eastern flank of the Dolomieu summit crater at 20:25 (GMT +4). Then lava flows were spent towards the eastern slope. This eruption ended during the night at 00h40 (GMT +4) after a gradual decrease in magma supply from midnight (local time). This morning, Tuesday, December 15, 2009, a visible degassing in the south and southeast fractures is associated with a low intensity eruptive tremor. All of the lava flows was confined to high zone of the volcano and more specifically the slopes south and south-east of Piton de la Fournaise. As of the 6th of November OVPLF reported that on November 5, an intense seismic swarm occurred between 7:30pm and 8:30pm (GMT +4) at about sea level, including an earthquake of 80 seconds. This crisis was followed by a 30 minutes aseismic phase and then by sustained tremor. The first vent opened at 8:50pm on the southern cliff inside the Dolomieu crater. At 9:05pm, a fracture propagated towards east on the upper south-eastern flank of Piton de la Fournaise feeding a first lava flow. A 9:20pm, a second fracture opened on the eastern volcano flank between 2450 and 2300m asl. The eruption was also recorded by the three webcams of the observatory, which, together with the deformation and tremor patterns, allowed a rapid identification of the eruption sites. The fractures fed strombolian activity, small (about 20 meters high) fountains and aa lava flows, which were visible from the national road lining the coast in the Grand Brûlé area. At 3:00am on November 6, the eruptive tremor declined to a very low intensity level. A first survey on the volcano summit at 7:30am confirmed that the lava fontaining was no longer active and the lava front had stopped at about 1900 m elevation. At 9:00am the eruptive tremor disappeared, thus confirming the end of the eruption. As of the 30th of October, OVPLF reported that the seismicity was still in light increase. A new seismic crisis occured on the morning of 03:00 to 06:00 (local time). The hypocentres are still localised under Dolomieu. Volcanologists of the Observatory noted a partial migration of the earthquakes and deformation towards the North (this could be due to injection of a dyke towards north). The level of alarm remains to 1. As of the 23rd of october OVPDLF reported that during the day before (22nd of October) 18 earthquakes occured, but no eruption started yet. As of the 21st of October,OVPDLF has reported that seismic activity indicates magma is probably within 500 m of the surface. A change in the chemistry of volcanic gases appeared for the first time yesterday since the outbreak of volcanic alert on the 4th of October. The whole of these observations clearly confirms the progression of the magma towards surface. An eruption thus remains possible in the short or medium term. The level of alarm remains to 1 for the moment. On 18 October, OVPDLF reported that another seismic crisis was noted along with deformation on the N and S sides of Dolomieu crater. Aerial observations on 19 October revealed a small new fumarole in the crater. Changes in the chemical composition of the gases were also noted. A greater number and duration of rockfalls than in previous days was detected on 20 October. As the the 17th of October (09:30 am)), OVPF reported that during past night (16th to 17th of October), the frequency and the intensity of the seismicity were in progressive increase. The trend of progressive deformation of the volcano was confirmed, in particular on the side the North of Dolomieu and close to the Dolomieu crater.Collapses of small volume inside Dolomieu were registered.No variation of the chemical composition of gases was noted. Previously, a new seismic crisis started on 14th of October at 8:09am (local time) and ended at 10:04am. This important seismicity was associated with weak ground deformation of the North flank of the Dolomieu. The day before 79 earthquakes have been recorded, mainly in the areas mentioned above. As of the 9th of October, The observatory of the Piton de la Fournaise reported that the seismic crisis that occured yesterday ended on 8th of October in the morning at 10:57 am. This seismicity was located beneath the volcano summit under craters Bory and Dolomieu. This phase has been associated with weak North flank deformation of the Dolomieu crater. No chemical variation in gas was noted. Previously, as of the 7th of October, the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris from the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPDLF) reported that seismic activity increased on 7th of october in the morning from 8:30 am and since remained at high level. Not eruption occured yet, but local prefecture of the Reunion issued the alert level 1. Enclos Fouqué entrance has been closed . Yesterday 6th of october, 120 earthquakes were registred from the network accompanied with sligh ground deformation. Previous eruption started on 14th of December 11 PM (TU) ended on 4th of February at 8 PM (TU). On February 2nd, 21 earthquakes were recorded including one with mag. 2.2 accompanied with a decreasing of the volcanic tremor. As of the 3rd of February seismic activity increased again and tremor decreased. In the morning, only one lava flow was active on the Northwest side. Between 8-9th of January, two earthquakes located above the sea level were recorded (max = 1.5 mag). As of the 29th of December, OVPF scientists observed during a fieldwork the small lava pond which remained active with few lava ejection above the cone. Following an active episode during the past week-end with about 10 visible lava flows on the talus and some outpouring on the flow within the Dolomieu, the situation changed on Monday. Except from the active cone, no other glowing lava could be observed. Degassing remained relatively important, time to time, the Dolomieu was filled with bluish gaz emission. As of the 26th of December in the morning (9am), OVPF reported that eruptive tremor increased again (3 time more compared at the beginning of the eruption), but remained fluctuating. Following a fieldwork during the afternoon of 24th of December, volcanologist reported (5pm) that a small active lava pond formed within the small cone in the Dolomieu. Time to time, lava fountaining occurs. Many small lava flows are issued from small lava tubes around the main lava flow. GPS measurements did not showed inflation or deflation at the summit. OnThursday 18th of December, in the evening, the eruptive tremor increased but this day returned at the previous level, the same at the beginning of the eruption. As of the 17th of december SO2 output was estimated at about 1000 Tons/day. As of the 15th of december, OVPF reported that following a seismic crisis during Sunday (more than several hundred earthquakes), and an important seismicity during the night, a volcanic tremor, located beneath the summit, started at 2:45 am. An inspection carried out on 15th in the morning showed that two eruptive fissures were active within the Dolomieu crater, at half slope NNE and NE. The lava flow rate is very weak; the lava covered only 15-20% of the September 2008 lava. Also the SO2 output was very low. As of the 28th of November, OVPF reported that the volcanic tremor declined since the early morning, suggesting that the eruption was declining, with a phenomenon ‘Gaz Piston' (important gas bubbles with very few or not magma emission) making its appearence in the seismic record. From 2pm ( local time) "gas piston" phenomenon ended and this short eruptive phase ended. No seismic signal was recorded since this time. As of the 27th of November, according to a report of the OVPf, following a short seismic crisis between 1125am et 1140am, the volcanic tremor started at 1150am (local time). From the tremor map, this new eruption occured within the Dolomieu crater, probably at the same place of the previous activity during October 2008. A volcanic plume was visible in the West part of the Dolomieu. As of the 31st of October, a new OVPF Buletin reported that during the previous night a new seismic crisis occured between 4am and 440am with about 100 earthquakes accompanied with weak ground deformation recorded by the tiltmeter network. As of the 22nd of October, OVPF reported that 11 summital earthquakes were recorded this day (max. magnitude1,2). No deformation occured. As of the 20th of october, OVPF reported that in the morning, between 8AM et 10AM, a new seismic crisis occured. No other event was noted for the moment. As of the 17th of October OVPF reported that since 3 days ago seismic activity increased. This activity increased more on 16th of October beetween 630PM and 830PM (51 earthquakes) then re-decreased. Repartition of the earthquakes : 14th of October: 62 ; 15th of October: 59 ; 16th of October: 166; No long-term inflation was recorded for the moment. Previous activity : as of the 2nd of October OVPF reported that eruptive activity within the Dolomieu ended in the early morning. The tremor dropped from 410AM and totally disapeared at 445 AM (local time). Only a very weak deflation has been recorded during the eruption and for this reason, it's possible that other eruptive episode could occurs in the short term (days or weeks). Total lave volume of the eruption is about 850.000 m3 for 10 days of activity.As of the 27th of September OVPF reported that eruptive activity was still continuing in the Dolomieu. Volcanic tremor remained stable at a low level since the 26 september in the morning. Three summit low intensity earthquakes were recorded. No direct observation was possible due to the poor meteorological condition. Wednesday estimation of the size and volume with an aerial photography showed that the lava surface on the Dolomieu floor was about 180x100m (24 September in the morning) and a maximal thickness of 30m. The present volume has been estimated at about 300 000m3, an flow rate is 1m3/sec. As of the 21st of September, a special bulletin of the OVPF reported that following a short seismic crisis (about 10 earthquakes) a volcanic tremor appeared and the eruption started at about 330 PM. This new eruption occured in the West part of the Dolomieu (half hight) under the Bory crater. Several lava flows went down toward the floor of the Dolomieu and formed a small lava pond. As of the 17th of September , ovpf reported that important seismic activity is still continuing with 48 earthquakes recorded this day ( 41 with mag. < 1,0 ,   5 with mag. between 1,0 et 1,5 and  2 with mag. between 1,5 et 2,0) . Field observations confirmed an increase in degassing from the SW part of Dolomieu crater and the presence of hydrogen sulfide. Another seismic crisis was detected during 15-16 September. Numerous landslides followed the crisis, but may have also been associated with heavy rains. The Alert Level was not changed. As of the 12th of September, a preliminary bulletin from OVPF reported that since 1015AM (local time) this morning volcanic tremor started at the volcano and stayed until 1130AM. The tremor (weak and variable) is located beneath the summit of Dolomieu. According to an aerial observation during the end of the morning, no eruptive activity occured yet, but important SO2 emissions were noted. Another trémor (more high frequency) occured in the afternoon at 350 PM, but stopped around 8PM. During the day of the 12th of September, 30 earthquakes were recorded with a maximal magnitude = 1,6. According to OVPF scientists an eruption could be occurs within days or weeks. Alert level remains 1. As of the 9th of September, OVPF reported that an important seismic crisis occured during the night between 1123PM and 120 AM characterized by several hundred eartquakes. No deformation was recorded. On 3rd of September, 76 earthquakes were already recorded with a maximum magnitude 2.9 and 3.0. As of the 15th of August, OVPFalready reported that a seismic crisis (2h35 duration) occured this day between 5AM (local time) and 735AM (local time). This short crisis was accompanied with ground deformation in the Dolomieu area. At 10am, some superficial isolated earthquakes (about 500 m a.s.l.) still occured. Previously on 4th of August another short seismic crisis (10mn) already occured. Previous activity : as of 21st of June 2007, OVPF reported that from one week many earthquakes occured every day beneath the volcano (sometimes more than 100 per day). several of them occured under the sea. As of 21st of June, maximal magnitude was 2.6. As of the 2nd of May the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, IPGP, reported that after one month of very high activity, the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise, which started on April 2nd in the Grand Brûlé at 650 m altitude, finally stopped on May 1st. The debit at certain moments was estimated between 100 and 200 m3 per second and the lava flows covered an area of about 4 km2, with up to 30 or 40 m thick lava. A platform of about 35000 m2 was build on the sea and first estimations of the erupted volume amount to 120 x 106 m3 , which ranges this eruption between one of the largest known historical eruptions at Piton de la Fournaise. As of the 27th of April the OVPF reported that the seismicity under the summit was reinforced. There were 50 seismic events the day before and the lava flows remained very abundant in the Grande Brulé. As of 21st of April, the latest OVPF report informed the the volcanic tremor remained at the same low level. Lava flows were still went down in the Grand Brulé from the vent located to 650 m elevation with important variations. As of the 20th of April the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, IPGP that the collapse of Dolomieu crater was continuing. The tremor was on a very low level, the seismics under the summit of the Piton of Fournaise persisted. As of the 12th of April the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, IPGP reported that members of the PC of St. Philippe observed two lava flows, the first going along the rampart, a second in the medium of cast in place, arriving at the sea. The inhabitants of the small village of Tremblet breathe better, the situation finally seems to still be improving. The crater which broke down on a 300 m height stabilizes slowly. As of the 7th of April, OVPF reported that following a fligh over the volcano on the morning, observation showed that a large part ot the Dolomieu crater floor collapsed on a surface estimated to 1000 x 700 m and a depth of about 300 m. The activity seismic remained at high level and many local collapse occurs. As of the 6th of April the OVPF, reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise volcano continues and eruptive activity, lava fountains and lava flow emissions from the fissure vent at 600-500 m elevation, increases. Lava flows had already crossed the National Road in the afternoon of 2 April and the southernmost of the 3 principal lava flow branches reached the sea in the evening the same day. After decreasing for a while, an unusual increase in seismic activity has been observed since 3 April. It is marked by earthquakes below the summit of the volcano at altitudes between 0 and 500 m above sea level, similar to the ones registered before the opening of the fissure on 30 March SE of the summit. They are interpreted as consequence of internal collapse phenomena and might be preceding a collapse event similar or stronger than the one in 1986 when a 100 m deep pit crater was formed. At the same time, tremor (thought to be caused by the erupting magma moving along the conduit and the radial dike) has increased as well, accompanied by increasing visual effusive activity. In addition, a marked increase in sulphur dioxide emission has been noted. Inhabitants in the nearby city of St. Pierre have been suffering from "vog" - volcanic smog caused by clouds of aerosols rich in sulphur dioxide (SO2) emitted mainly at the eruptive vent and from the lava flows. Several people have been brought to hospital for treatment of skin and eye irriations as well as asthma caused by the gas whose concentration temporarily reached alarming levels, triggering the autorities to issue a general health warning for the island. Reports of a new eruptive fissure near the Pointe du Tremblet with its inhabited centres in the lower areas just outside of the Enclos turned out to be wrong. However, but scientists from the observatory don't exclude the possibility that a new fissure could open up at even lower elevation. Preparations for an emergency evacuation of this area have started since late of 4th of April. Access to the summit area of the volcano and the low elevation area near the lava flows from the side of St. Pierre has been restricted by authorities. As of the 2nd of April, OVPDLF reported that a new eruption started at 10 AM. A new eruptive fissure opened in the Southeast part of the enclos; the lower part of the fissure is located at 500 m a.s.l at the foot of the Rempart du Tremblet. The 1 km long eruptive fissure trend NO-SE- During the morning lava fountaining (50 m high) occured from the fissure. Associated lava flows went down fastly and about 2 PM the front was at 300 m of the RN2. On Wednesday 3rd of April eruption was still continuing. Lava flows crossed the road RN2 during the afternoon. As of 30th of March, OVPDLF reported that following a seismic crisis and deformation of the summit zone, a new eruption started on 30th of March ( 23 PM - local time) on the South-East flank of the volcano within the Enclos close to the Chateau Fort area. This short erutive phase ended on 31st of March at about 8 AM in the morning. (from OVPF-IPGP report) from OVPF-IPGP - (Thomas Staudacher, OVVPF) -(OVPF information d'après Journal de l'île de la Réunion - ). Live webcam - IPGP

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COMOROS - Karthala volcano

January 20th, 2007

As of 19th of January, Volcano observatory reported that on Thursday 18th the volcano shook twice again and local volcanologists said there was still a threat of eruption despite the tremor seems weakening. Comoros authorities have made emergency plan to help as many 30.000 people in case of eruption. As of 13th of January, volcano observatory reported that Mount Karthala (2631m) begun emitting fumes and producing a red glow over the tops. According to the chief geologist, the volcano has become eruptive since yesterday evening 12th of January. The lava level had risen in the volcano's crater. Preliminary information reported that residents of Mvurni, a town at 1000 m altitude on the volcano West slope were broken up by strong fumes. The island had been on red alert. The last big eruption of the volcano occured in April 2005, sent thousands fleeing in fear poisonous gas and lava. The worst disaster on record came in 1903, when 17 died from noxious fumes that seeped from cracks. The southernmost and largest of the two shield volcanoes forming Grand Comore Island (also known as Ngazidja Island), Karthala contains a 3 x 4 km summit caldera generated by repeated collapse

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TANZANIE - Lengai volcano

October 30th, 2012

News and recent photos taken in September 2012 at the summit crater. Previously, as of the 22nd of February 2010 GNN/GVP reported that periodic eruptions from a small fissure and steam emissions from an area of the crater rim next to a part that had collapsed were observed on 11 February, and three fresh black hornitos were noted on the W part of the crater floor, a cone-shaped grey hornito in the middle of the floor and a new black lava flow to the S were seen during 14-15 February. Previous Informations : June-August 2009: a few reports received during the summer, including ones documenting visits in August by Thomas Holden , in July by David Gregson , and in June by Tobias Fischer , indicate that Lengai continues to produce small effusive eruptions within the pit crater. Thomas Holden reported that on his climb in late August (exact date unknown) he saw active lava flows. Tobias Fischer witnessed flows and a small lava lake ~5m in diameter in June.  David Gregson did not see significant activity but heard sounds of activity at depth. Although the activity appears to have returned to the typical eruptions of fluid natrocarbonatite lava for which Lengai is so well known, no samples of the new flows have been obtained for analysis due to their inaccessability deep inside the pit crater.  It is not known how similar the new lava is in composition to the lavas produced prior to the 2007-2008 eruption. (From Fred Belton website) Previous information : qccording to Frederick Belton team which climbed Ol Doinyo Lengai on 18 June 2009reported that the new active cone covered the former crater floor entirely except for an area N of the summit. The new cone's W, N, and E sides stood about 30 m above the rim of the former crater and enclosed a deep crater. The visitors saw a few small vents on the crater's floor. Frequent emissions of ash-poor plumes originated from the SW part of the crater's floor, producing light ashfall. They heard continuous loud rumbling noises, occasional gas-jetting sounds, and rockfalls. As of the 21st of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania erupted on 19th of February, according to an aviation report. Ash was observed to 38,000 ft. Pilots have been advised to avoid flying near the volcano. The activity at Lengai seems to be increasing. In the past two weeks, explosions have ejected ash plumes rising several kilometers. On 15 Feb., Dutch pilots observed and photographed an eruption plume rising to estimated 12 km (36,000 ft). The Toulouse VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by pilots on 15 February and rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. As of the 24th of January, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that a visitor to Ol Doinyo Lengai informed that it erupted on 14 January. According to this visitor "shower of stones" fell at their location about 50 m from the summit and a lava flow went another direction. Typical ash eruption from the new ash cone in the N crater. A small group from Volcano Discovery , local mountain guides and partners stayed near and on Lengai volcano during 17-21 January. During this period, Lengai continued to erupt ash to several 100 metres above the new ash cone during phases lasting several hours alternating with periods of quiet when only a weak plume of very fine gray ash and gas was issuing out of the new ash cone. Photos from an eruptive phase of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano consisting in near continuous ash emissions from its new crater and taken from the summit during a recent expedition in January 2008 have been posted at the Discovery: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/volcano-tours/photos/lengai/0108.html . These photos also document the impressive recent changes on the volcano and help to illustrate the significant hazards present when climbing Lengai or staying at its top. The Toulouse VAAC reported previously that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by visiting scientists on 20 December and rose to an unreported altitude. As of the 20th of October, John Seach has reported that a pilot report indicated an eruption of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania occurred at 0830hrs local time today. An ash plume reached 25,000 ft. altitude, and was visible from a distance of 50 miles. The eruption lasted 30 minutes. As of the 7th of September, according to Matthieu Kervyn De Meerendre, University of Gent (Belgium) has reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai has re-erupted again. A large eruption (?) seems to be taking place at Lengai volcano, this time for real On 4 September 2007, reports started coming in that a large (natrocarbonatite) lava flow is descending the West flank. A considerable ash plume was visible on satellite data. Over 30 thermal anomalies have been detected by the MODIS team since August 23 - more than during the large eruption in March 2006. On 4 and 5 Sep, the thermal anomaly at the summit was extremely strong. From this and satellite imaginery, it seems that there was a short overflow to the East and a major overflow to the West starting on September 1st (it could be a bush fire on the volcano flank ignited by lava). New overflows on 5 Sep seem to be taking place on the W and NW flanks. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep craters walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

