VOLCANO NEWS

Updated on September 28th, 2016 (latest news classified according to countries)

Highlight today :explosive activity is still continuing at the Santa-Maria Santiaguito ( Guatemala) -explosive activity occurred at the Bajujari cone ( Rinjani volcano) Lombok Island - Indonesia

 

ECUADOR - Guagua Pichincha volcano


June 16th, 2016

The Washington VAAC reported that on 14 June 2016 a possible ash emission from Guagua Pichincha was visible in satellite images drifting NW. Seismicity was elevated. A VAAC report issued about five hours later noted that no further notices of activity had been received. Previous news 2015 - IGEPN reported that seismic activity was detected since end of March 2015. (58 earthquakes during the 31st of March) A second swarm has been reported from 14th to-15th of April probably due to rocks fracturation. As of the 17-18 and 19th of April sulfur odor was detected from the rifugio and according to visual observation the main fumarole close the 1981'crater was more active that the previous days. As of the 20th of April, two phreatic explosions occurred (at 5:06 and 5:58 local time) on the Cristal dome complex active zone. As of the 29th of April, IGEPN recorded a signal tremor type probably in relation with geothermal activity under the volcano. Last previous activity was reported on 2010 : As of the 14 th of September 2010, IG reported that no significative change between 6-12 September period. Seismic network continues to record important number of events related to fracture of rock to the interior of the volcano, nevertheless did not register any type of additional anomaly. As of the 17th of April 2010, IG reported that there no change, both the seismic activity and fumarole emission remained at a low level. Previous significative information : as of the 20th of February 2009, IG reported that the seismic stations Geophysical Institute have registered for days back a slight increase of the internal activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. In previous days 4 phreatic explosions of moderate size have been registered. These explosions happen due to an increase of the internal steam pressure, possibly related to the increase of precipitations observed in the zone of volcano. Therefore the Geophysical Institute recommends that it is not allowed to descend to the interior of the crater since the phreatic explosions could be repeated and the people could take the rock hit, other materials and/or rarefaction waves that are generated by these events. These phreatic explosions they happen generally at times of much rainfall, this is the reason why these explosions not necessarily are indicative of a substantial increase of the activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. The Geophysical Institute in its preprecautionary eagerness of the security of the people maintains a monitoring permanent of the state of this and other volcanos of the country and will inform opportunely into any change that these can present/display. The activity of the volcano shows a slight increase in its seismic activity with respect to the previous months. 40 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes have been registered, which are related to the fracturing of rocks to the interior of the complex between the 14th and the 18th of February. These earthquakes are of small magnitude, which is the reason why they have not been perceived by the population. It is possible to indicate that during the 2007, an average of 4.2 VT earthquakes per day was had. Also in this time interval 6 events of long period (LP) per day were registered when the average in the 2008 was of 0.3. LP events are related to resonances of cracks full of flowed inside the volcano. In addition it is important to mention the presence of explosions of moderate magnitude, related to the phreatic activity. The 16th of February the guardian of the refuge of the volcano perceived an increase in the scent to sulphur in the high part of the crater. Guagua Pichincha rises immediately W of Quito, Ecuador's capital city. The broad volcanic massif is cut by a large horseshoe-shaped summit caldera, ~6 km in diameter and 600 m deep, that was breached to the W during a slope failure ~50,000 years ago. - Information : I G Quito

****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

Cratère du Guagua Pichincha - Aôut 1999 -Viracucha

ECUADOR - Tungurahua volcano

March24th, 2016

IG reported that activity at Tungurahua was at moderate-to-high levels during 16-17 March, moderate levels during 18-21 March, and low levels on 22 March. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano; the weather cleared for a brief period on 20 March and no activity was observed. IG reported that moderate-to-high levels of activity at Tungurahua continued during 9-15 March. Gas-and-ash plumes rose from the crater on most days, often to heights less than 2 km above the crater, and drifted NW, W, WSW, and SW; cloud cover sometimes obscured views of the volcano. Explosions were recorded daily, and crater incandescence was reported almost nightly. Ash fell on 9 March in Pillate (8 km W), El Manzano (8 km SW), Cotalo (8 km NW), and Macas. On 10 March a small pyroclastic flow traveled 1.5 km NW down the Achupashal drainage. On 15 March residents in the Runten sector (NNE) heard an explosion and sounds resembling rolling rocks on the NE flank. Ash fell in Patate (NW) and Juive (7 km NNW). IG reported that moderate-to-high levels of Strombolian activity at Tungurahua continued during 2-8 March. Daily explosions were often accompanied by roaring and sounds resembling gunshots, and often caused local structures to vibrate. Steam-and-ash plumes rose from the crater daily often to heights less than 2.5 km above the crater and drifted NW, WNW, W, and SW; ash plumes rose 5 km on 4 March and to 6 km with a SE drift on 8 March. Ashfall was also reported daily in areas including Chontapamba (W), Pillate (8 km W), Bilbao (8 km W), Chacauco (NW), Juive (NW), Quero (20 km NW), Cusoa (NW), Choglontas (13 km WSW), Pelileo (8 km N), El Manzano (8 km SW), Vazcan (N), and Pondoa (N). Strombolian explosions observed nightly ejected incandescent blocks that rolled as far as 2 km down the flanks.At 1020 on 4 March an explosion vibrated windows and generated an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater. A pyroclastic flow traveled 1 km down the Romero drainage, and at 1152 another pyroclastic flow traveled 500 m down Achupashal (NW) drainage. On 6 March another explosion was followed by pyroclastic flows that traveled 1 km down the Achupashal, Rea, Pondoa (N), and Mandur (NW) drainages. Pyroclastic flows on 8 March traveled as far as 2.2 km down the Mandur, Romero, Bilbao, Juive, and Achupashal drainages. On 5 March lahars descended the ravines of Achupashal, Juive, Pondoa, Mandur, Pingullo, Rea and Chontapamba; lahars in Pingullo and Cusúa led to the closure of the road. IG reported that a swarm of volcano-tectonic and long-period earthquakes began at Tungurahua at 1105 on 26 February. At 1211 an explosion produced a plume with high ash content that rose 5 km above the crater and drifted W. Ash fell in Juive (NW), Chico, Choglonas (13 km WSW), El Manzano (8 km SW), and Cahuajo­ (8 km SW). Explosions at 1239, 1247, and 1252 generated ash plumes that rose 6-7 km above the crater. An explosion at 1333 generated a small pyroclastic flow that descended halfway down the W and NW flanks, and an ash plume that rose 8 km. At 1535 another pyroclastic flow, generated from material spilling over the WNW rim, also traveled halfway down the volcano in the Mandur (NW), Hacienda (NW), and Cusua (NW) drainages. Ashfall was noted in El Manzano, Choglontas, Pillate (8 km W), Juive, Ambato (31 km NW), and Quero (20 km NW); reddish, black, gray, and beige tephra up to 3 mm in diameter fell in Pillate and Choglontús. In the evening Strombolian activity ejected incandescent blocks which rolled 1.5 km down the flanks. For a short time around 2200 lava fountains rose 500 m. Explosions and nighttime crater incandescence continued to be detected during 27 February-1 March, and explosions sometimes vibrated nearby structures. Ashfall was observed daily in areas including El Manzano, Palitahua (6 km SSW), Cotaló (8 km NW), Cahuají, Providencia, Puela (8 km SW), Chazo, Pillate, Choglontús, Mocha (25 km WNW), and areas of Quero. Ash plumes were observed rising 2-4 km above the crater on 27 February and 1 March. During 29 February-1 March pyroclastic flows descended the Juive, Mandur (NW), Achupashal (NW), and Romero drainages; the largest traveled 1.5 km down the Achupashal. .Previously IG reported high seismic activity at Tungurahua during 25 November-1 December, although the number of earthquakes decreased. During periods of clear weather on most days observers noted gas-and-steam plumes rising as high as 1.5 km and drifting mainly W. Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador's capital city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano. Tungurahua - Live webcam