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CONGO - Nyamulagira volcano

February 3rd, 2014

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January 2014 showed a gas-and-steam plume rising from Nyamuragira. Previous 2012 news about last eruption - As of the 28th of January, MODVOLC is still recording thermal anomaly on the volcano and probably the eruptive activity is still going on. (photos from M.Rietze).The initial scoria cone appeared inactive and second cone formed to the N of the first cone. Both cones were about 300 m high. The second cone was extremely active during the duration of the observations (about 15 hours) with fire fountains over twice the height of the cone; lava flowed N. The observers, about 1.5 km away, felt the heat from the eruption as well as lapilli fall. The VolcanoDiscovery Team observed the fissure eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November 2011 during 22-25 January 2012 from the newly formed cinder cones located about 10 km E of the summit crater. They reported three coalescent cones with the largest cone containing a small lava lake. The lake ejected spatter every few seconds as high as 200 m above the summit; individual bombs reached the base of the cone. Lava flows from the vent extended several kilometers N. Numerous small breakouts formed secondary flows, and a large breakout about 2 km N of the cone fed a large lava flow about 20 m wide. Burning forests were reported to the NNE. Satellite imagery acquired on 3 January from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed an active lava flow to the NE of the central vent over the fissure located 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater. A sulfur dioxide-rich plume was also detected.According to OMI data, SO2 plume is still rose above of the volcano suggesting tha the eruption is continued. As of the 8th of December, the eruptive activity is still continuing. Thermal anomaly and gas plume are still visible from satellite image. On 18 November, Virunga National Park reported that lava flows from the eruption along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater had possibly stalled. An observer aboard an overflight a few days before noted that the lava did not appear to have moved any further N. A photo taken from the Rumangabo headquarters (7.5 km NE of the eruption site) on 16 November showed a tall cinder cone with lava fountains rising above the rim. The eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November, after two days of intense seismic activity, was located along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of the main crater, close to one of the 1989 eruption sites. Virunga National Park staff had previously been observing the eruption from a hilltop in Rumangabo, but on 9 November the staff and rangers traveled to the site. After a 3-hour hike, the team viewed the eruption from the S and noted roaring and lava fountains, as well as thunder and lightning. The observers also noted that the ground was covered by black pumice. On 11 November about 100 people, including staff, rangers, carpenters, porters, and volcanologists, traveled to a similar but safer location to set up a camp for visitors. The eruption site was described as a flat area with a 500-1,000-m-long fissure, oriented perpendicular to the Albertine (Western) rift. Lava fountains rose as high as 300 m above a cinder cone. Slow-moving lava traveled N. GORISK noted that radar images acquired on 11 November showed the largest deformation ever detected by the method (InSAR) since the early 1990's over Nyamuragira. A very preliminary analysis of the observed deformation suggested an affected area of more than 250 square kilometers. The ground rose more than 50 cm at the eruptive site where the spatter cone was developing. Another 15 cm of deformation was detected within the Nyamuragira caldera accompanied by deflation on the flanks. Satellite images acquired on 12 November showed that the lava flow had traveled approximately 11.5 km during the six days of the eruption. As of the 15th of November, The eruptive activity was still continuing characterized by lava fountain about 300 m high and lava which overflowed on the North flank of the volcano.(video) .As of the 7th of November, Rangers from the Virunga National Park reported that an eruption began last night on Nyamuragira in the Democratic Republic of Congo in central Africa. The eruption was observed from the park headquarters and it was reported that it appears to be a flank eruption. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira (Also spelled Nyamulagira) is a massive basaltic shield volcano N of Lake Kivu and NW of Nyiragongo volcano. Lava flows from Nyamuragira cover 1,500 sq km of the East African Rift. The 3058-m-high summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km summit caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. About 40 historical eruptions have occurred since the mid-19th century within the summit caldera and from numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano's flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938. Twentieth-century flank lava flows extend more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

CONGO - Nyiragongo

Fevbruary 3rd, 2014

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January showed a gas-and-steam plume rising from Nyiragongo.Previously, according to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image of Nyiragongo acquired on 29 July 2013 showed a red glow coming from the active lava lake in the summit crater. A diffuse blue plume drifted N. Previous news 2012 - The Toulouse VAAC reported that, according to a Volcano Observatory Notices for Aviation (VONA) issued by the Goma Volcano Observatory, a gas plume composed mostly of sulfur dioxide rose from Nyiragongo on 1 November. Previously according to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image of Nyiragongo acquired on 15 November showed heat coming from the active lava lake in the summit crater. Previous news : The Toulouse VAAC reported that during 4-5 February 2011diffuse plumes, likely composed primarily of sulfur dioxide gas, were observed in satellite imagery. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark the levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late 19th century. About 100 parasitic cones are located on the volcano's flanks and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Monitoring is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater. (From GVO) - Nyiragongo Photos gallery - January 2011 (German group)
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YEMEN - Jebel Zubaïr archipelago

October 5th, 2013

As of the 5th of October 2013, according to several informations, the submarine eruptive activity is still continuing at the Zubaïr volcanic group. The new eruption started on 28th of September from a site located slighly more in the South that the previous eruption during 2012. Modis images shows the subarine eruptive plume and discoloration visible on the sea surface. Previous news eruption : As of the 15th of January 2012 , EO-1 satellite image do not shows any volcanic activity on Jebel Zubaïr archipelago. The volcanic eruption in the Red Sea appears to have stopped, leaving behind a newborn island A satellite image acquired on 7 January showed the newly-formed island in the northern part of the Zubair Group. The island had grown to about 530 x 710 m, and a gas-and-steam plume containing ash rose from a distinct cone. As of the 30th of December, the eruptive activcity is still continuing (MODIS IMAGE). An eruption from the northern part of the Zubair Group continued during 21-27 December. MODIS imagery from NASA's satellites on 22 December showed a plume, possibly containing ash, rising from what was thought to be a submarine eruption. Imagery acquired on 23 December from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed a new island at the location with a plume rising from it, roughly 500 m N of Rugged Island and more than 500 m in diameter. The island was not present in a similar image acquired on 24 October 2007. As of the 22nd of December 2011, according to several informations, a volcanic activity occured off the coast of Yemen, probably from North part of Jebel Zubair volcano islands (Red Sea). However, there is still not a lot of information out there on this eruption. It seems that the eruption started on 19th of December, following a seismic crisis. On 19 and 20th of December a vapor plume was visible from the MODIS satellite images and OMI data revealed SO2 emisions. MODIS imagery from 20 December shows a plume rising from a submarine eruption about 1.5 km SW of Haycock and N of Rugged (near the N end of the Az-Zubair island group), and about 12 km NE of Jebel Zubair island. A bathymetric sketch map made in 1973 indicates a water depth of about 100 m in that area. New Modis image taken on 22nd of December shows clearly a volcanic plume Northwest of the Jebel Zubaïr extending 10 km to the North. A green discoloration was visible on the sea surface located East of the Jebel Zubaïr archipelago suggesting a submarine activity (?). The 5-km-long Jebel Zubair Island is the largest of a group of 10 small islands and submerged shoals that rise from a shallow platform in the Red Sea rift. The platform and eruptive vents forming the islands and shoals of the Zubair Group are oriented NNW-SSE, parallel to the rift. An early explosive phase was followed by a brief period of marine erosion, and then by renewed explosive activity accompanied by the extrusion of basaltic pahoehoe lava flows. This latest phase of activity occurred on the morphologically youngest islands of Zubair, Centre Peak, Saba, and Haycock. Historical explosive activity was reported from Saddle Island in the 19th century. Spatter cones and pyroclastic cones were erupted along fissures that form the low spine of Zubair Island.

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ETHIOPIA - Erta Ale volcano

February 5th, 2012

According to a member of Activ website, and following a recently 2012 fieldtrip a lava lake lies within the South pit-crater of the Erta Ale caldera. This lake was about 15 m depth with 50-60 m diameter. Important degassing occured from incandescent hornitos within the North pit-crater. News 2010 - As of the 5th of March 2010, according to Rafael Werndli reports an unusually hight lava level in the pit crater on Erta Ale in mid February 2010. The lake surface was approximately 20m below the pit's edge. The lava lake had a diameter of 100 to 110m. Occesional floodings of the uppermost terrace were observed. In addition a hornito was active in the north crater, ejecting scoriae and small lava flows. PREVIOUS INFORMATION AND REPORTS : As of the 20th of February 2008, the Stromboli-On-Line website has reported that upon their return to volcano Erta Ale, they found it to be in eruption on the 8th of February and have confirmed this information. Volcanologique de Geneve (SVG) trip on 8-9 February 2008 noted extensions of ropy lava in the N crater. The lake was little changed from the group's last visit in 2005. The group visited the N Crater, and, given its constant degassing, was able to take gas samples. They also measured the lake's surface temperature (700°C). The descent into this crater, seemingly easy, was made difficult by a mantle of very unstable lava scoria. An elevated level of the lava lake halted a subsequent descent.Previous information reported that on 7th of October 2005, according to Ethiopian newspaper an earthquake measuring 4.2 on the Richter scale, jolted northern Ethiopia (Teru area in Afar) on Tuesday triggering eruption of the Erta Ale. According to M; Manahlo Belachew, an expert in the seismology department of Addis Ababa University, the quake which strick the remote region afar is the 11th tremblor to rumble across the region since last month. As of 5th of October a hot spot was visible on the Erta Ale from the MODIS images which could confirmed an eruptive activty this day. Previous new report about recent activity of the Erta Ale : group of scientists assessed the visible changes at Erta Ale on 26 September after activity began around 24 September. In comparison to observations made in November 2004, they found that the southern main crater/pit had widened significantly, with portions of the previous crater walls having collapsed into the lava lake. A new cone-shaped construct had grown within the southern main crater where there had been a platform. A lava lake occupied the entire width of the inner crater/pit. In the northern crater/pit, there was a solidified lava bulge and abundant “smoking” along the crater walls. No incandescent lava was visible in the pit. Based on descriptions by local residents of seeing “red and glowing light shooting and rising into the air above the volcano,” the scientists believe that a Strombolian eruption probably occurred, emitting a significant volume of fresh magma within, and possibly out of, the pit. As of 4th of 0ctober, Personal source reported from Addis Ababa University that the recent earthquake that occured in Afar state has caused landslide and big fissure in Teru locality kebele 02 of the state near the active volcano Mount Erta Ale, a team of geologists who have just returned from the site disclosed. The earthquake observed from September 10 -24, 2005 is the culmination of volcanic activities in the area since millions of years ago, geologists Dr. Derge Ayalew and Dr. Gezahegn Yirgu told WIC. The geologists said the landslide and fissure are indicators that there would be a possible volcanic eruption in the future. The Physical Observatory of the Addis Ababa University recorded on Sunday earthquake that measured 5.5 on Richter scale following earthquake. In Erta Ale the volume of material inside the Crater is actually increasing i.e. rising up to the Crator rim. Due to all this recent geological activity the government is starting to evacuate the people residing around these areas. Previous Erta Ale visit : an international team led by SVE carried out a new visit at the Erta Ale from 22nd of January to 23rd of January 2005. During these two full days at the summit the eruptive activity showed no significant change since our previous observation carried out in November 2005. Degassing activity was still occuring from 3 of the 4 coalescents hornitos located in the SW part of the South crater, but decreased slightly in comparison with our December observations. There were about 10 m high and represented the only portion of the lava crust covering the crater floor where gas emissions were in evidence. One of the hornitos contained glowing molten lava visible from a window located in the upper part. During the clear day of Sunday 23rd of January, members of the team abseiled down within the crater to collect recent lava poured out from the hornitos during partial collapse. Degassing activity (mainly SO2) from the North crater has also slightly decreased in comparison with early December 2004. From a small terrace located in the NW part of the crater it was possible to observe the degassing activity from several hornitos ( some of them were several meters high in the central part of the " lava bulge ") - Near the NW wall of the crater two small red glowing areas were visible at the summit of two other hornitos. Seismic activity of the volcano, together with infrasound signals were recorded by a portable system of the University of Hamburg. Preliminary results of this deployment will be reported soon at this place. Informations : Henry Gaudru, SVE Geneva ; Alexander Gerst , University of Hamburg, Germany ; Georges Kourounis, Derek Tessier, Brian Fletcher (Toronto - Canada) , Motomaro Shirao (Tokyo- Japan) . A previous visit of the SVE-SVG group (4th of December 2004) have permits to observe an important change in the activity of the volcano. The lava lake activity stopped within the South pit crater and a solidified lava crust has filled the whole part of the crater floor (about 15 m below the crater rim). Three (4) coalescent hornitos (about ten meters high) have built on the solidified lava crust in the SE part of the South crater. During the night between 4th of 5th of December, some incandescent degassing lava was visible at the summit of two hornitos. Moreover, we have also noted that a new activity has recently occured within the North crater. A solidified lava bulge uplifted and filled more than 4/5 of the crater floor (about 20-25 below the crater rim). Strong and noisy degassing activity was occcuring in the central part of the lava bulge from several small hornitos. From the smell and bluish color, these gases contained a high quantity of SO2. During the night , ten small incandescent vents were visible at the periphery of the lava bulge. In the morning, two plumes rose above the volcano. Information : Henry Gaudru (SVE) and Co (SVG) - Erta Ale report in case of problem with this link look directly at "articles page" Recent Erta Ale photos 2011 *********************************************************************************************************************************************

INDIA - Barren Island volcano - Andaman islands

February 12th, 2014

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 February an ash plume from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km SW. A SIGMET report noted that low-level ash plumes were also observed on 9 February. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of volcano that rises from a depth of about 2,250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the W, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. The morphology of a fresh pyroclastic cone that was constructed in the center of the caldera has varied during the course of historical eruptions. Lava flows fill much of the caldera floor and have reached the sea along the western coast during historical eruptions.

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Piton de la Fournaise - Eruptive fissure - 16th November 2002 - Photo Laï-Yu (JIR)

PHILIPPINES - Mayon VolcanoJune 13th, 2013 PHIVOLCS reported that during 5-10 June white to off-white steam plumes that drifted WSW, NW, WNW, NNE, and NE, and occasional bluish fumes, were observed at Mayon. Incandescence emanated from the crater during most evenings into early mornings; cloud cover prevented crater observations during 7-8 and 10-11 June. During 5-6 and 9-10 June the seismic network recorded one volcanic earthquake each period, and during 6-7 June one rockfall signal was detected. The Alert Level remained at 1; PHIVOLCS reminded the public not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). PHIVOLCS reported that during 30-31 May diffuse, short-lived, bluish, hydrogen sulfide emissions rose from Mayon, and incandescence from the crater was observed. Sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated between 5 and 388 tonnes per day, remaining below the normal level of 500 tonnes per day. Seismicity was low, while a recently concluded ground deformation survey indicated slight inflation compared to February survey data. Based on the visual observations, and despite that most monitoring parameters remained within baseline levels, PHIVOLCS raised the Alert Level to 1 and reminded the public not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). On 1 June sulfur dioxide emissions were 131 tonnes per day. During 2-3 June the seismic network did not detect any volcanic earthquakes. Moderate emissions of white steam drifted WSW and SW, and weak crater incandescence was observed at night. At 0800 on 8 May, PHIVOLCS reported that two rockfalls at Mayon had been detected within the previous 24 hours. Seismicity remained within background levels and indicated no increase in overall volcanic activity. The Alert Level remained at 0 and the public was reminded not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). As of the 7th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that at 8:00 AM tthis day, produced a small phreatic event that lasted about 73 seconds. The gray to brown clouds reached 500 meters above the summit and drifted west southwest. Ash fell in areas WNW, affecting the barangays of Muladbucad (10 km WSW), Guinobatan (11 km SW), Nabonton (10 km W), Nasisi (11 km W), Basag (10 km W), Tambo, Ligao City (19 km WSW), Albay (19 km SW), and areas upslope of these barangays. One rockfall was detected. No volcanic earthquake was detected within the past 24-hour observation period. Seismic and gas emission parameters remain within background levels and indicate no intensification of volcanic activity. Unfortunatly this phreatic explosion killed several tourists. The hikers apparently were caught in the ash eruption and falling rocks. A total of 27 hikers were on the volcano and requested assistance for rescue. As of reporting time, a total of 10 casualties were reported (five dead, five injured) while six individuals were reportedly unharmed. With the above observations, PHIVOLCS is maintaining an Alert Level 0 status which means that no magmatic eruption is imminent. However, small phreatic explosions including small steam and ash ejections may occur suddenly with little or no warning. It is strongly advised that the public refrain from entering the 6-kilometer radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) due to the threat of sudden steam-driven eruptions and rock falls from the upper and middle slopes of the volcano. Previously,PHIVOLCS reported that since the Alert Level for Mayon was lowered to 1 on 2 March, seismicity decreased, and ground and tilt monitoring data suggested regional faulting and not magmatic intrusion. Steaming from the crater was diffuse and crater incandescence had ceased in March. Sulfur dioxide emissions had decreased to below baseline levels. Mayon, a 2463-metre stratovolcano, is famous for the near-perfect symmetry of its cone, as well as its ability to unleash destructive eruptions, with hazards including pyroclastic flows, lahars and heavy ashfall. Particularly violent eruptions causing many deaths occurred in 1814 and 1897; more recently an eruption in September 1984 caused no fatalities after warnings from Philvolcs brought about the evacuation of more than 70,000 people from at-risk areas near the volcano. Information : PHIVOLCS - Latest satelllite image of the Mayon (every 30 mn)