ECUADOR - Reventador volcano

August 11th, 2016

During 3-9 August IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. Incandescent blocks rolled as far as 1 km down the flanks. Gas, water vapor, and ash plumes rose from the crater during 3-4 and 6-7 August; the plumes rose as high as 1 km on 6 August. On 24 June IG stated that surficial activity at Reventador had remained high during recent months. While conducting routine maintenance work of the monitoring network on 8 June, IG staff noted continuous gas-and-water-vapor emissions rising 800 m above the crater and drifting NW. Explosions produced sounds similar to gunshots and generated ash plumes that rose 2 km. Deposits from pyroclastic flows and ejected incandescent blocks were evident on all flanks, but particularly the N and S flanks. During 18-24 April IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, volcano-tectonic events, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. Incandescent blocks rolled as far as 1.5 km down the flanks on most days. On 18 May a pyroclastic flow traveled 1.5 km down the SE flank, and a gas-and-ash plume rose 1.5 km above the crater. A gas-and-ash plume drifted W on 20 May, and on 24 May a pyroclastic flow traveled 1 km down the SE flank. During 13-19 April IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, volcano-tectonic events, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover often prevented visual observations. Crater incandescence was observed at night during 12-13 April. On 13 April a pyroclastic flows traveled 1 km down the E flank, and an ash-and-gas plume rose 2 km. On 18 April a steam-and-ash plume rose 2 km and drifted SW. Crater incandescence during 18-19 April was accompanied by blocks rolling1.5 km down the S and SW flanks. Emissions rose 800 m and drifted NE. During 16-22 March IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, volcano-tectonic events, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover often prevented visual observations. Crater incandescence was present on a few nights. Pyroclastic flows traveled 1 km on 18 March and 2 km down the E flank on 20 March. At night during 21-22 March a pyroclastic flow traveled 1.5 km down the SW flank, and on 22 March an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted W. During 9-15 March IG reported a high level of seismic activity including explosions, volcano-tectonic events, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover often prevented visual observations. On 9 March an explosion at 0505 ejected blocks that fell onto the flanks 1.2 km from the crater. An explosion at 0640 produced an ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted NW. At night during 9-10 March blocks traveled 1.2 km down the flanks and a small pyroclastic flow also descended the flanks. An explosion on 10 March generated an ash-and-steam plume that rose 1 km and drifted SW. Steam-and-ash emissions were occasionally seen through cloud cover on 13 March. The next day the crater was incandescent and blocks rolled 500 m down all flanks. Steam-and-gas plumes rose 800 m and drifted NW. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Cotopaxi volcano