PHILIPPINES - Taal volcano

September 23rd, 2011

Taal Volcano's seismic network detected seven (7) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Two of these events which occurred at 6:34 P.M. and 7:30 P.M. last night were felt at Intensity II by residents at Barangay Calauit in the southeastern part of the Volcano Island. Field measurements on 20 September 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake yielded slightly increased water temperature of 33.6 ° C from 33.5 ° C, water level at a steady 1.74 meters and more acidic pH of 2.72 from 2.79 as compared to previous readings. Field measurements on 06 September 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake yielded slightly increased water temperature of 33.5 ° C from 33.4 ° C and water level increase of 1.74 meters from 1.65 meters as compared to previous readings. Ground deformation survey (precise leveling) on the Volcano Island last 21-28 July 2011 indicated that the volcano edifice is slightly deflated compared with 01-10 June 2011, but is nonetheless still inflated compared with baseline data. Baselines calculated from continuous GPS (Global Positioning System) data for the period February to July 2011 also recorded a very slight but steady inflation of the northeast flank of the Volcano Island. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission recorded on 27 June 2011 at the Main Crater Lake was 1,821 tonnes/day, which is above background levels. Field measurements on 30 August 2011 at the western sector of the Main Crater Lake yielded slightly decreased water temperature of 32.9 ° C from 33.6 ° C and water level increase of 1.29 meters from 1.20 meters as compared to previous readings.  Field measurements conducted last 26 July 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature remained unchanged at 33.4 ° C, the water level increased from 0.86 meter to 0.91 meter and the pH value showed insignificant change from 2.85 to 2.86 as compared with the previous readings on 12 July 2011.  Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. Measurements conducted last 19 July 2011 at the western sector of the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature changed slightly from 33.4 ° C to 33.0°C. The water level decreased from 0.85 meter to 0.81 meter and the pH value became less acidic from 2.80 to 2.91. Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake.  Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 01 - 10 June 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is slightly inflated relative to 26 April - 03 May 2011 survey.  Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate last 27 June 2011 at Taal Main Crater Lake yielded a value of 1,821 tonnes per day which is above the background level. As of the 18th of July, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded five (5) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. One (1) of these events was felt at Intensity II at Calauit, a barangay located at the eastern sector of the volcano. Field measurements conducted last 12 July 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature changed slightly from 33.4 ° C to 33.6°C. The water level increased from 0.74 meter to 0.86 meter and the pH value became less acidic from 2.74 to 2.85.  Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 01 - 10 June 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is slightly inflated relative to 26 April - 03 May 2011 survey.  Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate last 27 June 2011 at Taal Main Crater Lake yielded a value of 1,821 tonnes per day which is above the background level. Taal Volcano's status remains at Alert Level 1. As of the 5th of July. PHIVOLCS reported that Eleven (11) weeks after Taal Volcano's alert status was raised from Level 1 to Level 2 on 09 April 2011, the following monitoring parameters have been observed: 1.  The number of volcanic earthquakes recorded daily gradually declined to low levels beginning 1 st week of June 2011. From June 2 to 5, four (4) to eight (8) volcanic earthquakes were detected per day. Since June 6 to present, the number of recorded volcanic earthquakes further decreased to a daily count of zero (0) to six (6) small events. No perceptible volcanic earthquake has occurred since 02 June. 2.   Hydrothermal and steaming activities in the northern and northeast sides of the Main Crater and Daang Kastila area have abated.  Since 01 June 2011, the Main Crater Lake temperature remained at 32.5 ° C to 33.4 ° C, and despite becoming more acidic, measured pH of 2.78 – 2.59 vary around the baseline level of pH above 2.5.  All other geochemical parameters are returning to background levels. Bubbling activity at the northeastern sector of Main Crater Lake weakened and the activity has ceased in some of the bubbling sites. 3.   Ground temperature and total magnetic field measurements at Daang Kastila and in the Main Crater showed no significant changes in both parameters. 4.  Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) gas measurements at the Main Crater Lake since March 2011 showed a decreasing trend. From an elevated value of 4,670 tonnes per day (t/d) in March, CO 2 decreased to 2,057 t/d in May and then to 1,821 t/d in June. 5.  Precise leveling in June 2011 along the flanks of Volcano Island and Global Positioning System (GPS) data from November 2010 to June showed that the volcano is slightly inflated.  Ground deformation data, nonetheless, are not suggestive of large pressure build-up within the volcano edifice. The above observations suggest that Taal Volcano's activity has declined. In view thereof, PHIVOLCS is now lowering the status of the volcano from Alert Level 2 to Alert Level 1. As of the 24th of June, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded one (1) volcanic earthquake during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted last 21 June 2011 at the western sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 32.9 ° C to 33.1°C, the water level increased from 0.33 meter to 0.60 meter and the water became more acidic (pH value from 2.88 to 2.62) as compared with the previous readings on 31 May 2011.  Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake.  Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 1 - 10 June 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is slightly inflated relative to the 26 April - 03 May 2011 survey. Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas emission rates last 03-04 May 2011 at Taal Main Crater Lake yielded a value of 2,057 tonnes per day (t/d) which is above the background level. As of the 17th of June, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded four (4) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted last 14 June 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature decreased to 32.9°C from 33.8 ° C, the water level increased to 0.59 meter from 0.31 meter and the pH value showed an insignificant change to 2.67 from 2.69 as compared with the previous readings on 7 June 2011.  Bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. As of the 3rd of June, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded four (4) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted last 31 May 2011 at the western sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 32.5 ° C to 32.9°C, and the pH value became more acidic decreasing from 2.72 to 2.60.  Bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. As of the 2nd of June, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded thirteen (13) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Two of these events were felt at   Intensity II by residents of Calauit located at the eastern sector of the volcano. The events were reportedly accompanied with rumbling sounds. As of the 1st of June, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded twenty two (22) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Two of these events were felt at   Intensity II by residents of Calauit, Tuoran and Bignay located at the eastern sector of the volcano. The events were reportedly accompanied with rumbling sounds. Field measurements conducted on 31 May 2011 at the western sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 32.5 ° C to 32.9°C, and the pH value became more acidic decreasing from 2.72 to 2.60. Bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. As of the 30th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that a remarkable increase in the seismic activity occured on Taal Volcano. For the past 24 hours, Taal‘s seismic network detected a total of one hundred fifteen (115) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Twelve of these events were felt at Intensity I – IV by residents of Pira-piraso, Alas-as and Calauit located at northeast, southwest and southeast sectors of Volcano Island, respectively. One of these events (8:32 PM, 29 May) was felt at Intensity I, nine (9)  events (1:02:19 AM, 1:02:26 AM, 2:32 AM, 2:53 AM, 2:12 AM, 3:08:19 AM, 3:08:52 AM, 3:17 AM, 3:19 AM, 3:26 AM 30 May) were felt at Intensity II, one event (1:26 AM 30 May) was felt at Intensity III and another one (1:05 AM 30 May) was  felt at Intensity IV. All of these felt events were reportedly accompanied by rumbling sounds. As of the 26th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded three (3) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Field measurements conducted on 24 May 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature slightly increased from 32.5 ° C to 32.8°C, the pH value became more slightly acidic decreasing from 2.83 to 2.67 and the water level increased from 0.21 meter to 0.25 meter. Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 26 April - 03 May 2011 showed that the volcano edifice inflated slightly relative to the 05-11 April 2011 survey. Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas emission rates last 03-04 May 2011 at Taal Main Crater yielded a lower value of 2,057 tonnes per day (t/d) compared with that measured last March 2011 which had a value of 4,750 t/d. However, the obtained value is still higher than the emission rates of 1,875 t/d measured last February 2011. Previously, as of the 18th of may, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded five (5) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  As of the 13th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded five (5) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Field measurements conducted May 13, 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature slightly increased from 32.0°C (May 5, 2011) to 32.5°C. The water is still acidic with the pH value remained at 2.94 and the water level slightly increased from 0.19 meter to 0.21 meter as compared with the reading on May 5, 2011. Results of the ground deformation measurement (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 26 April -03 May 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is still inflated as compared with the 05-11 April 2011 survey. Results of gas measurements conducted between 03-04 May 2011 at Taal Main Crater yielded a carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of 2,057 tonnes per day (t/d). This emission value is down from 4,750 t/d last March 2011, but still higher than the emission rates of 1,875 t/d measured last February 2011. As of the 6th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded six (6) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted on 05 May 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 31.5 ° C to 32.0 ° C, the water became more acidic with pH value decreasing from 3.09 to 2.94 and the water level further receded to 0.19 meters from the 0.23 meters as compared to the last reading on 19 April 2011. As of the 25th of April, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded fourteen (14 ) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.Field observation and measurements conducted at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 30.5 ° C to 31.5 ° C. Result of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 05-11 April 2011 showed that volcano edifice is slightly inflated as compared with the 02-09 February 2011 survey. As of the 23rd of April, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded nineteen (19) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. One of these events, which occurred at 12:23 midnight, was felt at Intensity II at Brgy. Calauit on the southeastern part of the Volcano Island. Another event which occurred at 4:31 AM today was felt at Intensity III in Brgy. Pira-piraso at the northeastern part of Volcano Island accompanied by rumbling sounds.  Field observation and measurements conducted at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the temperature at the Main Crater Lake increased from 30.5 ° C to 31.5 ° C. As of the 19th of April, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded six (6) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Alert Level 2 is hoisted over Taal Volcano with the interpretation that magma has been intruding towards the surface, as manifested by CO 2 being released in the Main Crater Lake and increase in seismic activity.  Hence, PHIVOLCS advises the public that the Main Crater, Daang Kastila Trail and Mt. Tabaro (1965 -1977 Eruption Site) are strictly off-limits because sudden hazardous steam-driven explosions may occur and high concentrations of toxic gases may accumulate.  Breathing air with high concentration of gases can be lethal to human, animals and even cause damage to vegetation.  In addition, it is reminded that entire Volcano Island is a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ), and permanent settlement in the island is strictly not recommended. Taal volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines and has produced some of its most powerful historical eruptions. In contrast to Mayon volcano, Taal is not topographically prominent, but its prehistorical eruptions have greatly changed the topography of SW Luzon. The 15 x 20 km Talisay (Taal) caldera is largely filled by Lake Taal, whose 267 sq km surface lies only 3 m above sea level. The maximum depth of the lake is 160 m, and several eruptive centers lie submerged beneath the lake. The 5-km-wide Volcano Island in north-central Lake Taal is the location of all historical eruptions. The island is a complex volcano composed of coalescing small stratovolcanoes, tuff rings, and scoria cones that has grown about 25% in area during historical time. Powerful pyroclastic flows and surges from historical eruptions of Taal have caused many fatalities (gvn).

PHILIPPINES - Bulusan volcano

April 28h, 2012

As of the PHIVOLCS reported that the Alert Level for Bulusan was lowered to 0 (on a scale of 0-5) on 24 April following a decline in activity after a phreatic eruption on 13 May 2011. The frequency of earthquakes decreased to baseline levels of 0-2 per day, measurements indicated deflation since late November 2011, and steaming activity from the crater and known thermal vents had been frequently weak compared to more moderate steam emissions during periods of unrest. Entry into the permanent danger zone, defined by a 4-km radius around the volcano, remained prohibited. Bulusan lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic Bulusan complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit of 1565-m-high Bulusan volcano is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Bulusan since the mid-19th century.

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Mayon volcano - Philippines

INDONESIA Volcanoes activity VSI - CVGHM reports : Recent events in 2013- 2014

Merapi (Java) - PVMBG reported explosions from Merapi on 9 March 2014. An explosion detected at 0654 was followed by a plume observed on CCTV from Pasarbubar that drifted W. Two Explosions were also recorded at 0655. At 0708 a volcanic earthquake occurred and CCTV in Market Bubar recorded brown plumes that rose 1.5 km above the crater. At 0730 ash fell in the villages of Umbulharjo (30 km S), Kepuharjo, Sidorejo (27 km NNE), and Balerante (6 km SSE). During 14-20 March dense gas plumes rose 600 m. Seismicity was at normal levels. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 27 March an ash plume rose to an altitude of 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The VAAC noted that an eruption occurred around 0630, confirmed by a news article. Ash had dissipated the next day. Another news article noted that the increased activity lasted only four minutes, from 0112 to 0116, and that ashfall occurred on the S and SE flanks. Previously, as of the 12th of December, CVGHM reported that some ash emission occurred from the summit of the volcano with. Previously, according to a preliminary news from CVGHM, following a slight increasing of the seismicity a strong explosive activity occurred on the morning of 18th of November 2013 between 4 AM and 6:30 AM producing an ashplume that rose more than 2000 m high above the volcano. Ashfalls occurred to the South and East flank of the volcano until the small town of Selo at about 30 km South. People living in the Giagahharjo and Sleman evacuated spontanouasly their villages. The Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately N of the major city of Yogyakarta. The steep-sided modern Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, was constructed to the SW of an arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated and inhabited lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time. The volcano is the object of extensive monitoring efforts by the Merapi Volcano Observatory (MVO).

Tangkubanparahu volcano ( Java) - PVMBG reported a phreatic eruption from Tangkubanparahu at 0621 on 5 October. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). As of the 8th of October CVGHM reported that activity continues characterized by small explosive eruptions and increase in earthquakes. Aall signs that the unrest that started last fall is persists. The volcano had a series of smaller phreatic explosions this past spring, but the increase in seismicity over the last year could suggest new magma continues to rise up into the system at Tangkubanparahu. So far, the activity has been fairly minor, but with all of these Indonesian volcanoes, abundant precautions need to be taken due to the proximity of populated areas to the volcanoes. The PVBMG raised the alert status at Tangkuban Perahu to Level 2 (of 4). CVGHM reported that phreatic eruptions from Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater occurred on 28 February 2013 and during 4-6 March, and generated ash plumes that rose up to 100 m above the crater. Sulfur dioxide emissions increased to a high level on 24 February and then decreased through 3 March. Sulfur dioxide emissions again increased during 5-9 March; CVGHM speculated that the increase was due to an enlargement of the eruptive vent, which had grown to a diameter of 20 m. Gas emissions decreased abruptly on 10 March and emission sounds stopped. Seismicity had significantly increased on 22 February, marked by a growing number of daily events. A significant decrease was detected on 9 March. Deflation was detected from 24 February through early March, but was then stable during 7-14 March. On 18 March the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4). CVGHM reported that on 21 February tremor increased at tangkubanparahu and diffuse ash emissions rose from Ratu Crater. Based on the seismicity, visual observations, and temperature increases of the land around the crater, the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and visitors were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. Tangkubanparahu is a broad shield-like stratovolcano overlooking Indonesia's former capital city of Bandung that was constructed within the 6 x 8 km Pleistocene Sunda caldera. The volcano's low profile is the subject of legends referring to the mountain of the "upturned boat." The rim of Sunda caldera forms a prominent ridge on the western side; elsewhere the caldera rim is largely buried by deposits of Tangkubanparahu volcano. The dominantly small phreatic historical eruptions recorded since the 19th century have originated from several nested craters within an elliptical 1 x 1.5 km summit depression. Tangkubanparahu last erupted in September 1983, when ash rose up to 150 m above the rim of Kawah Ratu. (GVN/GVP)

Dieng volcano complex (Java) - CVGHM reported that on 28 March 2013 gas emissions continued to be elevated at Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Plumes containing carbon dioxide drifted 2 km towards the S valley of Kali Sat, prompting a road closure until the early evening when the gas concentration decreased. On 30 March carbon dioxide gas emissions were not detected; however, "smoke" rose at most 100 m above the crater. Hydrogen sulfide odors were very potent in areas 1 km W and weak in areas 1.5 km S. On 19 April sulfur dioxide odors were reported. On 24 March Sileri Crater lake water changed from dark gray to brown. On 7 April white plumes rose 50 m and the water color returned to normal. Diffuse white plumes rose 15 m on 20 April. Other craters had not exhibited any changes by 28 April. Based on gas concentrations, seismicity, and visual observations, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 May and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 500-m radius.
CVGHM reported that during 10-26 March gas emissions continued to be elevated at Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Plumes containing carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide drifted 2 km, and were toxic at a distance of 550 m. Seismicity increased during 13-26 March and then significantly increased on 27 March. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 27 March and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 1 km radius. CVGHM reported that during 7-11 March 2013 instruments monitoring the Dieng Volcanic Complex detected carbon dioxide plumes from Timbang Crater drifting 50-200 m S; the concentration increased during 9-10 March. A strong sulfur odor was also reported, along with dead animals near the crater on 7 March. Observers noted white plumes rising from the crater that were diffuse during 7-8 March and dense during 9-10 March. Because of the increase of carbon dioxide emissions, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 11 March and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 500 m radius. The Dieng plateau in the highlands of central Java is renowned both for the variety of its volcanic scenery and as a sacred area housing Java's oldest Hindu temples, dating back to the 9th century AD. The Dieng volcanic complex consists of two or more stratovolcanoes and more than 20 small craters and cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age over a 6 x 14 km area. Prahu stratovolcano was truncated by a large Pleistocene caldera, which was subsequently filled by a series of dissected to youthful cones, lava domes, and craters, many containing lakes. Lava flows cover much of the plateau, but have not occurred in historical time, when activity has been restricted to minor phreatic eruptions. Toxic volcanic gas emission has caused fatalities and is a hazard at several craters. The abundant thermal features that dot the plateau and high heat flow make Dieng a major geothermal prospect.

Guntur volcano (Java) - CVGHM reported that in early March 2013 a slight increase of deep and shallow volcanic-tectonic earthquakes at Guntur was recorded; volcanic tremor became continuous on 2 April, prompting CVGHM to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Temperature measurements of hot springs in five different areas fluctuated until mid-April and then were relatively stable through early May. Seismicity also decreased in early May. On 7 May the Alert Level was lowered to 1. Guntur is a complex of several overlapping stratovolcanoes about 10 km NW of the city of Garut in western Java. Young lava flows, the most recent of which was erupted in 1840, are visible on the flanks of the erosionally unmodified Gunung Guntur, which rises about 1,550 m above the plain of Garut. Guntur is one of a group of younger cones constructed to the SW of an older eroded group of volcanoes at the NE end of the complex. Guntur, whose name means "thunder," is the only historically active center, with eruptions having been recorded since the late-17th century. Although Guntur produced frequent explosive eruptions in the 19th century, making it one of the most active volcanoes of western Java, it has not erupted since. (GVN/GVP)

Kawah Ijen volcano (Java) - CVGHM reported that during 1 July-25 August 2013 diffuse white plumes rose
100-150 m above Ijen's crater, the lake water was light green, and seismicity decreased. On 26 August the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors, tourists, miners, and hikers were reminded not to approach the crater within 1 km.reviously, CVGHM reported that, although weather conditions at Ijen often prevented views of the volcano during 1-24 July 2012, white plumes were occasionally observed rising 50-100 m above the crater. Seismicity indicated unrest, and along with visual observations, prompted CVGHM to raise the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 24 July. CVGHM reported that during 1-30 April white plumes from Ijen rose 100-200 m above the crater; during 1-11 May diffuse white plumes rose 50-100 m. From the beginning of April until 13 May the amplitude and number of earthquakes gradually decreased and the crater lake water temperature decreased by eight degrees Celsius. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 13 May. On 24 March 2012, CVGHM reported that Ijen's lake water chemistry changed during 10 January-17 March, exhibiting a significant increase in carbon dioxide, especially after 5 February, and an increase in acidity. The lake surface temperature increased from 28.8 degrees Celsius on 3 March to 45.1 degrees Celsius on 17 March. The lake water temperature at a depth of 5 m also rose from 42.7 to 44.7 degrees Celsius on 3 and 17 March, respectively. Seismicity increased starting in March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). CVGHM raised the Alert Level for Ijen from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 March because of increased seismicity and visual observations. On 10 March scientists observed some plant damage around the crater lake and a 10-m-wide area of disrupted water on the crater-lake surface.CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Ijen from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 February based on decreased seismicity and visual observations of white plumes rising as high as 300 m above the crater. In addition, a decrease in lake water temperature was measured, which ranged from 42 degrees Celsius on 20 January to 37 degrees on 2 February. The Ijen volcano complex consists of a group of small stratovolcanoes constructed within the large 20-km-wide Ijen (Kendeng) caldera. The N caldera wall forms a prominent arcuate ridge, but elsewhere the caldera rim is buried by post-caldera volcanoes, including Gunung Merapi stratovolcano, which forms the 2,799 m high point of the Ijen complex. Immediately W of Gunung Merapi is the renowned historically active Kawah Ijen volcano, which contains a nearly 1-km-wide, turquoise-colored, acid crater lake. The picturesque lake is the site of a labor-intensive sulfur mining operation, in which sulfur-laden baskets are hand-carried from the crater floor. A half dozen small-to-moderate phreatic eruptions have taken place from Kawah Ijen during the 20th century.

Papandayan volcano (Java) - CVGHM reported that observers at the Papandayan observation post in Pakuwon Village reported no significant changes at Papandayan during May and the beginning of June. They noted that during May plumes rose less than 100 m above Baru and Emas craters, and during 1-5 June 2013 plumes rose 20 m at most. The energy of volcanic earthquakes sharply increased during 2-4 May, and
then decreased on 5 May. The average number of volcanic earthquakes declined from 35-49 events per day in early-to-mid May, to 14 events per day in mid-to-late May. The number of events continued to decline through
the beginning of June. The number of local tectonic earthquakes also decreased significantly from an average of 67-71 events per day in early-to-mid May, to 2-17 events per day the latter half of May, to about 2 events per day in early June. Based on the visual observations and decline in seismicity, CVGHM lowered
the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).CVGHM reported that during 1 April-5 May 2013 soil temperatures around Papandayan's crater fluctuated but increased overall. During 1-5 May seismicity increased, prompting CVGHM to raise the Alert level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 May. Tourists and residents were reminded not to venture within 2 km of the active crater.Papandayan is a complex stratovolcano with four large summit craters, the youngest of which was breached to the NE by collapse during a brief eruption in 1772 and contains active fumarole fields. The broad 1.1-km-wide, flat-floored Alun-Alun crater truncates the summit of Papandayan, and Gunung Puntang to the N gives the volcano a twin-peaked appearance. Several episodes of collapse have given the volcano an irregular profile and produced debris avalanches that have impacted lowland areas beyond the volcano. Since its first historical eruption in 1772, in which a catastrophic debris avalanche destroyed 40 villages, only two small phreatic eruptions have occurred from vents in the NE-flank fumarole field, Kawah Mas. (GVN/GVP)

Mount Semeru ( Java) - CVGHM reported that during 1-29 February 2012 multiple pyroclastic flows from
Semeru traveled 500 and 2,500 m into the Besuk Kembar and Besuk Kobokan rivers (on the S flank), respectively. During 1 February-30 April dense gray-to-white plumes rose 100-500 m above Jongring Seloko crater and drifted W and N. Incandescence was visible up to 50 m above the crater during 1 February-31 March. Seismicity decreased from March to April. Observations indicated that the lava dome grew in April. On 2 May CVGHM lowered the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and reminded the public not to approach the crater within a 4-km radius. . On 3 February 2012 , CVGHM reported that from 29 December 2011 to 2 February 2012 seismicity increased at Semeru, and dense white and gray plumes rose as high as 600 m above the Jonggring Seloko crater. During the month of January crater incandescence was observed and avalanches carried incandescent material 200-400 m away from the crater. On 2 February a large explosion was reported and incandescent material was ejected 2.5 km from the crater. Based on the seismic activity and visual observations, CVGHM raised the Alert Level from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 2 February. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The volcano, rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967

Mount Kelut (Java) - PVMBG noted that the Alert Level for Kelut was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 28 February.
During 16-20 February white plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted N, NE, and E. Heavy rain on 18 February caused lahars in Ngobo, Mangli (Kediri, 35 km WNW), Bladak (Blitar, 20 km SW), and Konto (Malang, 35 km E). BNPB noted that the lahars flooded five houses and one mosque, and destroyed two homes and one bridge. The report noted that four out of the five seismic stations monitoring Kelut were destroyed during the eruption. The one remaining station, 5 km away, recorded declining seismicity during 14-20 February. Two more seismic stations were installed, 2-3 km from the crater, on 16 February. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 on 20 February. Visitors and residents were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km; residents outside of the 5-km restricted zone were permitted to return home. Another 18 February report noted that a total of seven people in Malang had died, and that the ashfall had affected cattle health and dairy production, farms, and the water supply. Damage to infrastructure in Malang included 3,782 houses, 20 government buildings, 251 schools, nine hospitals, and 36 churches. Towns and cities as far away as 80 miles (130 km) away have experienced ash falls up to 5 cm thick. The ash fall also caused roofs to collapse under the weight of the ash leading to the 3 reported deaths. Since the beginning of January 2014 there had been an increase in both shallow and deep volcanogenic earthquakes along with an increase in water temperature at the crater lake, leading to the alert level being raised to 3 (out of 4) and a 5km restriction zone around the crater.PVMBG reported that at 2115 on 13 February the Alert Level for Kelut was raised to 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and residents were prohibited from approaching the crater within a 10-km radius. BNPB reported that a major eruption occurred less than two hours later at 2250, followed by another large explosion at 2330. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 17 km (55,800 ft) a.s.l. and caused ashfall in areas NE, NW, and W, as far as Pacitan (133 km WSW), Kulon Progo (236 km W), Temanggung (240 km WNW), and Banyuwangi (228 km E). Forty flights from the Juanda (81 km NE), Adi Sucipto Yogya (208 km W), and Adi Sumarmo Solo (175 km WNW) airports were cancelled. News articles reported that flights in and out of seven airports were cancelled or rerouted. Ashfall and tephra 5-8 cm in diameter caused structures to collapse, including schools, homes, and businesses. On 14 February BNPB reported that the eruption had killed four people: one died due to a collapsing wall, one from ash inhalation, and two from"shortness of breath". All four victims lived within 7 km of Kelut in the regency of Malang, an area that received ashfall up to 20 cm thick. By 0600 the number of displaced people reached 100,248, but the report also noted that activity had declined. A report issued later that day noted that 76,388 people remained evacuated. Seismicity continued to decline and was at moderate levels during 15-17 February. Previously, PVMBG reported that during 3-10 February 2014 seismic activity at Kelut was dominated by both shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes; earthquake hypocenters were 3 km below the summit. RSAM values increased on 6 and 9 February. Inflation was detected at one station. Crater lake water temperatures increased since September 2013, particularly during 23 January-9 February. Temperatures decreased slightly on 10 February. Based on increased seismicity, inflation, and higher water temperatures, PVMBG increased the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 10 February. Visitors and residents were prohibited from approaching the crater within a 5-km radius. PVMBG reported that during 1 January-2 February the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes at Kelut increased, with peaks of seismicity occurring during 15-16 January, 28 January, and 2 February. The number of volcanic earthquakes also fluctuated but increased overall. Earthquakes occurred 2-8 km below Kelut. The temperature in the crater lake increased 5.5 degrees Celsius since 10 September 2013. On 2 February the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The relatively inconcspicuous 1,731-m-high Kelut stratovolcano contains a summit crater lake that has been the source of some of Indonesia's most deadly eruptions. A cluster of summit lava domes cut by numerous craters has given the summit a very irregular profile. More than 30 eruptions have been recorded from Gunung Kelut since 1000 AD. The ejection of water from the crater lake during Kelut's typically short, but violent eruptions has created pyroclastic flows and lahars that have caused widespread fatalities and destruction. After more than 5,000 people were killed during the 1919 eruption, an ambitious engineering project sought to drain the crater lake. This initial effort lowered the lake by more than 50 m, but the 1951 eruption deepened the crater by 70 m, leaving 50 million cubic meters of water after repair of the damaged drainage tunnels. After more than 200 people were killed in the 1966 eruption, a new deeper tunnel was constructed, lowering the lake's volume to only about 1 million cubic meters prior to the 1990 eruption. Previous large eruption occured in 2007 characterized by a lava dome formation in the crater lake..GVN/GVP)

Slamet volcano ( central Java ) - PVMBG reported that during 8-14 March dense white plumes rose as high as
1.2 km above Slamet, and ash plumes rose 800-1,000 m and drifted E. Incandescence from the crater was observed at 2148 during an eruption on 14 March. Brownish-white plumes rose 2 km on 15 March and ash plumes rose 1.2 km and again drifted E. During 22-28 March white-to-gray plumes rose 1.3 km. Dense gray ash plumes rose 2 km and drifted W. White plumes were observed on 29 March. Various seismic signals including shallow volcanic earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and volcanic earthquakes fluctuated during 8-28 March. Carbon dioxide emissions significantly increased during 17-20 March. PVMBG noted that activity, based on visual and instrument monitoring, continued to fluctuate; on 29 March the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were warned not approach the crater within a radius of 2 km. PVMBG reported that seismicity at Slamet increased during 1-10 March 2014, particularly during 8-10 March. Observers at a post in Slamet Gambuhan village, about 10 km away, noted that diffuse to dense white plumes rose as high as 600 m above the crater during 1-7 March, and as high as 1 km during 8-10 March. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 10 March; visitors and tourists were advised not to approach the crater within a radius of 2 km. Slamet, Java's second highest volcano at 3428 m and one of its most active, has a cluster of about three dozen cinder cones on its lower SE-NE flanks and a single cinder cone on the western flank. Slamet is composed of two overlapping edifices, an older basaltic-andesite to andesitic volcano on the west and a younger basaltic to basaltic-andesite one on the east. Gunung Malang II cinder cone on the upper eastern flank on the younger edifice fed a lava flow that extends 6 km to the east. Four craters occur at the summit of Gunung Slamet, with activity migrating to the SW over time. Historical eruptions, recorded since the 18th century, have originated from a 150-m-deep, 450-m-wide, steep-walled crater at the western part of the summit and have consisted of explosive eruptions generally lasting a few days to a few weeks. (GVN/GVP)

Lokon-Empung volcano (Sulawesi) - As of the 25th of September, according to a news article, a spokesperson from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) stated that activity at Lokon-Empung continued to decline after a 9 September eruption. The frequency of deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes had continued to decline. Based on ground reports from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 September an ash plume from Lokon-Empung rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Ash was not detected in satellite images due to meteorological clouds. According to a news article an explosion at 0630 generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km; the explosion was heard 10 km away. The VAAC noted that the next day ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. although ash was again not identified in satellite images. Based on both web-camera views and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 April an ash plume from Lokon-Empung rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery. As of the 8th of April, CVGHM reported that following an increasing of the seismic activity new strong explosive activity occurred in the morning few before 10 AM (local time) - 2AM GMT - A volcanic ash plume rose to about 3000 m high above the volcano. Following the main explosion ash emission continued. Previously, according to a news article, an eruption from Lokon-Empung occurred on 20 March at 0757, producing an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater. According to news articles, Lokon-Empung erupted twice on 31 January, producing an ash plume that rose 800 m after the first eruption. Seismicity had increased the day before. In another article the head of the Lokon observation post reported that eruptions from Lokon occurred daily, and specifically that nine eruptions had occurred on 2 February. The twin volcanoes Lokon and Empung, rising about 800 m above the plain of Tondano, are among the most active volcanoes of Sulawesi. Lokon, the higher of the two peaks (whose summits are only 2.2 km apart) has a flat, craterless top. The morphologically younger Empung volcano has a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep crater that erupted last in the 18th century, but all subsequent eruptions have originated from Tompaluan, a 150 x 250 m wide double crater situated in the saddle between the two peaks. Historical eruptions have primarily produced small-to-moderate ash plumes that have occasionally damaged croplands and houses, but lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows have also occurred.

Iliwerung volcano (Lesser Sunda Islands)- CVGHM reported that observers at a post 6 km away from Iliwerung reported that diffuse fumarolic emissions from the crater were visible during the mornings from 19 August to 1 September 2013. Seismicity decreased on 19 August and remained at normal levels. On 2 September the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 0-4).As of the 21st of August 2013, CVGHM reported that observers at a post 590 m a.s.l. and 6 km away from Iliwerung reported that diffuse fumarolic emissions from the crater were visible during the mornings from 1 to 19 August. Seismicity fluctuated during the month, but 81 shallow volcanic earthquakes were detected between 1606 and 1741 on 19 August, compared to a total of 30 the previous 18 days. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-4). At 0714 on 20 August an eruption from the submarine SE flank vent, Hobal, ejected dense white plumes 2 km a.s.l. that drifted S. Incandescence at sea level was observed at 0746, and the water around the eruption site turned yellow. Fishermen and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km-radius of Hobal. Constructed on the southern rim of the Lerek caldera, Iliwerung forms a prominent S-facing peninsula on Lomblen Island. Craters and lava domes have formed along N-S and NW-SE lines on the complex volcano; during historical time vents from the summit to the submarine SE flank have been active. The Iliwerung summit lava dome was formed during an eruption in 1870. In 1948 Iligripe lava dome grew on the eastern flank at 120 m altitude. Beginning in 1973-74, when three ephemeral islands were formed, submarine eruptions began on the lower SE flank at a vent named Hobal; several other eruptions took place from this vent before the end of the century.

Paluweh volcano (Lesser Sunda Islands) - PVMBG reported that observers at a post located in Kampung Ropa, Keliwumbu Village, noted that during January-5 April 2014 activity at Paluweh mainly consisted of white and gray fumarolic plumes rising at most 100 m above the lava dome and drifting W, N, and E. The report stated that the lava dome
had not changed between September 2013 and March 2014 observations. Seismicity had decreased in November 2013 and remained low; the number of avalanches had also decreased. On 7 April the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Previously, as of the 10th of August, CVGHM reported that an eruption occured from Paluweh volcano (also known as Rokatenda) killed at least 5 people during pyroclastics flows emission that swept from the active crater to the Pung beach (Northwest flank of the volcano) and reached the Ngarue village. Pyroclastic flows were generated by partial lava-dome collapse. A volcanologist at the monitoring post for Paluweh noted that the eruption lasted seven minutes, and that the pyroclastic flow burned trees around the beach and villages, making it difficult to reach the victims. Pyroclastic flows continued to be reported hours after the initial eruption. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km W. News sources noted that a mandatory evacuation order had caused some residents to evacuate prior to the eruption on 10 August, but nearly 10,000 still remained on the island. After the eruption, a rescue team was sent to evacuate about 2,000 people that remained inside a 3-km exclusion zone. A team member noted that rescuing people was difficult since they were reluctant to leave their livestock and homes, but also that the ground was hot and covered in 10-20 cm of ash. The VAAC reported that during 11-12 August ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110-130 km W. A news article noted that the eruptions were smaller on 12 August, but pyroclastic flows continued to be observed. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-4).This eruption in itself was fairly small, producing a plume that was only ~2 km .Paluweh has been producing these small eruptions frequently over the past year, so local villages had starting ignoring the mandatory evacuation order. Previously, based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 June 2013 ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km SE. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 and 24 May ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km NW, W, and E. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 May 2013 ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km WNW and NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5 May 2013 ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-55 km SW and W. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29-30 April ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-110 km NW and W.Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 April an ash plume from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km NW.Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 April an ash plume from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37 km E. During 6-7 April ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km W and WSW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27 March-1 April ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.7 km (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-100 km N, NE, and E. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-21 and 24-26 March ash plumes from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-335 km SW, WSW, W, NW, and NE. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13 and 17-19 March ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4 km (7,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-95 km E, W, and WNW.Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-12 March ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4 km (7,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-75 km E and NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-18 February ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km E and NE. On 2 February an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 4 km and was accompanied by booms and rumbling. The ash plume drifted S and deposited ashfall up to 1 mm thick in Ende (60 km S); thick ashfall was reported in Ona (SE part of the island) and thin deposits were reported in other areas of the island to the W, N, and E. About 25% of the S portion of the dome was lost; the lava-dome volume was an estimated 5.1 million cubic meters on 13 January.(lava dome video) .On 3 February an ash eruption was observed as well as incandescence from the crater. During 4-10 February diffuse white plumes rose 50-100 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors and residents were prohibited from approaching the crater within a 3-km-radius. NE. (satellite image). Due to the growing lava dome several valley located West and Southwest around now could be impacted in addition to the South open valley Several villages are directly threatened with the eruptive activity (Nitunglea, Rokirole, Tuanggeo, Ona, Wolondopo). Ashfalls also could be occurs around the volcano. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-12 February ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-110 km NW, NNW, and N. According to news articles, an explosion from Paluweh occurred at 2300 on 2 February and was clearly heard by local residents. Authorities evacuated by boat all residents from the eight villages on the island. Ashfall was reported during 2-3 February. Paluweh volcano, also known as Rokatenda, forms the 8-km-wide island of Paluweh N of the volcanic arc that cuts across Flores Island. Although the volcano rises about 3,000 m above the sea floor, its summit reaches only 875 m above sea level. The broad irregular summit region contains overlapping craters up to 900 m wide and several lava domes. Several flank vents occur along a NW-trending fissure. The largest historical eruption of Paluweh occurred in 1928, when a strong explosive eruption was accompanied by landslide-induced tsunamis and lava-dome emplacement. (GVN/GVP)

Sangeang Api ( Lesser Sunda islands) - CVGHM reported that during May through 13 June diffuse white plumes rose 10 m above Sangeang Api's crater. Both the lava dome and surrounding areas showed no changes since November 2012. The Alert Level had been increased to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 19 May due to a trend of increasing seismicity; as many as 77 shallow earthquakes and 66 deep earthquakes had been detected daily. Residents and tourists were advised to stay away from the craters within a radius of 5 km. Since then seismicity decreased; 15 shallow earthquakes and three deep earthquakes were recorded on 13 June. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 on 14 June. The public were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 1.5 km. CVGHM reported that during 1-19 May 2013 diffuse white plumes rose 10 m above Sangeang Api's crater. Both the lava dome and surrounding areas showed no changes since November 2012. Seismicity had increased on 26 April and remained high. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 19 May. Residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 5 km. Sangeang Api volcano, one of the most active in the Lesser Sunda Islands, forms a small 13-km-wide island off the NE coast of Sumbawa Island. Two large trachybasaltic-to-tranchyandesitic volcanic cones, 1949-m-high Doro Api and 1795-m-high Doro Mantoi, were constructed in the center and on the eastern rim, respectively, of an older, largely obscured caldera. Flank vents occur on the south side of Doro Mantoi and near the northern coast. Intermittent historical eruptions have been recorded since 1512.

G. Raung (Java) - PVMBG reported that on 1 January 2014 seismicity at Raung increased, on 3 January diffuse white gas plumes rose 100 m and drifted W, and on 4 January diffuse brownish plumes also rose 100 m and drifted W. On 5 January the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). CVGHM reported that during March 2013 white plumes rose at most 400 m above Raung. Seismicity decreased significantly on 25 March, and tremor was absent starting in April. On 5 April the Alert level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.8-km radius. Raung, one of Java's most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The 3,332-m-high, unvegetated summit of Gunung Raung is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the W flank produced a large debris avalanche that traveled 79 km from the volcano, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and W, respective. (GNV/GVP)