September 1st, 2016

IG reported that during 1 January-24 August seismicity at Cotopaxi remained low. Small, intermittent gas emissions mostly stayed near the crater rim and on rare occasions rose no higher than 500 m above the rim. Emissions drifted down the W flank and remobilized ash deposits which were sometimes reported by Parque Nacional Cotopaxi visitors.
Previous News - During an overflight of Cotopaxi on 10 May, scientists observed minor gas emissions rising 600 m above the crater and drifting N and NW. Glaciers remained cracked, though glacial melting observed in recent months had decreased considerably. The temperature of flank fumaroles had decreased slightly.Previous news -On 29 January I.G. reported that in recent weeks surficial activity at Cotopaxi was characterized by minor steam emissions from the crater and sporadic gas emissions with minor amounts of ash. Sulfur dioxide emissions were less than 1,000 tons per day (pre-eruptive levels) and seismicity had almost returned to baseline levels. At 1843 on 24 January a plume with low-to-moderate levels of ash rose 700 m above the crater and drifted W. The emission coincided with a hybrid earthquake. IG reported that at 1336 on 13 January a seismic station on Cotopaxi's W flank recorded an hour-long signal caused by a lahar. Preliminary results indicated that the peak flow rate was around 40 m3/s with a volume of about 50,000 m3; the lahar was the largest recorded at the volcano since the current eruption began. Lahars also descended the Agualongo River, leaving deposits on the bridge that crosses the river. IG reported that after 119 days of closure due to volcanic activity at Cotopaxi, the Cotopaxi National Park reopened to visitors. Both seismic and surficial activity have declined in recent weeks. IG reported that during 2-8 December seismic activity at Cotopaxi was characterized by volcano-tectonic, hybrid, and long-period events. Signals indicating emissions and explosions were also detected. Although cloud cover often prevented observations, gas-and-steam emissions were visible daily. A plume containing ash rose as high as 1 km and drifted NW on 7 December. IG reported that during 25 November-1 December seismic activity at Cotopaxi was characterized by volcano-tectonic, hybrid, and long-period events. Seismic signals indicating emissions and explosions were also detected. Although cloud cover often prevented observations, gas-and-steam emissions were visible daily. The plumes contained ash on most days and rose as high as 1 km, drifting W and SW. Lahar descended the Agualongo river during 28-29 November and the Mariscal Sucre river on 29 November. IG reported that during 18-24 November gas, steam, and ash plumes rose almost daily from Cotopaxi, as high as 1.5 km above the crater, and drifted W, and SW. Ashfall was reported in Machachi and Aloasí on 18 November. IG reported that during 11-17 November gas, steam, and ash plumes rose from Cotopaxi as high as 2 km above the crater and drifted NW, W, and SW. IG reported that during 4-10 November gas, steam, and ash plumes rose almost daily from Cotopaxi as high as 1.5 km above the crater. Minor ashfall was reported S of the volcano on 6 November, and small lahars descended the W flank during 6 and 8-9 November. IG reported that although cloud cover often obscured views of Cotopaxi during 28 October-3 November emissions were observed daily; gas, steam, and ash plumes rose as high as 1.5 km and drifted W, SW, S, and E. A small lahar descended the W flank on 31 October. IG reported that during 21-27 October gas, steam, and ash plumes rose from Cotopaxi almost daily as high as 2 km above the crater and drifted NW, W, and SW. A small lahar detected on 24 October descended the NW flank but stayed with Cotopaxi National Park boundaries. A small lahar descended the W flank the next day. IG reported that during 14-20 October cloud cover sometimes obscured views of Cotopaxi although emissions were observed daily. Gas, steam, and ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the crater and drifted W, NW, N, and E. Small lahars descended the NW flank during 14-15 October, and a small lahar traveled down the Agualongo gorge on 16 October. Ashfall was reported during 16-17 and 19-20 October in Ticatilon, Lasso (60 km N), Chasqui (48 km NNW), Agualongo, Mariscal Sucre (50 km NNW), Rumipamba, San Fernando (58 km NNW), Selva Alegre (54 km NNW), Ruminhui (61 km N), Vallecito, Aloasa (23 km NW), Aloag (28 km NW), Jambele, El Chaupi (24 km WNW), Tanicuchi (25 km SW), and Maldonado. IG reported that during 7-13 October gas, steam, and ash plumes rose from Cotopaxi as high as 2.5 km above the crater and drifted NW, W, and SW. Ash fell on the N flank on 7 October. Ashfall was also reported in El Chasqui Chaupi, Machachi (24 km NW), Aloag (28 km NW), and Obelisco on 8 October, and in San Ramon, San Agustin, San Isidro (58 km N), Rumipamba de Espinosas (53 km NNW), Callo Mancheno, Santa Catalina (52 km N), and San Francisco on 13 October. During an overflight of Cotopaxi on 29 September, IG scientists observed low-energy pulsating emissions with low or no ash content that rose 1 km above the crater and drifted W. Fracturing continued on both the upper and lower parts of the glacier, at the toes. Rapid melting had occurred from the glacier on the upper E flank which resulted in material falling onto the lower part of the glacier. New thermal anomalies on the upper parts of the outer crater were identified, likely from newly deposited material. During 30 September-6 October gas-and-water vapor plumes sometimes with low ash content rose as high as 2 km and drifted in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Tanicuchí (25 km SW) on 1 October. During an overflight of Cotopaxi on 22 September, IG scientists observed low-energy emissions with low or no ash content that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted W. Fracturing continued on both the upper parts of the glacier and the glacial toes on the N, NW, and SW flanks. The glacier inside the crater had almost disappeared. Several areas of landslide deposits inside and outside of the crater were noted. Yellowish-green deposits from increased fumarolic activity were most apparent on the S, SE, and E flanks. Thermal images revealed temperature decreases since the previous overflight at the new vents inside the crater and at areas on the S flank. During 23-29 September gas-and-water vapor plumes, often with low ash content, rose as high as 2 km and drifted mainly W and SW. On 17 September IG reported that during the previous two weeks activity at Cotopaxi had declined, characterized by a decrease in tremor and less intense gas-and-ash emissions. On 10 September, however, the number of volcano-tectonic events increased. They were mostly located 9-12 km below the summit, although some were as shallow as 4 km. During 19-22 September gas emissions with low ash content rose as high as 1.5 km above the crater and drifted W. During 1-8 September IG reported that a large number of seismic events were located between 2 and 11 km below Cotopaxi's summit; seismicity consisted of long-period events, very-long-period events, tremor, and volcano-tectonic events. During 5-10 September seismic energy decreased along with the size and ash content of emissions. Analysis of ash samples showed an increase in the proportion of juvenile fragments. During an overflight on 9 September, IG scientists observed an ash plume rising 200-300 m above the crater and drifting W. Infrared measurements revealed that temperatures were well below those measured on 3 September. Glacial melting on the upper flanks continued to produce streams of meltwater on the N flank. Several new cracks in the glaciers were noted. On 11 September tremor was low; gas-and-ash emissions rose 500 m and drifted W. On 12 September gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km and drifted W to NW, causing ashfall in Machachi and El Chaupi. During 14-15 September ash emissions rose 1 km. A news article from 14 September noted that area flights had been re-routed around Cotopaxi to avoid ash plumes; the most affected route was between Quito and Guayaquil.IG reported that during the morning on 2 September gas-and-steam plumes from Cotopaxi contained minor amounts of ash, rose 100 m above the crater, and drifted W and NW. At