Sinabung volcano (Sumatra) - PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 23 March-8 April 2014 based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose at most 1.2 km above the lava dome. Lava had traveled 2.5 km down the flanks as of 6 April and was incandescent at various locations. Incandescent material originating from the edges of the lava dome and flow traveled up to 2 km S and 500 m SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome decreased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied but were relatively insignificant. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km on the S and SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.Based on webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 March an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. Meteorological cloud cover prevented satellite views. Gas emissions were noted on 30 March. PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 15-22 March based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose 500 m above the lava dome daily, and as high as 1 km on 21 March. Lava had traveled 2.4 km down the flanks as of 20 March and was incandescent at various areas. Incandescent material originating from the edges of the lava dome and flow traveled up to 1.5 km S and 200 m SE. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3 km S on 17 March. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome decreased slightly. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied between 300 and 598 tons per day, indicating no new magma. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 8-15 March based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose from the lava dome daily, as high as 1 km on most days; plumes rose 2 km on 12 March. Incandescent material originating from various parts of the lava dome traveled up to 2 km S and SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome increased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied between 300 and 598 tons per day. Observations on 13 March showed that lava from the dome had flowed 2.4 km downslope. The report also noted that three people burned during a pyroclastic flow on 1 February later died in the hospital bringing the total number of casualties from that day to 17. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.Based on wind data, satellite images, and webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-7 and 9-11 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4 km (12,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW. Ash plumes drifted 35-165 km SW and W during 6 and 9-11 March.Based on wind data, webcam images, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25 February-1 March and 3-4 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4 km (10,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km E, NE, N, NW, W, and SW. On 19 February 2014 BNPB reported that villagers outside of the 5-km evacuation zone around Sinabung continued to return to their homes. Based on wind data and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19 and 21-22 February ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-35 km NE and SW. Ash plumes were visible in webcam images during 23-25 February; ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. on 25 February and drifted 45 km E. On 24 February BNPB noted that 16,361 people remained in 34 evacuation shelters. Dense white plumes rose 100-300 m above the dome and incandescent material as far as 2 km SE from the dome was observed. previously,b ased on webcam images, Indonesian Met office notices, wind data, and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-13 and 15-18 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-95 km N, NE, and E. On 16 February BNPB reported that villagers outside of the 5-km evacuation zone around Sinabung slowly return to their homes.Based on reports from PVMBG, BNPB reported on 8 and 9 February 2014 that seismicity at Sinabung continued to be dominated by hybrid earthquakes, indicating pressure below the crater and a growing lava dome. Earthquakes associated with avalanches increased. The 9 February report noted that the number of displaced people reached 32,351 (9,991 families) in 42 evacuation centers. Refugees from 17 villages outside the 5-km radius were allowed to return to their homes, starting with four villages during the first phase.PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 24-31 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. On 24 January dense white plumes rose as high as 1 km. During 25-26 and 28-31 January dense grayish-white plumes rose 0.1-1.5 km; on 27 January plumes rose 4 km. Each day pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km SE and S. Incandescent material was observed 0.2-1.5 km SE of the vent. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes continued to decrease. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that between 1200 and 1800 on 23 January pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5 km down Sinabung's S flank. The number of displaced people reached 28,715 (9,045 families) in 42 evacuation centers. Based on webcam views, satellite images, ground reports, and altitude and drift directions derived from wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-23 and 25-27 January ash plumes rose to an altitude 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-185 km N, NE, and E. PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 10-17 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Each day brownish white or gray and white ash plumes rose as high as 5 km, pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km E, SE, and S, and incandescent material was observed on the S and SE flanks as far as 3 km. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes continued to drop, however. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 3-10 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Each day ash plumes rose as high as 5 km, pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km E, SE, and S, and incandescent material was observed as far as 2 km SE and E. Roaring was periodically heard and burned trees on the S flank were noted on 4 January. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes dropped dramatically, however. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 7 km on the SE flank and 5 km elsewhere. Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that the number of hybrid earthquakes decreased on 11 January and volcanic earthquakes increased. Ash plumes rose 1-5 km and drifted W, and pyroclastic flows traveled 1-4.5 km SE and 1 km E. Several villages in the Namanteran district reported ashfall. The 11 January report noted that the number of displaced people reached 25,516 (7,898 families) in 38 evacuation centers.Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that during 30-31 December 2013 Sinabung continued to be very active. Ash plumes rose as high as 7 km above the lava dome, pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 3.5 km SE, and incandescent avalanches traveled 1.5 km SE. On 3 January 2014 the lava dome continued to grow and collapse. Pyroclastic flows occurred 172 times and traveled 2-4 km SE, and ash plumes rose 2-6 km. Two villages located 6.5 km SE, Jerawa and Desa Pintu Besi, were evacuated. On 4 January pyroclastic flows were larger and more frequent. They continued to travel up to 5 km SE as well as 3.5 km SSE. Ash plumes rose 2-4 km. On 5 January the number of hybrid earthquakes increased, indicating a growing lava dome, and pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5-4.5 km SE. During 4-5 January pyroclastic flows were recorded 426 times. On 7 January ash plumes rose 1-6 km and drifted SW, and pyroclastic flows continued to travel 1.5-4.5 km SE. The number of refugees reached 22,145. PVMBG reported that seismicity at Sinabung increased during 21-26 December and indicated rising magma and lava-dome growth. Observers in Ndokum Siroga, about 8.5 km away, noted dense white plumes rising 70-1,200 m above the crater. Roaring was also periodically heard. A lava dome in the North Crater, visible on 24 December, was 56 m high and 210 m wide. During 25-26 December plumes were white and gray, and rose 300-400 m above the crater. On 26 December the lava-dome volume was estimated to be over 1 million cubic meters, with a growth rate of 3.5 cubic meters per second. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km. On 30 December Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that the number of displaced people reached 19,126 (5, 979 families). They also noted that activity at Sinabung had increased. Collapsing parts of the lava dome generated block-and-ash flows as well as pyroclastic flows which traveled as far as 3.5 km down the SE flank. Explosions and pyroclastic flows generated ash plumes that rose at least 6 km above the crater.PVMBG reported that observers in Ndokum Siroga, about 8.5 km away, noted gray plumes rising 1 km above Sinabung on 6 December 2013. Grayish-white plumes rose as high as 400 m on 7 December, and dense white plumes also rose as high as 400 m the next day. Dense grayish-to-white plumes rose 70-200 m on 9 December. White plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater during 10-13 December. Tremor during 6-13 December was recorded continuously, with varying amplitude. The number of low-frequency earthquakes significantly increased on 7 December, and the number of hybrid earthquakes increased the next day. RSAM values had steadily increased since 28 November. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on webcam data, wind data, satellite image analysis, and PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 December 2013 an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Later that day and during 5-6 December ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 10 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW. A few hours later an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km NW. Based on webcam data and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-31 November and 2 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted 150 km W during 30-31 November and 55 km Won 2 December. On 3 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. According to a news report on 2 December, landslides killed nine people in the Gundaling village, 12 km E. As of the 25th of November 2013, CVGHM reported that explosive activity increasing again during the past days. Eight explosions occurred between Saturday and Sunday and many ashfalls occurred on villages around the volcano (0,5 -1 cm) and until the town of Medan (50 km North). CVGHM raised the Alert level to 4(AWAS) and exclusion zone radius to 3.5 km. About 19 villages with 15.000 people should be evacuated. VAAC raised the alert level for Airlines to Red because the ashplume rose to 7000 m high in the area. On 25 November Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that 17,713 people, out of the 20,270 residents living within 5 km, had been evacuated to 31 helters. Previous news :an explosion observed with the webcam on 18 November 2013 produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. About 30 minutes later an ash plume also visible in satellite images rose to an altitude of 11.3 km (37,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km W. Four hours later satellite images showed ash plumes at an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. to the W of Sinabung and at an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. over the crater. On 19 November the webcam recorded an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. over the crater. A news article stated that later that night that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. Based on webcam data and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 150 km NW and W. According to a news article, a pyroclastic flow traveled 1.2 km down the SE flank on 14 November, prompting more evacuations from villages near the base of the volcano. The article noted that more than 7,000 people had been evacuated from 10 villages. Based on information from the Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, webcam data, wind data, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The next day an ash plume rose to the same altitude but was not observed in satellite images due to meteorological cloud cover. According to webcam views an eruption on 8 November produced a low-level ash plume. The Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, the webcam, and satellite data detecting sulfur dioxide indicated two explosions on 10 November. The first one, at 0720, generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. The altitude of the second plume, from an explosion at 1600, was unknown. An ash plume on 11 November rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 20 km SW. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km NW.According to a news article posted on 12 November, more than 5,000 people from seven villages had evacuated their homes in recent days. The article noted that the government had called for an evacuation of people living within a 3-km radius of Sinabung, but people outside of that zone had also been evacuating. The 6th of November 2013 PVMBG(CVGHM) the new eruption occurred at 1423 on 5 November. This event lasted for 20 minutes and generated an ash plume up to 3,000 m above the crater that drifted SW. Rumbling sounds were also noted by staff at the observation post. Pyroclastic flows were observed at 1431; the flows extended 1 km down the SE flank. No casualties were reported due to the event. The evacuated residents remained displaced on 5 november.Previously, PVMBG reported that elevated seismicity, including events of continuous tremor, was ongoing since 29 October. Relatively small ash explosions were also reported prior to the larger events on 3 November. During 29 October-2 November plumes rose to 200-2,000 m above the summit. Gas measurements conducted during 31 October and 1-2 November showed an SO2 flux of 226-426 tons per day; this was a general decrease in emissions. During 31 October ashfall was noted on the SE flank up to 1 km from the summit. An eruption began at 0126 on 3 November that generated ash plumes up to 7 km a.s.l. (~23,000 ft) and triggered evacuations from communities within 3 km of the volcano (approximately 1,681 residents); the ash plume drifted W. Rumbling sounds that lasted up to 10 minutes long were noted by staff at the Sinabung Observation Post (~8.5 km from the volcano). News agencies reported that this was the second largest eruption since the 24 October event that displaced more than 3,300 people. The Alert Level was increased from Level II (Watch) to Level III (Alert) at 0300. A second eruption occurred in the afternoon. PVMBG reported that Sinabung had been erupting more frequently and with increasing energy.PVMBG reported that after 29 September, the day the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4), seismicity at Sinabung declined but continued to fluctuate through 22 October. White plumes were seen rising 100-300 m from the crater. On 22 October plumes were also grayish and rose 250 m. Vents appeared on the N flank and produced dense white plumes that rose 70 m. On 23 October landslides at two locations were observed, and explosions occurred at 1619 and 1651. Plumes rose from the summit crater and from a fracture formed on 15 October near Lau Kawar. Fog prevented observations for a period after the explosions; once the fog cleared dense gray plumes were observed. A third explosion occurred at 2100. On 24 October an explosion at 0550 generated an ash plume that rose 3 km and caused ashfall in areas S. Another explosion was detected at 0612. According to a news article about 3,300 people that evacuated their homes were mostly from two villages within 3 km of Sinabung, in the Karo district. CVGHM reported that seismicity at Sinabung fluctuated in 2012-2013, including during July-September 2013. During 1-14 September dense white plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater, and at 0255 on 14 September incandescence from the crater was observed. According to news articles an eruption at 0245 on 15 September produced an ash plume and ashfall in Sukameriah (50 km NE), Kutarayat, Kutagugung (16 km SW), and Berastagi (14 km E). About 3,000 people evacuated from areas within a 3-km radius of the volcano, and several flights at Medan's airport (55 km NW) were canceled. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). An eruption at 1203 on 17 September ejected tephra and a dense ash plume that rose higher than the plume from 15 September. According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km SE. On 18 September a low-level ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical, 2460-m-high andesitic-to-dacitic volcano is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. An unconfirmed eruption was noted in 1881, and solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks of Sinabung in 1912, although no confirmed historical eruptions were recorded prior to 2010.

Ibu (Halmahera) - PVMBG reported that during 7 June-9 December 2013 white-to-gray plumes rose from
Ibu's craters. Observers in Goin (7 km NNW) noted that the lava dome, which had grown taller than the N crater rim in June, continued to grow; incandescent material from the dome filled the river valley in the direction of the Duono Village, about 5 km NW. Seismicity remained relatively stable. On 10 December the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away from the N part. The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the western flank. A group of maars is located below the northern and western flanks of the volcano. Only a few eruptions have been recorded from Ibu in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998.

Dukono (Halmahera) - Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 March 2014 ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-150 km W and NW.
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-25 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-2.7 km (8,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-100 km SE, E, and NE.Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 March an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-160 km NW. During 16-17 March ash plumes drifted 130-150 km SW at an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l.Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 March an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km SE. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-100 km E and SE. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the N-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

G. Karangetang (Siau Island)- Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 February 2014 an ash plume from Karangetang rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 80 km W.
Based on observations from the post in Salili, CVGHM reported that, although Karangetang was sometimes covered in fog during 1 August-2 September 2013, white plumes were seen rising as high as 500 m above the main crater and as high as 300 m above Crater II. Incandescence from the crater was often observed at night. Avalanches began traveling down the Batuawang drainage on 2 September and then intensified the next day. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 3 September.Based on reports from the observation post in Salili, CVGHM stated on 26 July that the occurrence of rock avalanches descending Karangetang's flanks decreased during 2013; the last one occurred on 7 July, and traveled 2 km down the Batuawang and Kahetang (E) drainages. Although fog often prevented visual observations, white plumes were sometimes seen rising up to 500 m from two craters. Incandescence from the lava dome was reflected in the plume at night. Seismicity fluctuated, but signals indicating avalanches declined. Based on the cessation of avalanches, visual observations, and decreasing seismicity, the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 26 July. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 50 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

Anak Krakatau ( Sunda Strait) - Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 March 2014 an ash plume from Anak Krakatau rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Ash was not identified in satellite images. Previously, According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image of Krakatau acquired on 4 September 2013 showed fresh lava flows descending the SE flank of Anak Krakatau, extending the shoreline by about 100 m. CVHM reported that during 1 June-1 September observations of Anak Krakatau were often prevented by fog; occasionally diffuse white plumes were observed rising from the crater in June. Seismicity increased significantly in August. On 2 September seismicity again increased, and at 1830 a strombolian eruption ejected lava 200-300 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 September ASHplumes rose to altitudes of 2.4-4.3 km and drifted 35-95 km N. CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Anak Krakatau from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 26 January. No details or reasons for the change were given in the report. On 8 October, a news article stated that activity at Anak Krakatau was increasing; the number of seismic events was 5,204 on 6 October, 5,543 on 7 October, and 5,883 on 8 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors and residents were not permitted to approach the volcano within a 2-km radius As of the 4th of October, CVGHM reported that new explosions occured this day. The volcano had been experiencing a very sharp increase in seismicity numbering over 6000-7000 a day (well above the background of 100-300 per day). A 2km exclusion zone was established around the island volcano. A satellite image acquired on 31 July 2011 showed a diffuse ash plume rising from Anak Krakatau and drifting W The renowned Krakatau volcano lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 AD, resulted in a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this volcano formed Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. The post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau), constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan, has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927. Live Webcam

Soputan volcano (Sulawesi) - On 14 June 2013, CVGHM reported that, after the Alert Level at Soputan was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 19 April due to a trend of increased seismicity, the number of various types of earthquakes decreased, except for events signaling avalanches, which fluctuated during the period. No changes were observed in emissions; white plumes continued to rise at most 50 m above the crater. On 14 June the Alert Level was lowered to 2. Residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km.CVGHM reported that seismicity at Soputan increased during January-18 April 2013 and then significantly increased on 19 April. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 19 April. Visitors and residents were prohibited from going within a 6.5-km radius of the crater.
Previously, as of the 26th of August 2012 , VSI reported that a strong explosion occurred at about 4 pm (local time) whisch generated an eruptive column that rose to about 10.000 high. Ashfall occured on the North flank of the volcano. (Video) .According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 8 August showed a small volcanic plume rising from Soputan.The small Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano rises to 1784 m and is located SW of Sempu volcano. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924. Last previous eruption occured in 2008. VSI website

Batu Tara volcano (Flores) - Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that on 26 March an ash plume from Batu Tara drifted almost 30 km W.Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 March 2014 an ash plume from Batu Tara drifted almost 20 km W. previously, based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that on 6 November an ash plume from Batu Tara drifted almost 20 km W. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that during 18-21 September ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-100 km WSW, W, NW, N, and NE. The small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing basanitic and tephritic rocks. The first historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced explosions and a lava flow. The Current Colour Code for Batu Tara is ORANGE

Kelimutu (Flores) - CVGHM reported that on 3 June 2013 the water in Kelimutu's Crater II (Tiwu Nua Muri Kooh Tai Crater) turned from blue to a light brown color, “smoke” rose 50 m above the crater, “rustling water sounds” were heard near the wall of Crater I (Tiwu Ata Polo), and a sharp sulfur odor was noted. That evening a weak sulfur odor was reported in Pemo (3 km). Plants within 2 km S and SE appeared to have wilted.
Based on seismicity from 20 May-2 June and visual observations on 3 June, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and warned the public not to approach the craters within a radius of 2 km and to avoid
river valleys. Kelimutu is a small, but well-known Indonesian volcano in central Flores Island with three summit crater lakes of varying colors. The western lake, Tiwi Ata Mbupu (Lake of Old People) is commonly blue. Tiwu Nua Muri Kooh Tai (Lake of Young Men and Maidens) and Tiwu Ata Polo (Bewitched, or Enchanted Lake), which share a common crater wall, are commonly green- and red-colored, respectively, although lake colors vary periodically. Active upwelling, probably fed by subaqueous fumaroles, occurs at the two eastern lakes. The scenic lakes are a popular tourist destination and have been the source of minor phreatic eruptions in historical time. The summit of the compound 1639-m-high Kelimutu volcano is elongated 2 km in a WNW-ESE direction; the older cones of Kelido and Kelibara are located respectively 3 km to the north and 2 km to the south.

Ebulobo volcano (Flores Island) - CVGHM reported that observers at Ebulobo's observation post in Ekowolo (Boa Wae District) noted that during August 2013 white plumes rose as high as 30 m. Volcanic tremor was detected starting on 10 August. At night during 21-23 August incandescence was visible on the N side of the summit (incandescence was last observed in 2011). The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-4) on 23 August. Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 1.5-km-radius of the crater. Ebulobo, also referred to as Amburombu or Keo Peak, is a symmetrical stratovolcano in central Flores Island. The summit of 2124-m-high Gunung Ebulobo cosists of a flat-topped lava dome. The 250-m-wide summit crater of the steep-sided volcano is breached on three sides. The Watu Keli lava flow traveled from the northern breach to 4 km from the summit in 1830, the first of only four recorded historical eruptions of the volcano.

Marapi volcano (Sumatra) - According to news articles, an explosion at Marapi on 26 February produced an ash plume that caused ashfall in areas as far as 10 km S. According to PVMBG the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
According to a news article from 5 February 2014 four explosions from Marapi occurred in early February. One of the explosions was followed by ashfall in the Tarab River area and Batu Sangkar (17 km SE). Gunung Marapi, not to be confused with the better known Merapi volcano on Java, is Sumatra's most active volcano. Marapi is a massive complex stratovolcano that rises 2,000 m above the Bukittinggi plain in Sumatra's Padang Highlands. A broad summit contains multiple partially overlapping summit craters constructed within the small 1.4-km-wide Bancah caldera. The summit craters are located along an ENE-WSW line, along which volcanism has migrated to the W. More than 50 eruptions, typically consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been recorded since the end of the 18th century; no historical lava flows outside the summit craters have been reported.
(GVN/GVP)

Seulawah Agam volcano (Sumatra) - CVGHM reported that visual observations of Seulawah Agam during 27 December-2 January seismicity increased. Visual observations were prevented due to fog, although on 2 January scientists observed a new solfatara that produced roaring noises and was within 20 m of van Heutsz Crater on the NNE flank. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 3 January. Seulawah Agam at the NW tip of Sumatra is an extensively forested volcano of Pleistocene-Holocene age constructed within the large Pleistocene Lam Teuba caldera. A smaller 8 x 6 km caldera lies within Lam Teuba caldera. The summit contains a forested, 400-m-wide crater. The active van Heutsz crater, located at 650 m on the NNE flank of Suelawah Agam, is one of several areas containing active fumarole fields. Sapper (1927) and the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (CAVW) reported an explosive eruption in the early 16th century, and the CAVW also listed an eruption from the van Heutsz crater in 1839. Rock et al. (1982) found no evidence for historical eruptions. However the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia noted that although no historical eruptions have occurred from the main cone, the reported NNE-flank explosive activity may have been hydrothermal and not have involved new magmatic activity. (GVN/GVP)

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RUSSIA - Bezymianny volcano (Kamchatka)

February 10th, 2013

KVERT reported that during 1-8 February seismic activity at Bezymianny was obscured by strong seismicity at Tolbachik. A viscous lava flow continued to effuse on the lava-dome flank, accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery on 31 January and 1 February; cloud cover prevented views on the other days. As of the 3rd of September, KVERT reported that Based on seismic data analyses, an explosive eruption occurred from 0716 to 0745 on 2 September. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 10-12 km and drifted more than 1,500 km ENE. A thermal anomaly observed in satellite imagery was very bright before the explosion. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE later that day, then ash emissions ceased. Ash plumes continued to be detected in satellite imagery and drifted 450-600 km ENE and SE. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. On 3 September seismic activity was low. A viscous lava flow effused on the lava-domeflank, and was accompanied by fumarolic activity and hot avalanches. (photos). During 9-13 March strong gas-and-steam emissions were noted, a viscous lava flow effused onto the lava-dome flank, and a thermal anomaly continued to be detected in satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange on 14 March. As of the 9th of March, KVERT reported that a strong explosive eruption began at 21:27 UTC on March 08. According to seismic data, the culmination phase of the eruption occurred from 21:27 till 22:10 UTC on March 08, a magnitude of volcanic tremor was 7.52 µm/s at that time. From 23:00 UTC on March 08, volcanic tremor was not registering. Ash plumes from pyroclastic deposits rose up to 26,200 ft (8 km) a.s.l. and extended to the northeast of the volcano on the height about 19,700 ft (6 km) a.s.l. At about 00:15 UTC on March 09, probably a new portion of ash began to extending a little to northern to northeast of the volcano. According to satellite data, a length of ash plume was about 434 mi (700 km) at 04:32 UTC on March 09. According to video data, gas-steam plumes containing ash are raising up to 11,500-13,100 ft (3.5-4.0 km) a.s.l. and extending to the north-east of the volcano.(MODIS image) Ashfall was reported in Ust-Kamchatsk Village (120 km ENE). Later that day activity decreased significantly and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Previous news - Seismic activity increased on February 12 and remained the same till February 29: about 7-19 weak seismic events were registering each day. There were 40 weak seismic events on March 01 and 25 events on March 02. Long episode of volcanic tremor was registered on March 02. Probably an extrude of lava blocks at the top of the dome occur, that prepares a strong explosive eruption of the volcano. According to satellite data, a size and a brightness of a thermal anomaly abrupt increased on March 02 (at 09:35 UTC on March 02, a temperature of the thermal anomaly was +53.4 degrees of Celsius). Density clouds obscured the volcano on March 02. Seismic activity increased on February 12 and remains the same till now: about 9-17 weak seismic events are registering each day. Two short episodes of volcanic tremor were registered on February 15 and 22. Probably an extrude of lava blocks at the top of the dome occur, that prepares a strong explosive eruption of the volcano. A strong and moderate gas-steam activity was observed at the volcano all week. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly over the volcano continues to noting on the satellite images; gas-steam plumes were extending to the northeast of the volcano on February 20 and 22. According to visual data, a strong and moderate gas-steam activity of the volcano was observed on January 20 and 24-26, clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. (webcam) .Prior to its 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3,000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1,000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. That eruption, similar to the 1980 event at Mount St. Helens, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater. KVERT