about 1318, plumes with moderate amounts of ash rose 4 km and drifted W. Ashfall was reported in Machachi, Aloasí, and Chaupi. Analysis of ash collected on 2 September showed that the greatest contribution of material was pre-existing and altered rock. On 3 September ash-and-water-vapor plumes rose 2.2 km and drifted N and NW. During an overflight scientists observed ash emissions that rose 1 km and drifted W then N; the plume continued to rise to 8.5 km as it drifted N. Several new cracks in the glaciers were noted, especially on the E and NE flanks. Blocks had been deposited on the N and S parts of the crater. The circular glacier at the top of the inside part of the crater had significantly decreased in size and had large fractures. Glacial melting on the upper flanks had also accelerated. Streams of meltwater were present on the N flank. Thermal images revealed teperature increases in the S and E parts of the crater and a significant increase in temperatures of emissions (200 degrees Celsius). Seismic amplitudes did not increase but signals 3-11 km deep aligned with the conduit suggested rising magma. Bright areas at the summit were observed at night, possibly from hot block deposits. During 4-8 September gas-and-ash plumes rose 1 km at most and drifted N and NW.According to IG, fieldwork revealed that the volume of material ejected since the onset of the eruption at Cotopaxi was an estimated 56,000 cubic meters on 14 August and 19,500 cubic meters during 15-21 August. Thermal images obtained during overflights on 18 and 26 August revealed a significant increase in the temperatures of emissions (150 degrees Celsius on 26 August) and at different areas in the crater Since the onset of continuous tremor on the evening of 22 August there had been very few breaks in ash-and-gas emissions. During 25-31 August ash-and-steam emissions were observed rising at most 2 km above the crater and drifting NW, W, and SW. Based on Washington VAAC reports, IG noted on 26 August that the plume rose as high as 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in a wide area to the WSW, millimeters thick in some areas. During 25-26, 28, and 30-31 August areas reporting ashfall included Manabi (El Carmen, 165 km W), Santo Domingo de los Tsechilas (95 km NW), Pastocalle, Santa Ana, Cerro Azul, Azachul, Leonidas Plaza (40 km N), Bahia de Caraquez (220 WNW), Charapote (230 W), Pichincha, Rocafuerte (225 WSW), Machachi (25 km NW), Tambillo (33 km NNW), Aloag (28 km NNW), and Chaupi. The mayor of Sigchos, in the Province of Cotopaxi, noted impacts on livestock, crops, and greenhouses. A small lahar descended the W flank on 28 August. Emissions later in the day on 31 August were mostly water vapor and gas, with low amounts of ash. IG reported that during an overflight of Cotopaxi on 18 August scientists observed continuous but variable amounts of ash and steam rising more than 100 m above the crater before descending the W flank. Significant amounts of ash were deposited on the flanks in an area from the N to the SW flanks. Several new cracks on the top of some glaciers were noted, especially on the E and NE flanks, and possible new tephra deposits on the N flank were observed. Thermal images revealed no hot material on the flanks; emissions prevented measurements of the inside of the crater. During 18-19 August emissions of steam and gas from Cotopaxi were occasionally observed during periods of clear weather. During the morning of 20 August gas plumes rose just above the crater and drifted W. The next day gas-and-steam plumes rose less than 2 km above the crater and drifted NW; cloud cover continued to sometimes prevent visual observations. On 22 August at 0426 the network detected an increase in the seismic amplitude. Steam-and-ash plumes rising 2 km from the crater were more sustained and higher compared to previous days; plumes drifted NW and WSW. Tremor began at 2141, and was accompanied by the onset of continuous ash emissions. Rangers confirmed ashfall at the entrance of Cotopaxi National Park. Throughout 23 August continuous ash emissions occurred with few breaks, rising no more than 1 km above the crater, and drifting SW. IGEPN staff found 2-mm-thick ash deposits that had accumulated during an 18-hour period. On 24 August ash deposits were noted in most of the N parts of Latacunga valley and reached the S moors of Romerillos. On 25 August ash plumes drifted WNW, causing ashfall in Machachi, Chaupi, and Tambillo.During 15-16 August sulfur dioxide emissions were high, and remobilized ash from the W flank rose up to 3.3 km; no ashfall was reported and only minor amounts of a sulfur odor were noted by residents. Ash plumes rose 300 m on 17 August and drifted W; at 1824 an ash emission rose 700 m and drifted W. During times of clear views observers noted that winds pushed ash plumes down the W flank. Previously, on 14 August IG reported an earthquake swarm at Cotopaxi that began at 1721 and ended at 1806; the largest event, detected at 1723, was a M 2.7. A series of phreatic explosions on 15 August started with two small ones detected at 0402 and 0407. According to the Washington VAAC, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 12.2-13.7 km (40,000-45,000 ft) a.s.l.; lower parts of the plume drifted E and higher parts drifted SE. Ashfall occurred in areas to the N. IG noted that an explosion at 1027 generated an ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 17.9 km (58,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and E. A pyroclastic flow (?) descended the W flank. The VAAC initially reported that ash from that event drifted 17 km W, 20 km NNW, and 8 km SE, and that plumes may have risen as high as 15.2 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l. and possibly higher. According to news articles, ashfall was reported in El Chasqui (48 km N), Machachi (22 km NW), Tambillo (32 km NNW), and in areas in S Quito (~45 km N) including Cutuglagua, Guamaní, Chillogallo, Santa Barbara, and Solanda. Parts of the Cotopaxi National Park was closed to visitors. . PREVIOUS NEWS - on 11 June IG reported that seismicity at Cotopaxi continued to increase. Tremor began to be detected on 4 June, with periods ranging from 10 to 15 minutes. Amplitudes were highest during 5-6 June. Sulfur dioxide emissions continued to be elevated over baseline levels (which were less than 500 tons/day), detected at values greater than 2,500 tons/day. Low-energy, pulsating gas emissions began on 10 June, and Cotopaxi National Park staff reported an increase of water flow in some streams on the NE flank.IG reported that the seismic network at Cotopaxi had detected increases since mid-April; 628 local earthquakes were detected in April and 3,000 events were detected in May. Very-long-period earthquakes were recorded in May, especially during the last week, located in the N and NE parts of the cone at depths of 3 and 14 km. Sulfur dioxide emissions increased on 20 May, possibly from sporadic emissions becoming more continuous, and were 2,500-3,000 tons/day by the end of May. Baseline values were 500 tons/day. Slight inflation was detected by N and NE inclinometers. Crater fumarolic activity increased, with plumes sometimes visible from Quito (55 km N). Climbers indicated a very intense sulfur dioxide odor on the N part of the cone during 22-23 May. Smmetrical, glacier-clad Cotopaxi stratovolcano is Ecuador's most well-known volcano and one of its most active. The steep-sided cone is capped by nested summit craters, the largest of which is about 550 x 800 m in diameter. Deep valleys scoured by lahars radiate from the summit of the andesitic volcano, and large andesitic lava flows extend as far as the base of Cotopaxi. The modern conical volcano has been constructed since a major edifice collapse sometime prior to about 5000 years ago. Pyroclastic flows (often confused in historical accounts with lava flows) have accompanied many explosive eruptions of Cotopaxi, and lahars have frequently devastated adjacent valleys. The most violent historical eruptions took place in 1744, 1768, and 1877. Pyroclastic flows descended all sides of the volcano in 1877, and lahars traveled more than 100 km into the Pacific Ocean and western Amazon basin. The last significant eruption of Cotopaxi took place in 1904.
(GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Sangay volcano

July 18th, 2016

Based on satellite images and wind data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 16 July a possible ash plume from Sangay rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 22 km SW. Based on satellite images and wind data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 25-27 and 30-31 May ash plumes from Sangay rose to altitudes of 5.8-6.7 km (19,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SW, and W. A hotspot was detected during 26-27 May. Based on notices from the Guayaquil MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 20 May an ash plume from Sangay rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. IG reported that at the beginning of March Sangay began a new phase of activity which continued through at least 12 May without significant changes. The number of tremor events and long-period earthquakes were slightly higher in March as compared to the number recorded in April and May, and the number of explosions was slightly higher in April and May. Surficial activity was characterized by frequent ash emissions generated by explosive activity. Thermal anomalies on the flanks were also detected, mostly within 5 km of the summit crater, which possibly corresponded to short-range pyroclastic flows and lava flows. No abnormal sulfur dioxide emission were detected. Based on satellite images, notices from the Guayaquil MWO, and information from IG, the Washington VAAC reported that during 4-7 and 9-10 May ash plumes from Sangay rose to altitudes of 6.1-8.2 km (20,000-27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km NW, W, WSW, and SW. An intermittent thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 4-5 and 10 May. Based on satellite images and notices from the Guayaquil MWO the Washington VAAC reported that during 27 April-3 May ash plumes from Sangay rose to altitudes of 5.8-7 km (19,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 120 km WNW, W, and S. A thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images during 29-30 April and on 2 May. The Washington VAAC reported that on 15 April an intermittent thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images over Sangay. No ash was detected in images, though seismic data indicated activity. On 19 April the Guayaquil MWO indicated that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 6 April an ash plume from Sangay drifted over 35 km NW. Based on satellite images and notices from the Guayaquil MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 1 April an ash plume from Sangay rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l., and a continuing thermal anomaly was detected. On 4 April satellite images detected an ash plume that drifted about 18 km N at an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on notices from the Guayaquil MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 25 March an ash plume from Sangay rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. On 27 March a pilot observed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting W. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW. Cloud cover prevented satellite observations of the volcano on all three days. IG reported that tremor at Sangay ceased on 10 March and the number of long-period earthquakes began to decline the next day. The number of explosions per day increased (from a maximum of four during 3-11 March) to 10 on 12 March, peaked at almost 110 on 15 March, and then declined to 50 on 17 March. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano though the seismic data suggested that gas-and-ash emissions were produced; ashfall was not reported in towns downwind. At 0400 on 17 March continuous tremor with interspersed bursts of more intense tremor began to be detected. The activity intensified at 1300, and then began to gradually decline. IG noted that climbers should avoid the volcano during periods of increased activity. IG reported that the seismic network at Sangay started to record sporadic seismic events on 5 March, although seismicity became more notable during 8-9 March; signs of small explosions and volcano-tectonic events were detected on 7 March, and long-period signals emerged on 9 March. An explosion signal was followed by harmonic tremor on 9 March. That same day satellite images detected a thermal anomaly and an emission that drifted S. The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes, and its most active. The dominantly andesitic volcano has been in frequent eruption for the past several centuries. The steep-sided, 5230-m-high glacier-covered volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex. (GVN/GVP)

ECUADOR - Wolf volcano ( Galapagos)