RUSSIA - Sheveluch volcano ( Kamchatka)

April 8th, 2014

KVERT reported that during 28 March-4 April lava-dome extrusion at Shiveluch was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A bright thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 21-28 March lava-dome extrusion at Shiveluch was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A bright thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that during 14-21 March lava-dome extrusion at Shiveluch was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A bright thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 7-14 March lava-dome extrusion at Shiveluch was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A bright thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 28 February-7 March lava-dome extrusion at Shiveluch was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A bright thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that during 21-28 February lava-dome extrusion at Shiveluch was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A bright thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images, and a gas-and-steam plume containing small amounts of ash drifted 135 km SE on 25 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 14-21 February lava-dome extrusion at Shiveluch was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. A thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. On 19 February a gas-and-steam plume containing small amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 50 km SSE. On 25 February satellite images detected ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4-4.5 km (13,100-14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 7-14 February lava-dome extrusion at Shiveluch was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 9 and 12 February; cloud cover prevented views on the other days. Pyroclastic flow deposits on the SW flank from the 6 February were observed to be 12 km long. On 17 February at 1108 video data showed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Sheveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. Strong culmination explosive eruption of the lava dome of Sheveluch volcano occurred in 1993, 2001, 2004 and two in 2005. Live cam link

RUSSIA - Zhupanovsky volcano (Kamchatka)

October 30th, 2013

On 27 October KVERT noted that strong fumarolic activity and gas emissions continued, but that the phreatic explosions likely had ceased. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow, and then lowered again to Green on 29 October.KVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Zhupanovsky was detected on 23 October. The next day a phreatic eruption began at about 0300 and generated an ash plume that rose 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. The ash plume was visible in satellite images drifting 40 km SE and S. Ash deposits about 10 cm thick were visible at the summit of the central part of the volcano, and deposits about 1 mm thick covered the Nalychevo Valley. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. Ash plumes at 1635 and 2218 rose to altitudes of 2.5-3 km (8,200-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 120 km ESE and 25 km S, respectively. At 1134 on 25 October an ash plume rose 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20 km NE. Previous eruption occurred in 1959. The Zhupanovsky volcanic massif ( 2598 m) consists of four overlapping stratovolcanoes along a WNW-trending ridge. The elongated volcanic complex was constructed within a Pliocene-early Pleistocene caldera whose rim is exposed only on the eastern side. Three of the stratovolcanoes were built during the Pleistocene, the fourth is Holocene in age and was the source of all of Zhupanovsky's historical eruptions. An early Holocene stage of frequent moderate and weak eruptions from 7000 to 5000 years before present (BP) was succeeded by a period of infrequent larger eruptions that produced pyroclastic flows. The last major eruption of Zhupanovsky took place about 800-900 years BP. Historical eruptions have consisted of relatively minor explosions from the third cone.(GVN/GVP)

RUSSIA - Karymsky volcano (Kamchatka)

April 8th, 2014

KVERT reported that volcanologists observed Vulcanian and Strombolian activity at Karymsky during 28 March-4 April. Satellite images detected a bright thermal anomaly on the volcano daily. Ash plumes rose to altitudes
of 1-2.5 km (3,300-8,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100 km SW and SE during 27-28 and 31 March, and 1-2 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that Vulcanian and Strombolian activity at Karymsky continued during 21-28 March. Satellite images detected a bright thermal anomaly on the volcano daily. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2 km (3,300-6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 180 km SW and SE during 20, 24, and 27 March. On 28 March ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2-2.5 km (6,600-8,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100 km ESE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that Vulcanian and Strombolian activity at Karymsky continued during 14-21 March. Satellite images detected a bright thermal anomaly on the volcano daily. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2 km (3,300-6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 70-150 km SE during 16-18 and 21 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that Vulcanian and Strombolian activity at Karymsky continued during 7-14 March. Satellite images detected a bright thermal anomaly on the volcano daily. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2 km (3,300-6,600 ft) a.s.l., and drifted 120 km SW on 12 March and 300 km SE on 13 March. Satellite images detected an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2 km (3,300-6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100 km SE on 17 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.


RUSSIA - Kliuchevskoy volcano (Kamchatka)

January 4th, 2014

On 2 January KVERT reported that the explosive eruption at Kliuchevskoi had finished on 20 December 2013; the last strong explosion was detected on 17 December 2013. Video images showed gas-and-steam plumes continuing to rise from the volcano. Satellite images detected thermal anomalies over the summit and the lava flow on the SW flank; both areas were cooling. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green. On 27 December KVERT reported that the explosive eruption at Kliuchevskoi had finished; the last strong explosion was detected on 17 December. Video images showed gas-and-steam plumes rising from the volcano during the previous weeks. Satellite images continued to detect thermal anomalies over the summit and the lava flow on the SW flank. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. KVERT reported that the explosive eruption at Kliuchevskoi continued during 6-13 December. Seismicity increased on 6 December but then declined on 10 December; during this period video images showed ash plumes rising to altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images detected a weak thermal anomaly daily, and ash plumes that drifted 1,200 km E during 6-8 December, NW during 9-10 December, and E and SE during 10-11 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange As of the 7th of December KVERT reported that a strong explosive activity occurred at 8:45 PM TU ( on 7th of December 9 AM local time) generating a volcanic ashplume that rose to 6000 m height above the volcano and then drifted 400 km North-East. Ashfalls occurred on the small town of Kliuchi. The KVERT raised the aviation color code to red. The activity declined few hours later. The next day KVERT lowered the Alert Level to Orange. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5-5.5 km (16,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Kliuchevskoi flanks Kamen volcano to the SW and Ushkovsky volcano to the NW. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years . Live cam link

RUSSIA - Gorely volcano

January 26th, 2014

KVERT reported that activity at Gorely decreased significantly in December 2013; volcanic tremor ceased being detected on 12 December, and the temperature of the thermal anomaly decreased during 12-15 December. No thermal anomaly was detected in January 2014, but weak seismicity continued along with gas-and-steam emissions. On 23 January the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green (on a four-color scale). Gorely volcano, one of the most active in southern Kamchatka, consists of five small overlapping stratovolcanoes constructed along a WNW-ESE line within a large 9 x 13.5 km late-Pleistocene caldera. The massive Gorely complex contains 11 summit and 30 flank craters. During the early Holocene, activity was characterized by frequent mild eruptions with occasional larger explosions and lava flows that filled in the caldera. Quiescent periods became longer between 6,000 and 2,000 years ago, after which the activity was mainly explosive. About 600-650 years ago intermittent strong explosions and lava flow effusion accompanied frequent mild eruptions. Historical eruptions have consisted of vulcanian and phreatic explosions of moderate volume. (GVN/GVP)


RUSSIA - Kizimen volcano
December 8th, 2013 KVERT reported that weak seismic activity at Kizimen continued during 29 November-6 December. Video showed gas-and-steam activity, and satellite images detected a daily weak thermal anomaly. On 9 December the Alert Level was lowered to Green. Previously, KVERT reported that during 6-13 September moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 8-11 September; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. On 13 September KVERT noted that activity had been decreasing; both video and satellite data indicated less incandescence from the crater over the past few weeks, and seismicity had decreased significantly at the end of August. Lava possibly continued to extrude from the crater at a low rate. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. KVERT reported that during 30 August-6 September moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 2 and 5 September; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 23-30 August moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. A thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. The 2376-m-high Kizimen was formed during four eruptive cycles beginning about 12,000 years ago and lasting 2000-3500 years. The largest eruptions took place about 10,000 and 8300-8400 years ago, and three periods of long-term lava dome growth have occurred. The latest eruptive cycle began about 3000 years ago with a large explosion and was followed by lava dome growth lasting intermittently about 1000 years. An explosive eruption about 1100 years ago produced a lateral blast and created a 1.0 x 0.7 km wide crater breached to the NE, inside which a small lava dome (the fourth at Kizimen) has grown. A single explosive eruption, during 1927-28, has been recorded in historical time. GVN/GVP.

RUSSIA - Grozny group - Kurile islands

April 5th, 2013

SVERT reported that on 3 April at 0755 ash from Grozny Group fell in Kurilsk (23 km N) and Kitovy, producing deposits 2-3 mm thick. Cloud cover prevented observations of the volcano. The next day satellite images showed an ash plume that rose 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. Based on analysis of satellite images, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 30 March a possible eruption from Grozny Group may have produced a plume that rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A later VAAC notice stated that ash had dissipated. The Grozny volcano group in central Iturup Island contains the complex volcanoes of Ivan Grozny and Tebenkov. The former has a 3-3.5 km diameter caldera that is open to the south, where the large, 1158-m-high andesitic Grozny extrusion dome (also known as Etorofu-Yake-yama) was emplaced. Several other lava domes of Holocene age were constructed to the NE; extrusion of these domes has constricted a former lake in the northern side of the caldera to an extremely sinuous shoreline. The forested andesitic Tebenkov volcano, also known as Odamoi-san, lies immediately to the NE of the Grozny dome complex. The large Machekh crater, which displays strong fumarolic activity, lies immediately south of Tebenkov. Historical eruptions, the first of which took place in 1968, have been restricted to Ivan Grozny. (GVN/GVP)

RUSSIA - Chirinkotan volcano- Kurile islands

April 2nd, 2014

SVERT reported that satellite images of Chirinkotan showed diffuse gas-and-steam emissions on 24 March and steam-and-gas plumes drifting 80-170 km SE during 26-27 March. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 25-31 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.SVERT reported that a steam-and-gas plume from Chirinkotan was observed in satellite images drifting more than 80 km SE on 20 March. Diffuse steam-and-gas emissions were observed during 21-22 March. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 17-19 and 23-24 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was observed in satellite images on 10 and 13 March. Steam-and-gas emissions were observed on 10 March and drifted more than 40 km SW on 12 March. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 11-17 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was observed in satellite images on 4 March. Cloud cover obscured views during 5-10 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was observed in satellite images on 25 February and gas-and-steam emissions were observed on 27 February. The small, mostly unvegetated 3-km-wide island of Chirinkotan occupies the far end of an E-W-trending volcanic chain that extends nearly 50 km west of the central part of the main Kuril Islands arc. Chirinkotan is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises 3000 m from the floor of the Kuril Basin. A small 1-km-wide caldera about 300-400 m deep is open to the SE. Lava flows from a cone within the breached crater reached the north shore of the island. Historical eruptions have been recorded at Chirinkotan since the 18th century. Fresh lava flows also descended the SE flank of Chirinkotan during an eruption in the 1880s that was observed by the English fur trader Captain Snow.
(gvn/gvp) article about Kurils Islands

RUSSIA - Chirpoi volcano (Kurile islands)

April 2nd, 2014

SVERT reported that on 27 March satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected a thermal anomaly and a steam-and-gas plume drifting more than 50 km SE. A weak thermal anomaly was detected on 28 March. Cloud cover
obscured views on the other days during 24-31 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.SVERT reported that a steam-and-gas plume from Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images drifting 150 km SE on 20 March. Cloud cover obscured views during 17-19 and 21-24 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images during 10-12 March. Diffuse steam-and-gas emissions were observed on 15 March. Cloud cover obscured views during 13-14 and 16-17 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images on 3 March. Cloud cover obscured views during 4-10 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images on 25 and 27 February. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 24 February-3 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images during 19-20 February. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 17-24 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. Chirpoi, a small island lying between the larger islands of Simushir and Urup, contains a half dozen volcanic edifices constructed within an 8-9 km wide, partially submerged caldera. The southern rim of the caldera is exposed on nearby Brat Chirpoev Island. Two volcanoes on Chirpoi Island have been historically active. The symmetrical Cherny volcano, which forms the 691 m high point of the island, erupted twice during the 18th and 19th centuries. The youngest volcano, Snow, originated between 1770 and 1810. It is composed almost entirely of lava flows, many of which have reached the sea on the southern coast. No historical eruptions are known from 742-m-high Brat Chirpoev, but its youthful morphology suggests recent strombolian activity. (GVN/GVP)

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NEW ZEALAND - Tongariro volcano

March 30th, 2013

On 25 March GeoNet reported that Tongariro remained quiet with no eruptive activity being detected since the explosion on 21 November 2012. Steam-and-gas plumes rose from the Te Maari Craters. The Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Green (second lowest on a 4 four-color scale) and the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5).On 14 February GeoNet reported that sSteam-and-gas plumes rose from the Te Maari Craters, and were unusually strong during the recent weeks possibly due to weather conditions. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow (second lowest on a 4 four-color scale) and the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5). Previously - A small eruption at Tongariro's Te Maari Craters occurred at 1325 on 21 November, without precursory events, prompting GeoNet to raise the Volcanic Alert Level to 2 and the Aviation Colour Code to Red. A report at 1730 noted that the eruption appeared to be over; the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Orange. The eruption occurred in the same area as the previous eruption on 6 August and lasted less than five minutes, although local seismic activity lasted about 15 minutes. GNS staff and hikers saw the eruption. An ash plume rose 3-4 km above the Upper Te Maari crater and produced ashfall across part of State Highway 46 and NE towards Turangi (21 km NE). Two small pyroclastic density currents were produced at the base of the column, to the W and N of the crater, and traveled a limited distance of a few hundred meters downslope. Later that afternoon gas-and-steam plumes drifted SE. On 22 November a sulfur gas odor was reported in Manawatu (S) and Hawke's Bay (115 km ESE), downwind of Tongariro. A substantial amount of gas was emitted during 22-23 November. The Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow on 23 November due to the absence of emitted ash. On 26 November GeoNet noted that no further volcanic activity had occurred since the eruption, gas flux had decreased, and seismic activity remained low. On 5 November, GeoNet reported that several teams of scientists had been visiting Tongariro's Te Mari Craters to service portable seismometers (complementing four permanent installations), sample gas vents, and collect samples of ejecta. The report noted that not many earthquakes had been recorded recently, and that the hottest gas vent was 235 degrees Celsius while the others ranged from 95-104 degrees. On 30 October the sulfur dioxide flux was 154 tonnes per day and the carbon dioxide flux was 477 tonnes per day. The volcano continued to actively degas. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow and the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (signs of volcano unrest). On 12 October, the GeoNet Data Centre reported that Tongariro had been degassing after the 6 August eruption from the Te Mari Craters. Gas plumes drifted downwind and were detected a hundred kilometers or more away. During the previous two weeks an odor was noticed in Manawatu (112 km S) and Hawke's Bay (120 km ESE). The GeoNet Data Centre reported that researchers visited Tongariro's Upper Te Mari Craters on 30 September to sample several of the fumaroles, conduct a carbon dioxide soil gas survey, collect ejecta from the 6-7 August eruption, and photograph the area. They found that the average carbon dioxide soil gas flux was lower than the 27 July measurements; 24 sites had increased fluxes while 20 had decreased. The estimated soil gas emission has decreased from about 5.8 to 2.5 tonnes per day based on these measurements. As of the 17th of August, GEONET reported that Ten days has elapsed since the eruption of Tongariro on the evening of August 6. Although very minor amounts of ash were emitted in the first few days after the eruption, there has been no significant activity since August 6. Seismic activity which had been above normal for some of the period preceding the eruption returned to normal low levels after the eruption. Volcanic gas flux measurements after the eruption were high, but poor weather has prevented any recent measurements. Minor eruptive activity, which is required for Volcanic Alert Level 2, is no longer occurring and the Volcanic Alert Level is consequently reduced from 2 to 1. The New Zealand Volcanic Alert Level system is based on the current level of activity at a volcano. It does not include any forecast of possible activity in the future. Level 1 at Tongariro indicates “Departure from typical background surface activity. Signs of volcano unrest”. As of the 14th of August, Geonet reported that seismic activity at Tongariro remained low overnight. Poor weather has prevented any views of Tongariro since Saturday, but volcanic activity is thought to also have been low. The weather today is likely to prevent any fieldwork at Tongariro. Once the weather improves additional gas sampling flights and surface gas sampling will be attempted. Data will also be collected from portable seismographs on Tongariro. Seismic activity at Tongariro has remained low since the August 6 eruption. No ground deformation originating in the Tongariro area has been observed. Recent poor weather has prevented visual observations. Scientists have considered three eruption scenarios deemed possible over the next seven days and have evaluated these based on monitoring data, historic activity at Tongariro, and experience of New Zealand and overseas eruptions. Over the next seven days the scenario considered most likely is that there will be no further eruptions. The next most likely scenario is that any eruptions will be of similar size to the eruption on August 6. The scenario considered least likely is that larger eruptions will occur. This assessment is valid for only the next seven days and a change in monitoring parameters may change the assessment. On Sunday heavy rain remobilised some ash erupted on August 6 and a minor lahar crossed State Highway 46 at the northern foot of Tongariro. No further reports of lahar flows have been received since Sunday 12th of August. As of the 11th of August, Geonet reported that currently the activity of the volcano is quiet, and there are no signs of an imminent eruption. Scientists would likely expect to see an increase in unrest indicators prior to eruptions larger than the explosion on 6th August. Overnight the activity from Tongariro Volcano remained weak. Regional earthquakes have been recorded by GeoNet seismometers around the mountain but seismicity in the local Tongariro area has remained low. The Te Mari vents are not visible at this time from the north due to low cloud, but the view from the Ngauruhoe webcam does not show any significant plume. As of the 9th of August, Geonet reported that seismic activity overnight was low with only a few small volcanic earthquakes recorded. Ashfall collected on Tuesday from various locations around the volcano have been analysed for fluorine content by Massey University. These results show that moderate levels of fluorine are present, but due to the restricted distribution of the ash, this currently poses no current human-health or agricultural threat beyond the immediate vicinity of the volcano. Enquiries about the fluorine analyses can be answered by Professor Shane Cronin of Volcanic Risk Solutions or Professor Mike Hedley of the Fertiliser and Lime Research Centre. Initial microscopic analysis of the ash also shows that there is very little or no new magma in the ejecta. This suggests that the eruption was predominantly steam driven, but the involvement of magma in the future cannot be ruled out. The weather around the volcano has cleared this morning and a team from GNS Science and Massey University are currently making observations of the active vents and new deposits from the helicopter. We also hope to measure gas output from the volcano using an airborne platform and by road, weather permitting. As of the 7th of August Geonet reported that a short lived phreatic eruption occurred at the Te Mari craters area on Mount Tongariro at approximately 11:50 pm last night (Monday, August 6). Activity at the present time (today in the morning) consists of steam clouds and some small earthquakes. Eruptive activity is low level but could recommence at any time. Observations of Mount Tongariro this morning by GNS Science are that eruption activity has subsided. White steam clouds were observed at the historically active Te Mari craters area but poor weather conditions at the time obscured a direct view of the active vent(s). There have been no lahars or pyroclastic flows or lava flows. Our analysis of seismic data is that there was an explosive eruption lasting only a minute or two, followed by a series of discrete small earthquakes over the next few tens of minutes. No volcanic tremor occurred in the days preceding the eruption, nor has any occurred since then. It is too early to predict the next series of events, but we expect heightened activity may continue for several weeks. There are likely to be specific signals of future magma movement beneath the volcano and we continue to monitor the situation through the GeoNet volcano-seismic network of instruments. As with any volcano, an eruption could occur at Tongariro at any time with little or no warning and there is an elevated level of risk, particularly on the northern slopes and valleys of the mountain. Ash samples collected near Lake Rotoaira last night will be tested and analysis of seismic data continues. GNS Science volcanologists are continuing to monitor the eruption and are working with Massey and Canterbury universities collect samples for analysis, as conditions permit. Further information will be released as soon as it is available. On 31 July GeoNet reported that seismicity at Tongariro had declined the previous week but increased again during 28-29 July, and as of 31 July, between 3 and 10 events were being recorded daily. The earthquakes were clustered in a zone between Tongariro and the E side of Lake Rotoaira, at 2-7 km depth. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5) and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow (on a four-color scale). As part of our routine monitoring, we have recorded a sequence of volcanic earthquakes at Mount Tongariro since July 13, peaking in activity on July 20, with only one event today. The earthquakes cluster in a zone between Emerald Lake and the Te Mari craters at 2-7km depth. Some members of the public have also reported gas smells. Provisional analysis of the gas samples collected at the weekend indicates the presence of volcanic gas. Our historic sampling has shown there is a mix of volcanic and hydrothermal gases and fluids at Tongariro. However the sampling on Saturday has shown a marked increase in the volcanic gas component. These results are showing the volcanic unrest indicated by the seismic data is confirmed by the gas data. There are working to complete the analysis of the gases and water samples and planning further visits later in the week when the weather improves. GNS Science volcanologists are monitoring the unrest and further information will be released as necessary. Volcano alert leval remains at level 1. Mount Tongariro is a volcanic complex that lies to the north of Ngauruhoe. It consists of numerous craters and vents. Te Mari craters lie about two kilometres east of Ketetahi hot springs on the north side of Mt Tongariro. The Te Mari craters are the last craters to be active on Tongariro. Ash eruptions have been recorded from Tongariro from 1855 to 1897, as well as unconfirmed activity in 1926-27. (IGNS)