June 24th, 2015

As of the 24th of June, according to local news, activity is still continuing within the summit caldera with lava flows running on the floor. Previously, IG reported that the eruption at Wolf that began on 25 May continued through 2 June. Lava flows first reached the sea on 28 May. During an overflight on 29 May scientists observed a gas plume rising 2-3 km above the volcano and drifting NW, and smelled a strong sulfur odor. Active lava flows descended the E and NE flanks; cloud cover prevented views of the other areas but thermal images showed anomalies from lava flows on the SE and S flanks. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 40,600 tons per day based on data collected during the flight. Satellite data collected since the beginning of the eruption indicated very minimal ash present in the plume. In addition, no ashfall was reported in the Galapagos Islands. The report also noted that activity had decreased during the recent few days.According to IG the seismic station located on Fernandina Island recorded several events at Wolf (on Isabela Island) starting at 2350 on 24 May. The most significant signal occurred at 0058 on 25 May, corresponding to an explosion and the start of an eruption. At 0215 the Washington VAAC detected an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km SW. At 0345 one ash plume drifted 250 km ENE at an altitude of 15.2 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l., and another drifted 250 km S at an altitude of 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l. Starting at 0428 the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) reported intense thermal anomalies on Wolf's SE flank based on MODIS satellite data. Galapagos National Park staff reported an arcuate fissure along the upper SSE rim and several lava flows descending the flanks. Later that day the VAAC noted a smaller ash emission that drifted 150 km SW, and a bright thermal anomaly that had persisted. Satellites detecting sulfur dioxide showed that the cloud was sulfur-dioxide rich and ash poor; ~100-200 kt of sulfur dioxide had been emitted during the first 13 hours of the eruption.Several lava flows went down on the flank of the volcano toward Southwest, South and East. The main lava flows extended about 5 km away from the active fissure. About two hours later (2:57 AM),VAAC reported an eruptive plume that raised to 10 km high above the volcano, then 15km high in the morning. As of the 26th of May, eruptive activity decreased and the main lava was not reaching the sea during the first day, but reached the sea the day before. Wolf, the highest volcano of the Galapagos islands, straddles the equator at the north end pf the archipelago's largest island Isabela The 1710-m-high edifice has steeeper slopes than most other Isabela volcano, reaching angle up 35 degrees. A 6x7 km caldera, at 700 m one of the deepest pf the Galapagos Islands, is located at the summit. A prominent bench on the west side of the caldera rises 450 m above the caldera floor, much of which is covered by a lava flow erupted in 1982. Radial fissures concentrated along diffuse rift zones extend down the North, NW and SE flanks, and submarine vents lie beyond the North and NW fissures. Similar unvegetated flows originating from a circumferential chain of spatter and scoria cones on the eastern caldera rim drape the forested flanks to the sea. The proportion of aa lava flows at Wolf volcano exceeds that of other Galapagos volcanoes. An eruption in 1797 was the fisrt documented historical eruption in the Galapagos Islands. Previous eruption occurred in 1982. (GVN/GVP)

***************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

Tungurahua volcano 1999 - H. Gaudru

MONTSERRAT - Soufriere Hills volcano - West-Indies

September 4th, 2016

MVO Weekly Report for the Period 26 August to 2 September 2016 - Activity at the Soufriere Hills Volcano remains low. The seismic network recorded eight rockfalls, seven volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week. Four of the volcano-tectonic earthquakes occurred in a very brief swarm on 28th August. The rockfalls were probably a continuation of the increased activity following the heavy rainfall on 24 August. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were not possible during the reporting period.
No recent activity reported since September 2015 - Based on satellite image analyses and wind data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 September 2015 possible re-suspended ash from Soufriere Hills drifted WNW at an altitude of 1 km (3,000 ft) a.s.l. - latest previous report about eruptive activity dated for the period from 8th of March 2013 to 5th of July 2013 -
Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 28th of June to 5h of July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 271 tonnes/day with a maximum of 427 and a minimum of 161 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 21st to 28th of June. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 353 tonnes/day with a maximum of 459 and a minimum of 221 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded four rockfalls and nine volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes the week from 14th to 21st.of June. Six of the VT earthquakes occurred in a brief swarm on 16 July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were only possible on three days this week and gave an average flux of 289 tonnes/day with a maximum of 332 and a minimum of 247 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded one rockfall and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 7th to 14 th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 281 tonnes/day with a maximum of 428 and a minimum of 185 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded nine rockfalls, five volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event the previous week frm 31st of may to 7th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 485 tonnes/day with a maximum of 543 and a minimum of 430 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event this week from 24th to 31st of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 395 tonnes/day with a maximum of 588 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. . The seismic network recorded three rockfalls the week from 17th to 24th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 380 tonnes/day with a maximum of 536 and a minimum of 281 tonnes/day. Many residents of Montserrat felt an earthquake at 7:51 pm on 18 May 2013. This earthquake had a magnitude of 4.9 and was located south-west of Barbuda; about 100 km north of Montserrat. It was not associated with the Soufrière Hills Volcano. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic this week from 10th to 17th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 373 tonnes/day with a maximum of 553 and a minimum of 137 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week from 3rd to 10th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 313 tonnes/day with a maximum of 435 and a minimum of 160 tonnes/day. Measurements were only possible on three days this week because of adverse wind conditions. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 26th of April to 3rd of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 379 tonnes/day with a maximum of 466 and a minimum of 254 tonnes/day. The wind has been mainly towards the north and north-east since the night of 1/2 May. This has blown the volcanic plume over inhabited areas and the smell of volcanic gases has been noticeable at times. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 19th to 26th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 366 tonnes/day with a maximum of 535 and a minimum of 181 tonnes/day. There have been no good views of the dome for over a month now. Reports from helicopter pilots suggest that most of the large slab on the eastern side of the dome is now gone; removed by the pyroclastic flow on 28 March 2013. As of the 19th of April, MVO reported that activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes during the week from 12th to 19th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 556 tonnes/day with a maximum of 1155 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. Past week 5th to 12th of April, the seismic network recorded no seismic events related to the volcano this week. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 325 tonnes/day with a maximum of 585 and a minimum of 186 tonnes/day. MVO reported that during 22-29 March activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. A pyroclastic flow traveled down the Tar River Valley (E) at about 0500 on 28 March. The flow was not observed directly, but the deposits indicated that it traveled halfway down the valley, 1-1.5 km from the dome. There were no reports of ashfall; any ash was probably blown over Plymouth and out to sea. The source of the flow was not known due to cloud cover, but was likely from the failure a large slab that had been slowing moving away from the dome. Heavy rainfall during the evening of 28 March generated large lahars in several valleys around the volcano, including in the Belham Valley (NW). These started at about 1900 and lasted for several hours. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded one rockfall and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 15th to 22nd of March.Sulphur-dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 359 tonnes/day with a maximum of 540 and a minimum of 258 tonnes/day. There appear to have been no changes in the large slab recently observed to be peeling away from the dome above the Tar River Valley. The slab is now estimated to have dimensions of 80 by 60 by 4-6 metres. If this slab falls as a single block it will produce a large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas. previously , the seismic network recorded one rockfall this week from 8th to 15th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 251 tonnes/day with a maximum of 264 and a minimum of 227 tonnes/day. During a helicopter inspection on 8 March 2013, we observed a large fissure in the cliff on the eastern side of the dome, part of which has existed since 2007. This fissure is the result of slow cooling and erosion of the dome. It is parallel to the cliff face and is estimated to be two metres wide, suggesting that a large slab is slowing peeling away from the dome. If this slab falls as a single block it will probably produce a moderate-to-large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas The seismic network recorded one rockfall, two volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one hybrid event this week from 1st to 8th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements for the week gave an average flux of 368 tonnes/day with a maximum of 552 and a minimum of 213 tonnes/day. Variable winds blew the volcanic plume over inhabited areas for much of the week, particularly the first half, and the smell of volcanic gases was very noticeable at times. There has been no visible emission of ash from the volcano this week. Montserrat Volcano Observatory - View latest NOAA satellite image of Montserrat ( every 30 mn)
***************************************************************************************************************************************