NEW ZEALAND - White island volcano

January 26th, 2014

On 22 January, the GeoNet Data Centre reported that the Volcanic Alert Level for White Island remained at 1 and the Aviation Colour Code remained Green. Since a moderate eruption on 11 October 2013, seismicity had remained at low levels while gas flux was elevated. Sulfur dioxide flux ranged from 133 to 924 tonnes per day, higher than levels before 2012 when daily averages were less than 300 tonnes. The level of the water in Crater Lake continued to rise, and was about 5 m deeper than in late 2013. Temperature measurements with a recently acquired thermal Infrared camera confirm that hot gases were rising from vents on the lava dome; temperatures at the vents were 200-330 degrees Celsius, and over 400 degrees at one vent. Previously, on 4 November 2013, the GeoNet Data Centre reported that the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 while the Aviation Colour Code was decreased from Yellow to Green. Since 11 October, seismicity and gas flux have remained at low levels, however, the volcano-hydrothermal system was considered unstable. GeoNet stated that eruptive activity could occur without prior warning and that current conditions permitted a range of eruptive activity.On 21 October the GeoNet Data Centre reported that no further eruptive activity at White Island was detected after the eruption on 11 October, which ejected material over 350 m from the active vent and caused a wet surge cloud that enveloped the Main Crater. Volcanic tremor levels had decreased after the eruption and continued at variable levels. Gas flight measurements on 17 October showed that the SO2 flux was 450 tonnes per day, CO2 was 1,140 tonnes per day, and H2S was12 tonnes per day. The SO2 and H2S flux had changed very little, and CO2 had decreased from the previous measurements on 23 August. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 1 and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow As of the 6th of October, Geonet reported that after a small steam explosion last Friday (October 4) and an increase in tremor beneath the island volcano in the Bay of Plenty. White Island has had an eventful 2013, with small explosions occasionally rocking the tourist destination. Thus far, the size of the eruptions has been small, but larger eruptions are not out of the question for White Island. This all being said, GNS Science has kept the volcanic alert status at 1 for the volcano. The GeoNet Data Centre reported that after the eruption at White Island on 20 August, activity remained low through the next day. Steam-and-gas plumes continued to be emitted. During the afternoon on 21 August the Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 1 and the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow.The GeoNet Data Centre reported that a small eruption from White Island occurred at 1023 on 20 August and continued for about 10 minutes. The eruption ejected mud and rocks short distances, and generated a voluminous steam plume (visible from the Bay of Plenty coast), that rose 4 km a.s.l. and then slowly dispersed. Weather radar observations showed that a minor amount of ash was present in the plume. The Volcano Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and the Aviation Colour Code was raised to Red (on a four-color scale). Later that day the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Orange. The eruption originated in the active crater area that had been ejecting small amounts of mud in recent weeks. A short period of strong volcanic tremor was detected the previous morning, but it was not clear if it was related to the eruption. The uninhabited 2 x 2.4 km White Island, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is the emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The 321-m-high island consists of two overlapping stratovolcanoes; the summit crater appears to be breached to the SE because the shoreline corresponds to the level of several notches in the SE crater wall. Throughout the short historical period beginning in 1826 the volcano has had long periods of continuous hydrothermal activity and steam release, punctuated by small-to-medium eruptions. Its activity also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. The most recent eruptive episode, which began on 7 March 2000, included the largest eruption at White Island in the past 20 years on 27 July. Live cam link - other webcam

NEW ZEALAND - Ruapehu volcano

March 13th, 2013

On 12 March, GeoNet reported that the Volcanic Alert Level for Ruapehu remained at 1 (signs of volcano unrest) and the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Green based on the analysis of monitoring data and the lack of recent seismic activity. On 5 March, GeoNet reported that monitoring of the Ruapehu Crater Lake showed that temperatures at depth remained above background levels but had started a declining trend. Gas data from January and February showed emission rates of 15-25 tonnes per day of sulfur dioxide and around 650 tonnes per day carbon dioxide; these are within the usual range of emissions measured at Ruapehu. Seismicity remained low, characterized by weak volcanic tremor and some shallow earthquakes. Areas of discoloration in the lake, sometimes observed during the previous few weeks, are relatively common and thought to reflect internal lake convection processes. Scientists speculated that there was a partial blockage between the deep and shallow systems causing the lake temperature to remain steady; the relatively low temperature of Crater Lake, 22-25°C since March 2012, is one of the longest periods of low lake temperatures recorded. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (signs of volcano unrest) and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow. Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least 4 cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 cu km dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and is surrounded by another 100 cu km ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place at Ruapehu between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent at Ruapehu. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys. Ruapehu Live cam ******************************************************************************************************************************************

PAPUA - NEW GUINEA - Manam volcano

December 2nd, 2013

RVO reported that activity at both Manam's Southern Crater and Main Crater was low during 16-30 November; white vapor emissions rose from both craters. Incandescence from Southern Crater was visible on 28 and 30 November, and on 30 November diffuse gray ash plumes rose from the crater.RVO reported that both Manam's Southern Crater and Main Crater were quiet during 1 October-15 November. White vapor emissions rose from Southern Crater and on some days were slightly bluish. Light gray ash clouds and bright incandescence were visible on 31 October. Main Crater only produced white vapor plumes. Previously, RVO reported that after a small eruption from Manam's Southern Crater during 27-28 August, activity subsided. Diffuse gray-brown ash plumes, emitted at short intervals, rose from the crater during 29-30 August, and crater incandescence was noted. Seismicity declined and was at a low level by the end of the day on 31 August. RVO reported that Manam's Southern Crater was quiet during 16-17 August. Occasional light-gray emissions observed during 18-20, 22-23, and 25 August rose 100 m above the crater and drifted NW. Incandescence from the crater was seen during 18-19 and 21-26 August, and incandescent fragments were ejected during 21-25 August. A small eruption began at 1830 on 26 August with emissions of dark ash clouds that rose 500-600 m. Bright incandescence from the crater and occasional ejected incandescent fragments were observed. Roaring and rumbling was heard by island residents as well as residents in Bogia, 25-30 km SSW of Manam on the N coast of the mainland. By the next morning the emissions decreased and were light gray to brown. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded at Manam since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas. (GVN/GVP)

PAPUA - NEW GUINEA - Karkar volcano

April 3rd, 2013

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-27 March ash plumes from Karkar rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 50 km ENE and NW.Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 February an ash plume from Karkar rose to an altitude of 8.5 km (28,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km N and 130 km E. Karkar volcano is a 19 x 25 km wide, forest-covered island that is truncated by two nested summit calderas. The 5.5-km-wide outer caldera was formed during one or more eruptions, the last of which occurred 9000 years ago. The eccentric 3.2-km-wide inner caldera was formed sometime between 1500 and 800 years ago. Parasitic cones are present on the northern and southern flanks of basaltic-to-andesitic Karkar volcano; a linear array of small cones extends from the northern rim of the outer caldera nearly to the coast. Most historical eruptions, which date back to 1643, have originated from Bagiai cone, a pyroclastic cone constructed within the steep-walled, 300-m-deep inner caldera. The floor of the caldera is covered by young, mostly unvegetated andesitic lava flows. (GVN/GVP)

PAPUA-NEW GUINEA - Rabaul volcano

March 27th, 2014

RVO reported that explosions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone were detected during 1-11 March, notably during 1 and 6-11 March, and generated ash plumes that rose 1 km and drifted E and SE. Mild ash emissions on other days during 1-15 March also drifted E and SE. Gases from Tavurvur caused browning vegetation on Turangunan (South Daughter) since early January. Previously, RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was quiet during 26 January-11 February. A pale gray/brown plume rose 50-100 m above the vent and dispersed on 12 February.RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was quiet during 16-31 December. White and occasionally blue vapor plumes rose from the crater. An explosion at 0732 on 22 December generated an ash-poor plume. Weak fluctuating glow was visible at night on 31 December. RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was generally quiet during 16-30 November. A few explosions during 15-18 November generated ash plumes that rose to low altitudes (no more than 1 km) and drifted E, SE, and NW. Small amounts of fine-grained ash fell around Rabaul town (3-5 km NW). White-to-light-gray emissions rose from the crater the remainder of the month. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the E, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay. Two major Holocene caldera-forming eruptions at Rabaul took place as recently as 3,500 and 1,400 years ago. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city. (GVN/GVP)

PAPUA - NEW GUINEA - Bagana volcano (Bougainville island)

March 27th, 2014

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 March an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km NE. previously, based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 February an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110 km E. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 December ash plumes from Bagana drifted 55-65 km W. During 9-10 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-45 km NE and E. Bagana is a massive symmetrical lava cone largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire lava cone could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity at Bagana is characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides. (GVN/GVP)

Papua-New Guinea - Ulawun volcano (New britain)

January 2nd, 2014

RVO reported that activity at Ulawun was low during 16-31 December; diffuse ash plumes rose from the crater during 51-21 December, and white vapor emissions were visible during 22-31 December.
RVO reported that activity at Ulawun was low during 16-30 November. Small volumes of gray to gray-brown ash plumes rose 100 m from the crater on most days and drifted S. On 21 November ashfall was reported in Navo on the SW flank.Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 November an ash plume from Ulawun rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 30 km NW. RVO reported that during 1 October-15 November activity at Ulawun was low; small volumes of white vapor and gray and gray-brown ash plumes rose 100 m above the crater and drifted S. Seismicity was low with RSAM values fluctuating between 100 and 150 units throughout the period. RVO reported that activity at Ulawun was low during 4-31 August; emissions from the summit crater consisted of white vapor until 16 August, and were gray during 17-31 August. Emissions were more energetic on 24 August, rising 200 m. A single booming noise and weak incandescence was also reported that day. RSAM values fluctuated but decreased overall.RVO reported that activity at Ulawun was low during 22 July-4 August; emissions from the summit crater consisted of white vapor. Seismicity was also low. RSAM values decreased from 80 on 21 July to 50 on 31 July, and then began to increase on early 2 August. By 4 August RSAM values reached 600, attributed to an increase in volcanic tremor.
RVO reported that activity at Ulawun was low during 15-21 July. Emissions from the summit crater were light gray during 15-16 July, and then changed to white vapor during 17-21 July. RSAM from volcanic tremors had increased on 14 July and reached a peak of 700 just after 0300 on 15 July. RSAM then decreased to 80 on 21 July, which also marked the cessation of volcanic tremors.The symmetrical basaltic to andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. Ulawun rises above the N coast of New Britain opposite Bamus volcano. The upper 1,000 m of the 2,334-m-high volcano is unvegetated. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side of the volcano, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the S of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater. (GVP/GVN)

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Salomon islands - Kavachi volcano

February 1st, 2014

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January showed a plume of discolored water E of Kavachi, likely from lava fragments and dissolved gases. A bright area above the submerged peak suggested churning water. There was no sign that the volcano had breached the sea surface. Kavachi, one of the most active submarine volcanoes in the SW Pacific, occupies an isolated position in the Solomon Islands far from major aircraft and shipping lanes. Kavachi, sometimes referred to as Rejo te Kvachi ("Kavachi's Oven"), is located south of Vangunu Island only about 30 km north of the site of subduction of the Indo-Australian plate beneath the Pacific plate. The shallow submarine basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has produced ephemeral islands up to 1 km long many times since its first recorded eruption during 1939. Residents of the nearby islands of Vanguna and Nggatokae (Gatokae) reported "fire on the water" prior to 1939, a possible reference to earlier submarine eruptions. The roughly conical volcano rises from water depths of 1.1-1.2 km on the north and greater depths to the south. Frequent shallow submarine and occasional subaerial eruptions produce phreatomagmatic explosions that eject steam, ash, and incandescent bombs above the sea surface. On a number of occasions lava flows were observed on the surface of ephemeral islands. Last known eruption occureed in 2007. (GVN/GVP)

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Mariannes islands - Pagan volcano

January 5th , 2014

Low-level unrest continued at Pagan during 27 December 2013-2 January 2014; seismicity remained above background levels. A robust steam-and-gas plume was occasionally visible in web camera images during the reporting period. A small explosion was detected at about 0145 on 28 December. It may have produced a diffuse ash emission, but the webcam was not in operation at the time to verify. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. Previously, the seismic network at Pagan recorded tremor and small discrete earthquakes during 9-16 August, indicating low-level unrest. A steam-and-gas plume was visible in satellite images during periods of clear weather and from web-camera images. A small explosion with a relatively high amplitude seismic component and small infrasound component occurred at 0010 on 12 August. The data suggested that degassing increased about 30 sec after the event. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.The 570-m-high Mount Pagan at the NE end of the island rises above the flat floor of the northern caldera, which probably formed during the early Holocene. South Pagan is a 548-m-high stratovolcano with an elongated summit containing four distinct craters. Almost all of the historical eruptions of Pagan, which date back to the 17th century, have originated from North Pagan volcano. The largest eruption of Pagan during historical time took place in 1981 and prompted the evacuation of the sparsely populated island. Last know eruption occured in 2006. ***************************************************************************************************************************************

INDIAN OCEAN SOUTH - Heard island volcano

April 25th, 2013

According to NASA Earth Observatory (EO) an image acquired on 7 April 2013 from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed that Mawson's Peak crater on Heard Island had filled and a lava flow had traveled down the SW flank. The lava flow was visible in an image acquired on 20 April and had slightly widened just below the summit. Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic structures. The large glacier-covered composite basaltic-to-trachytic cone of Big Ben comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon volcano lies at the NW tip of the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of Big Ben volcano because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active Mawson Peak forms the island's 2745-m high point and lies within a 5-6 km wide caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones are mostly located on the northern coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been reported in historical time at this isolated volcano, but observations are infrequent and additional activity may have occurred.(Smithsonian Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin).

ANTARCTICA - Erebus Volcano

March 1st, 2012

As of the 1st of March 2012, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reported that Antarctica's Mt. Erebus continues with a molten lava lake and vapour emissions. It may be covered with glaciers, but they do little to cool the volcano's molten core. Previous special news : as of the 1st of August 2007, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) was reported that Mt. Erebus has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features are: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activityAccording to the Mt. Erebus activity log, several "small- to medium-sized" eruptions occurred during 12-18 October 2005, with a "very large" eruption occurring on 14 October. The eruption sizes were based on comparisons of seismic data for known Erebus eruptions. Mt. Erebus, the southern most volcano in the world, still continues to be the most active volcano in Antarctica. Mt. Erebus (3794 meters above sea level) is classified as a polygenetic stratovolcano. The composition of the current eruptive activity on Mt. Erebus is anorthoclase-phyric tephriphonolite and phonolite, which constitute the bulk of exposed lava flow on the volcano. The oldest eruptive products from Mt. Erebus consist of relatively undifferentiated and non-viscous basanitic lavas that form the low, broad platform shield of the Erebus edifice. Slightly younger basanites and phonotephrite lavas crop out on Fang Ridge, an eroded remnant of an early Erebus volcano and at other isolated locations on the flanks of the Mt. Erebus edifice. Lava flows of more viscous phonotephrite, tephriphonolite and trachyte are erupted after the basanites. The upper slopes of Mt. Erebus are dominated by steeply dipping (~30°) tephriphonolite lava flows with large scale flow levees. A conspicuous break in slope at approximately 3200 meters is a summit plateau representing a caldera. The summit caldera itself is filled with small volume tephriphonolite and phonolite lava flows. In the center of the of the summit caldera is a small, steep-sided cone composed primarily of decomposed lava bombs and a lag deposit of anorthoclase crystals. It is within this summit cone that the active lava lake continuously degasses and periodically erupts. Mt. Erebus located on Ross Island, Antarctica is the world’s southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970’s had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment. Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Information from : MEVO - Live cam link

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Vanuatu - Aoba volcano (Ambae)

March 8th, 2013

According to observations by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department, a report from 6 March stated that the minor activity at Aoba that began in December 2012 was likely continuing. Satellite images acquired on 3 and 26 February detected substantial sulfur dioxide emissions. The Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL) remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4). As of the 7th of February 2013, Geohazards reported that according to reports by the Ambanga villagers to the Observatory, the Lombenben volcano entered a phase of minor activity since December 2012. The site observations made by the Geohazards team from 30th January to 2nd February 2013 confirmed that the activity of Lombenben has changed significantly). The OMI satellite images of January show that the volcano was strongly degassing during the day of 18th and 25th January 2013 and it is still continuing slightly. The analysis of data retrieved from the respective volcano monitoring station confirms that the volcanic activity has not ceased. Aoba, also known as Ambae, is a massive 2500 cu km basaltic shield volcano that is the most voluminous volcano of the New Hebrides archipelago. A pronounced NE-SW-trending rift zone dotted with scoria cones gives the 16 x 38 km island an elongated form. A broad pyroclastic cone containing three crater lakes is located at the summit of the Hawaiian-style shield volcano within the youngest of at least two nested calderas, the largest of which is 6 km in diameter. Post-caldera explosive eruptions formed the summit craters of Lake Voui (also spelled Vui) and Lake Manaro Ngoru about 360 years ago. A tuff cone was constructed within Lake Voui about 60 years later. The latest known flank eruption, about 300 years ago, destroyed the population of the Nduindui area near the western coast.

VANUATU - Gaua - Mt. Garet volcano

August 18th, 2013

On 14 August 2013 the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity at Gaua had increased since June; volcanic tremor levels increased slightly and ash plume emissions continued. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4). previous news 2011 -Based on a hazards assessment during 17-18 October 2011, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that Gaua had been emitting ash since September. Ash fell on western parts of the island. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4).The data collected by the monitoring system of Gaua volcano shows the existence of earthquakes caused by volcanic activity in August 2011. The OMI satellite images clearly shows that Gaua volcano has gone through some degassing in 17, 27, and 28 September 2011. This means that the Gaua volcano activity is ongoing. The local authorities have reported, in October 10th, the ashfall on the north eastern and the western part of Gaua. With this report the Alert Level of Gaua volcano remains at level 1 according to the Vanuatu volcanoes Alert Systems . However this alert Level may change after the Geohazards team risk assessment on this volcano in the coming days. Previous news about eruptive activity 2010: At the current time of December, the Gaua volcano activity is low and has been low since September 2010. Latest observations on Gaua indicates that the vegetations near the volcano vent and the ones exposed to the trade winds on the western side of the island which were burnt by acid rains are now growing again. This means that the Gaua volcano is emitting less gas. This is also proven by the data recorded by the monitoring stations that clearly shows the decreasing number of counts of volcano triggered earthquakes since September 2010 As of the 24th of June, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that based on information from the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory, the Wellington VAAC reported that during the 16th-19th of June ash plumes from Gaua rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. On the 19th of June the plume drifted more than 90 km W. As of the 7th of May, Geohazard reported that field observations of Gaua volcano have shown that there has been moderate activity during the month of April through to the beginning of May. There has been significant emissions of ash and gas over the island of Gaua. This strong gas emission has caused the vegetations around the crater of the volcano to dry up as well as the areas that are exposed to dominant winds, especially from the North western to the South Western coast of the Island. Also during this month of April, mud flows were witnessed by the geo-hazards technical team at Ontar in West Gaua. Volcanic seismic data recorded by the station at Metsalewon in the North East, and the station in the South East both show that tremors have been occurring more frequent with time, since the beginning of the year till the present. As of the 22nd of April, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that the situation at Gaua is worsening. Ash from the current eruption is contaminating water and food supplies on the island. Authorities are planning on evacuating 3,000 people from the island if the eruption that started in 2009 gets worse, but there has already been significant ash fall, mudflows and explosions. As of the 7th of April, the analysis of data collected from the monitoring network of Gaua volcano since October 2009 indicates the existence of volcanic tremor. The OMI satellite images also show the abundance of gases emitted from this volcano daily. Field observations reported by the Geohazards officer in Gaua confirmed significant change of activity with ticker and higher emissions of ash columns. Since last week (end of march/beginning of April 2010) the ash plumes height dwell between 7000 and 10000 feet every day. Field reports also stated that the explosion sounds could be heard from the villages daily. Moreover, starting from the 3rd of April 2010 the volcanic bombes projections from Gaua volcano could be observed from all the coastal villages from the north to the south of the island with reports of the ashfall. As of the 29th of January, Geo-hazards Vanuatu reported that the volcanic activity on Gaua has changed significantly during the month of January. More gas has been emitted since 16 January, followed by multiple explosions with thicker and darker ash plume. This plume of ash and gas was being expelled to about more than 3000 meters high and carried by the wind to surrounding villages in the south and west. Strong strombolian activity was evident on the 24th of January 2010 as villagers were able to observe its projections. These signs indicate that the level of magma is rising. Very strong explosions have been heard and seen from the coastal villages of East Gaua this morning, January 29th 2010. Due to the current activity, the level of water and the rate of river flow from the waterfall and outlets were observed to have risen from 20 to 30cm since January 22nd. This occurrence is possibly due to the disturbance within the Lake Letas which is feeding the river due to the rising activity. Water from water thanks in the eastern coast is becoming acid from the acid rains. This means that there can be greater threats posed given the occurrence of volcanic explosions. As of the 13th of January 2010, Geo-Hazards Vanuatu reported that the continuous ash emission activity of the Gaua volcano that begun on Monday 14th December 2009 with the significant emissions of ashes is still ongoing. This was accompanied by explosions heard from the villages on the 29th of December 2009. This eruptive phase is different from previous activities with thicker and darker plumes (see photos). These changes reflect the evolution of the source (alimentation) of the volcano. Ash falls continue to persist in the western part of Gaua and with the changes in the direction of the wind; it is possible that ash falls may also be experienced in the eastern part of the island. Chemical analysis of the ashes that fell and were collected in October, which was carried out by York University in England, have indicated that there is a high concentration of chemicals which are hazardous to the human health within these ash particles from Gaua. More analysis will be coming up on the new deposits. The latest OMI satellite images clearly show the persistence of significant flux of gases being emitted from Gaua volcano. As of the 27th of November, the Geo-hazards Officer who is responsible for the Gaua volcano monitoring works on Gaua has confirmed the big explosion of the Gaua volcano in November 18th 2009 at 2pm. This explosion has been followed by very thick and high emissions of ash columns that were covering the areas exposed to trade winds in the West. Volcano-seismic data recorded by the monitoring station based in east Gaua shows the increase in volcano activity signals starting from October 25th. Until present, the data shows that the activity of Gaua volcano remains significant. With this trend, it is recommended that the Alert Level of the volcano be remained at level 2 according to the Vanuatu volcano Alert Levels (VVAL) while Geo-hazards is carrying out a very close monitoring with the IGNS counterparts. The danger persists in the red and yellow colour zones of the hazard map, especially the risks of ash falls and mudflows in the zone 1, zone 2 and zone 3 of the revised hazards map. According to news release more than 300 villagers were evacuated on Thursday 26th of November after an eruption started from the volcano and spewing smoke and ash onto the island and villages around. Residents were loaded onto fishing boats and shipped to the far side of Gaua island after the volcano. Also, according to Vanuatu's National Disaster Management Office they're evacuating people to the other side of the island. The Red Cross is providing water containers and purification tablets for the villagers, who have been hit by respiratory problems and diarrhoea caused by the volcano's pungent sulphur fumes. The evacuees will have to stay away from their villages until the volcano subsides, he said. The area has been put on the second highest alert level. No more information was reported directly from VGO yet. Previously, as of the 13th of October VGO (Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory) latest bulletin reported that after the assessment of the geohazards team on Gaua volcano from 3-7 October 2009, it is confirmed that Mont Garet volcano is going through an eruptive phase starting from the 27th of September 2009. Seismic records of the seismic station installed on Gaua show that many explosions occurred on Gaua volcano. Volcanic gas flux measurements on October 3rd show that 3000 tons of sulfuric dioxide is released from this volcano each day, this means that a significant quantity of magma is degassing from Gaua volcano. The lake letas, localised close to the Mont Garet volcano, is one of the biggest crater lake of South Pacific, its volume reachs 800 million cubic meters which is drained out through the river of the Waterfall. With this information, the Alert level of this volcano is now raised to Level 2 on the Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL). This means that this volcano is going through a minor eruption. It is not recommended to approach the volcano. The danger remains in the red zone area on the hazard map including all the river outlets in Gaua, especially the river of waterfall (see Hazard map). With the related alert level, a level of response from the community is required (see attached Community Disaster response plan). Geohazards is doing its best with the limited resources available to continue monitoring this volcano. As of the 6th of october, local New Zealand information reported that volcanologists in Vanuatu are closely monitoring the Gaua volcano to consider whether to move its alert to level two. A senior vulcanologist at the geohazards department, Douglas Charley, reported his team has recorded more activity since last night. Very late yesterday the team started to observe an increase of a high volcanic high frequency. The level remains at one and the team will be trying to observe this until the next 48 hours. If activity will increasing further, Alert level will be putting to level two.Douglas Charley says they have one monitoring station in the field, but are now requesting more to get more reliable data. As of the 1st of october 2009, the national authorities of the republic of Vanuatu from the the Vanuatu Department of Geology Mines and Water Resources have issued an alert (at the lowest level of one , on a scale of 1-5) for Gaua volcano island, also known as Santa Maria Island located the northern part of the archipelago. The volcano has been showing signs of activity for the last two weeks, with accounts of repeated explosions and ash and gas emission. Local inhabitants have reported large quantities of smoke being produced by the volcano, a strong smell of sulphur and some contamination of local water and food supplies. About 2000 people live on the island. The roughly 20-km-diameter Gaua Island, also known as Santa Maria, consists of a basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano with an 6 x 9 km wide summit caldera. Small parasitic vents near the caldera rim fed Pleistocene lava flows that reached the coast on several sides of the island; several littoral cones were formed where these lava flows reached the sea. Quiet collapse that formed the roughly 700-m-deep caldera was followed by extensive ash eruptions. Construction of the historically active cone of Mount Garat (Gharat) and other small cinder cones in the SW part of the caldera has left a crescent-shaped caldera lake. The symmetrical, flat-topped Mount Garat cone is topped by three pit craters. The onset of eruptive activity from a vent high on the SE flank of Mount Garat in 1962 ended a long period of dormancy. Last know significative activity occures in 1982 (GVN/GVP)

VANUATU - Ambrym volcano

August 10th, 2013

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 9 August showed steam-and-gas plumes rising from Ambrym's Benbow cone and from the active lava lake in Mbwelesu Crater (one of three active sub-craters of the Marun cone). The Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity at Ambrym slightly increased to a minor eruptive phase, and a seismic swarm was detected between 2400 and 0700 on 26 July. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4). Previous news 2011 -On 21 June the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that satellite images on 2, 4, 11, 14, and 16 June detected gas emissions from Ambrym. Emissions of minor amounts of ash and substantial amounts of gas from the active vents had been detected during the previous week. The report warned that communities on the island, especially those downwind of Ambrym, may experience ashfall and acid rain that could damage to the environment and contaminate water. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4). Ambrym, a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, is one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides arc. A thick, almost exclusively pyroclastic sequence, initially dacitic, then basaltic, overlies lava flows of a pre-caldera shield volcano. The caldera was formed during a major Plinian eruption with dacitic pyroclastic flows about 1900 years ago. Post-caldera eruptions, primarily from Marum and Benbow cones, have partially filled the caldera floor and produced lava flows that ponded on the caldera floor or overflowed through gaps in the caldera rim. Post-caldera eruptions have also formed a series of scoria cones and maars along a fissure system oriented ENE-WSW. Eruptions have apparently occurred almost yearly during historical time from cones within the caldera or from flank vents. However, from 1850 to 1950, reporting was mostly limited to extra-caldera eruptions that would have affected local populations.

Bezymianny volcano - H. Gaudru 1992

VANUATU - Yasur volcano ( Tanna island)

November 20th, 2013

On 19 November 2013, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that a new phase of ash emissions from Yasur began on 3 November. The intensity of the explosive activity remained low; therefore the Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4). Previously, on 28 May, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity at Yasur continued to increase slightly, and bombs fell around the summit area, the tourist walk, and the parking area. Ash venting and dense white plumes from the crater were observed. Photos included in the report showed ash emissions and ashfall on 5 and 8 May, and dense white plumes on 23 and 24 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). According to observations by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards department, started from 02nd April 2013, the explosive activity level of Yasur volcano has slightly increased. Explosions have become slightly stronger and more frequent. The fresh volcanic bombs from active vents have been falling around the summit area, the tourist walk and the parking area. Yasur volcano exhibited ash venting beginning on 02nd April 2013 and believed to continue. With this situation, villages and communities located far away and close to the volcano, especially those in the prevailing trade winds direction will expect ash falls (See Fig.2a/b). The Volcanic Alert Level of Yasur volcano increase at Level 2, the risk remains near the volcano crater for volcanic projections, and in part of the Red Zone for volcanic ash falls. This level of alert could evolve in the coming days. Moderate ash venting occurred at Yasur volcano at 15:15 pm (02 April), at 09:30 am (4 April) and at 07:00am (5 April). Satellite image (OMI) on 01st April 2013 shows the light degassing from Yasur volcano Previously, past year, following an assessment during 7-12 July 2012, the Geohazards Observatory team concluded that explosive activity at Yasur had slightly increased, becoming stronger and more frequent, and shifting from Strombolian to sub-Plinian. Bombs ejected from the vents fell in the crater, around the summit area, and on the tourist walk and parking area. The explosions were heard, felt, and observed from nearby villages and schools. Activity at all three volcanic vents was characterized by degassing, ash emissions, and ejection of bombs. On 13 July the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 0-4). Previously, On 13 June 2011, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity from Yasur decreased during the previous week after a brief period of high activity with significant explosions and ashfall. Even though Strombolian activity occasionally ejected bombs that fell around the crater, explosions had become slightly weaker and less frequent. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 0-4).Following the assessment done by the Geohazards team on the 31 th May and 01 st   June, Yasur volcano has maintained its high activity with the strong explosions and ashes/bombs emissions from all the three active vents. The increasing activity of the Yasur volcano since May 2011 led us to upgrade the hazard rating of this volcano at Alert Level 3 starting from June 01, 2011.On 12 May 2011, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that, based on information collected by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department, satellite imagery showed strong degassing from Yasur during the previous week. Residents living close to the volcano reported persistent strong explosions that were heard and felt on 12 May. The Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL) remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). Update past year : 10th of June 2010 - Observations and assessments on the Yasur volcano during the past week week have indicated that Yasur's volcanic activity has decreased after a brief period of high activity with significant explosions and ash falls at the end of May 2010. Explosions have become less frequent yet constant strombolian activity with occasional ejections of lava bombs still occur around the volcano. Therefore with these indications the Alert Level of Yasur volcano is now decreased to Level 2 on the Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL) . Visitors to the volcano are still advised to observe the volcano from safe distance away from the vent. It is advisable that visitors and tourist agencies must carefully consider this information given, to avoid the risks and dangers of the volcano. As of the 27th of May, Geohazard Vanuatu reported the increasing activity of the Yasur volcano since January 2010 led us to upgrade the hazard rating of this volcano at Alert Level 3 starting from May 27, 2010 .  Therefore the access to the volcano is now closed and its 500 m surrounding zone is strictly prohibited. Yasur volcano is currently undergoing moderate to large eruption with strong explosions ejecting volcanic bombs reaching the view points for visitors and the parking area with the significant ash fall in the villages nearby. High risk of volcanic projections remains in the red color Zone and threats of ash fall in parts of the yellow color zone that are exposed to trade winds that Following the assessment done by the Geohazards team on the 26th and 27th April, Yasur volcano has maintained its high activity with the strong degassing and ash emissions from all the three active vents and falling on most parts of the island from the east to the west. Fresh volcanic bombs have fallen around the crater rim; few of them have even reached the ash plain and the parking area. Explosions could be heard and viewed from the villages. Around 5 volcanic bombs have already fallen on the observation point B since beginning of April. Tour operators and local population have confirmed that the activity remains very important since the beginning of April. OMI pictures and the seismic data collected from the monitoring station confirmed this important activity with the strong degassing and very explosive activity to date Following the observations of the Geo-hazards team on in March 8th 2010 and the analysis of the volcano-seismic data recorded by the monitoring network of this volcano, it is confirmed that the activity of this volcano is increasing since January 2010, as indicated in the satellite images. This is also proven by the activity of all the three active vents and the recent volcanic bombs that fell on visitors' observation path. Under these circumstances, the Alert Level for Yasur volcano is raised to LEVEL 2 according to the Vanuatu Volcanoes Alert Levels (VVAL) . This means that eruptions are moderate and danger close to the volcano, within parts of Red Zone of the Hazard map. Thus approaching the volcano could be dangerous; it would be safer to view the yasur volcano from the parking area to avoid the volcano impact. Visitors and tourism agencies are advised to consider this information until the next alert is released. Previously, as of the 12th of August 2009, John Seach reported that eruptive activity continues at Yasur volcano in Vanuatu. During a visit to the volcano from 1-3 August, John Seach observed Strombolian explosions ejecting lava to a height of 300 m above the vent. Ash emissions were lower than normal, which allowed good views into the crater. One vent was active in the northern crater, and two vents active in the southern crater. As of the 1st of March 2009, Yasur volcano continues to erupt many times per hour as it has done so for at least 800 years. Previously, as of the 1st of October, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, reports that Yasur is still currently erupting. Strombolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions continue at Yasur volcano. Three main active vents are visible inside the summit crater. Incandescent lava explosions reached 250 m above the crater, accompanied by loud explosions. Projectiles were observed falling on the crater rim, 170 m from the vents. As of the 9th of April 2008, mainly from reports of John Seach , reported that a major earthquake (magnitude 7.6) hit southern Vanuatu today at 2346hrs local time. The earthquake was located east of the South New Hebrides Trench and 97 km SW of Yasur volcano. The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre said there was no tsunami threat. The main earthquake was preceded by a large and two medium sized earthquakes; magnitude 6.5, 5.9, and 4.9. Yasur is the closest active volcano to the earthquake epicentre and is currently erupting. As of the 1st of April, activity has been almost continuous at the Yasur volcano in Vanuatu. As of the 26th of March, the Darvin Volcanic Ash Advisory (DVAAC) has reported that Strombolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions continue at Yasur volcano. Three main active vents are visible inside the summit crater. Incandescent lava explosions reached 250 m above the crater, accompanied by loud explosions. On 7-8th March, ash emissions increased at Yasur producing ashfall over villages within 4 km of the crater. Projectiles were observed falling on the crater rim, 170 m from the vents. Previous information from IRD reported that a new cycle of important activity has began at the end of June 2004. Its the fifth cycles of strong activity since the beginning of the permanent monitoring in 1993. This activity produced important ashfalls ( several millimeters as far 4 km distance of the volcano). Main eruptive activity occurred from the Crater A with strombolian explosions. Height has been estimated estimated to some 300 m high above the crater rim. Sulphur dioxide measurements (SO2) made between 11-17 of July 2004 with mini Doas spectrometer reaches average values of 1000 tonnes per day (500 tonnes per day in April 2004). Information from Michel Lardy (IRD Noumea) and DGMWR (Vanuatu) Yasur is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Previous informations from IRD reported that a new cycle of important activity has began at the end of June 2004. Its the fifth cycles of strong activity since the beginning of the permanent monitoring in 1993. This activity produced important ashfalls ( several millimeters as far 4 km distance of the volcano). Main eruptive activity occured from the Crater A with strombolian explosions. Height has been estimated estimated to some 300 m high above the crater rim. Sulphur dioxyde measurements (SO2) made between 11-17 of July 2004 with mini Doas spectrometer reaches average values of 1000 tons per day (500 tons per day in April 2004). Information from Michel Lardy (IRD Noumea) and DGMWR (Vanuatu)Previous significative information (September 2002) reported an increasing level of activity at Yasur since October 2001 and the volcanic quake of August 29, 2002 (about 3:00 pm local time), led local volcanologist to upgrade the hazard rating to Alarm Level 3. Access to the volcano was closed.The August 29 quake, magnitude 6 was strongly felt by the inhabitants of the whole district around the volcano (White Sands, Port Resolution, …). This was the first time since the seismic station was installed in October 1992 that a shock of such magnitude was recorded (see graphs below). Elders of the Yasur district confirm that such a quake had not been experienced within living memory.Two new seismological monitoring stations are about to be installed, to complement the existing alarm system installed 2 km from Yasur and the Isangel station. At this time, evacuation of the roughly 6000 inhabitants of the district has not been considered. Information bulletins will be broadcast by Radio Vanuatu to keep the population concerned informed of new developments. Yasur's activity follows a long volcanic history in the southeastern part of the island , whose main phases, over approximately the last 10,000 years, have produced: 1/ lava flows; 2/ extensive glowing ash flows that covered the entire region from Kwamera to Waisisi, and 3/ the construction of another small volcanic cone, the Ombus. Yasur volcano lies over a large and shallow (less than 10 km from the surface) magmatic chamber whose center is located between Port-Resolution and Sulfur Bay; thus, the possibility of a major eruption within a century or a millennium cannot be ignored. Such an eruption, however, would be preceded by numerous earthquakes. Should this happen, evacuation of the local population toward the west coast, the central districts and the north of the island would have to be carried out rapidly. Informations from :M.Lardy (IRD Noumea) VANUATU - SVE Travel volcanic fieldtrip in project for 2013 (SEPTEMBER ?) - if you are interested please contact us : info@sveurop.org

 

Yasur volcano (31December 2002) S.Wallez- DGMWR

 

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