Grenade - Kick 'em Jenny submarine volcano

July 30th, 2015

The University of the West Indies (UWI) Seismic Research Centre (SRC) reported that seismic activity at Kick 'em Jenny had increased on 11 July. Another increase occurred on 23 July from 0125 to 0300, characterized by a"strong continuous signal." More than 400 micro and small earthquakes had been recorded since 11 July; the largest event was M 3.3. The Alert Level was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a 5-color scale) on 23 July. At about 0200 on 24 July an hour-long explosion signal was recorded. Afterward, and through the next day, seismicity declined. The report encouraged mariners to observe an exclusion zone with a 5-km radius of the crater. Scientists observed nothing out of the ordinary at the surface above the volcano during an overflight on 25 July, and by 1800 no activity was recorded. On 26 July the Alert Level was lowered to Yellow. Kick 'em Jenny, a historically active submarine volcano 8 km off the north shore of Grenada, rises 1300 m from the sea floor. Recent bathymetric surveys have shown evidence for a major arcuate collapse structure that was the source of a submarine debris avalanche that traveled more than 15 km to the west. Bathymetry also revealed another submarine cone to the SE, Kick 'em Jack, and submarine lava domes to its south. These and subaerial tuff rings and lava flows at Ile de Caille and other nearby islands may represent a single large volcanic complex. Numerous historical eruptions, mostly documented by acoustic signals, have occurred at Kick 'em Jenny since 1939, when an eruption cloud rose 275 m above the sea surface. Prior to the 1939 eruption, which was witnessed by a large number of people in northern Grenada, there had been no written mention of Kick 'em Jenny. Eruptions have involved both explosive activity and the quiet extrusion of lava flows and lava domes in the summit crater; deep rumbling noises have sometimes been heard onshore. Historical eruptions have modified the morphology of the summit crater.

**********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

Soufriere Hills dome on December 6, 2000 (Courtesy Caraibean Helicopter)

 

MEXICO - Popocatepetl volcano

September 16th, 2016

Cloud cover During an overflight of Popocatepetl on 30 August CENAPRED scientists confirmed that explosions during 27-28 August had destroyed lava dome 69 (first identified on 1 August). The crater which had hosted the dome was 300 m in diameter and 30 m deep. Each day during 7-13 September there were 35-133 emissions, some of which contained minor amounts of ash on 8 September. Cloud cover sometimes prevented observations, though gas-and-steam plumes were visible daily. Crater incandescence was visible at night and sometimes was more intense in conjunction with emissions. An explosion at 1450 on 8 September produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater. On 11 September an explosion at 0925 generated a plume that rose 1 km, and an explosion at 2323 ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.
sometimes prevented observations, though gas-and-steam plumes were visible almost daily. Crater incandescence was visible at night. Each day during 10-16 August CENAPRED reported 35-133 emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash, and as many as four explosionsOn 11 August there were six landslides detected by the seismic network; the largest one occurred on the NW flank at 0853 and had a volume of 440 m3, and the second largest one, on the N flank, occurred at 1756 and had a volume of 220 m3. An explosion on 12 August generated an ash plume that rose 2.5 km above the crater and drifted WNW, causing ashfall in Ozumba (18 km W) and Atlautla (16 km W). An explosion at 0034 on 13 August ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. Two more explosions that day and one on 14 August produced plumes with low ash content that rose as high as 1 km. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. During 20-26 July CENAPRED reported 26-182 daily emissions from Popocatepetl, some of which contained minor amounts of ash. Cloud cover often prevented observations, though gas-and-steam plumes were visible almost daily. Crater incandescence was visible on some nights. Explosions were detected during 24-26 July: 4 on 24 July, 4 on 25 July, and 1 on 26 July. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. During 29 June-5 July the seismic network at Popocatepetl detected 128-193 daily emissions and as many as five daily explosions. Cloud cover often prevented observations, although crater incandescence was visible every night. Explosions at 1348 and 1405 on 4 July produced ash plumes that rose 1.5 and 1.2 km above the crater, respectively. Ashfall was reported in Atlatlahucan (30 km WSW) and Tepetlixpa (20 km W). The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. During 8-14 June there were 47-104 daily emissions from Popocatepetl and as many as six explosions detected daily; some emissions contained minor amounts of ash. Cloud cover often prevented observations, though crater incandescence was visible every night. During 0638-1130 on 9 June continuous ash emissions rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and drifted NE. An explosion at 1117 on 12 June produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted W. Minor amounts of ash fell in Ozumba (18 km W). The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. During 1-7 June there were 94-251 daily emissions from Popocatepetl and as many as four explosions detected daily; some emissions corresponded with increased crater incandescence at night. A series of explosions detected during 1135-2230 on 4 June generated gas-and-steam emissions with minor amounts of ash that rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted ENE. Some of the explosions ejected incandescent tephra 300 m onto the NE flanks. An explosion on 5 June generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted E. Incandescent tephra was ejected 1 km onto the N flank. Between 0354 and 0824 on 6 June continuous explosions formed plumes that rose 1 km and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. During 18-24 May there were 43-492 daily emissions from Popocatepetl and as many as eight explosions detected daily; some emissions corresponded with increased crater incandescence at night. Periods of low-amplitude harmonic tremor were also detected almost daily. Daily cloud cover prevented visual observations. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. During 13-17 April CENAPRED reported 10-105 emissions from Popocatepetl and as many as two explosions detected daily; some emissions corresponded with increased crater incandescence. Activity increased at 0232 on 18 April. Strombolian activity ejected incandescent fragments 1.6 km onto the NE flank, and ash plumes rose 3 km above the crater and drifted ENE. Ashfall was reported in San Pedro Benito Juarez, San Nicolas de los Ranchos, Tianguismanalco, San Martin Texmelucan, and Huejotzingo. Activity decreased over the next few hours; ash plumes rose 1 km and drifted ENE. According to a news article, the airport in Puebla closed due to the ash plumes. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City and is North America's second-highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21 December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring towns and villages. (GVN/GVP) . - Live cam of Popocatepetl -

MEXICO - Colima volcano

September 24th, 2016

Based on webcam and satellite images, and information from the Mexico CityMWO , the WashingtonVAAC reported an ash emission from Colima on 18 September. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.3-5.5 km (14,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. during 19-20 September. Based on satellite and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 7 September an ash plume from Colima rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on satellite and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 1 September an ash plume from Colima rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 30 km W. Based on satellite and webcam images, and information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that during 26-27 August ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 5.2-5.8 km (17,000-19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and S. Plumes drifted almost 30 km on 27 August. The webcam recorded an ash plume rising to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. on 29 AugustBased on satellite and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 20 August ash plumes from Colima rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 30 km W and N. Based on satellite and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 12, 14, and 16 August ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.3-5.5 km (14,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and W. The Washington VAAC reported that steam-and-gas puffs containing minor amounts of ash rose from Colima on 28 July. The next day an ash plume identified in satellite images and recorded by the webcam rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 31 July Colima Towers and the Mexico City MWO reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.2-7.3 km (17,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WSW. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, and webcam and satellite views, the Washington VAAC reported that during 21 and 23-25 July ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.3-7 km (14,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. Based on satellite and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 17 July an ash emission from Colima rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted just over 10 km NW, and quickly dissipated. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO and webcam views, the Washington VAAC reported that on 29 June an ash plume from Colima rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on satellite images and wind data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 23 June an ash plume from Colima rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth. Colima's web video camera - Colima data base - new webcam

*************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

GUATEMALA - Fuego volcano

September 16th, 2016

On 8 September INSIVUMEH reported that the 12th eruptive episode at Fuego in 2016 had ended. Weak explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 750 m above the crater and drifted more than 8 km W and SW. Lava fountains rose 100 m above the crater rim; the lava flow in the Las Lajas (SE) drainage was no longer advancing. During 11-13 September explosions produced ash plumes that rose 450-850 m and drifted 6-10 km NW, W, and SW. Explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 150 m above the crater rim.
INSIVUMEH reported that during 4-5 September incandescent material rose as high as 200 m above Fuego's crater rim, and ash plumes rose 450 m and drifted W and SW. Sounds resembling train engines were constant and rumblings were heard six to nine times per hour. A 500-m-long lava flow was active in the Las Lajas (SE) drainage. Activity increased during the early afternoon on 5 September. The magnitude and number of explosion (6 per hour) increased, generating ash plumes that rose 850 m and drifted 12 km W and SW. The lava flow had grown to 1.2 km long. The rate of six explosion per hour continued on 6 September. Ash plumes rose 850 m and drifted 10 km W and SW, causing ashfall in Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Panimache (8 km SW), and other nearby areas.INSIVUMEH reported that during 13-16 August explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 10-12 km W, SW, and SE. Some explosions also ejected incandescent material as high as 150 m that then caused minor avalanches within the crater. Ashfall was reported in Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Los Yucales (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), Los Chucales, and Panimaché I and II (8 km SW). On 28 July CONRED noted that in recent days activity at Fuego was characterized by a high level of explosive activity. At 0545 activity increased further, heralding a shift to Strombolian activity and the beginning of the 12th eruptive episode at Fuego in 2016. Explosions produced ash plumes that rose 1 km and drifted 15 km SW, W, and NW, and caused shock waves detected in nearby areas. Pyroclastic flow descended the Las Lajas (SE) drainage, and ashfall was reported in Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW) and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km N). INSIVUMEH reported that during 28-29 July lava was ejected 500 m above the crater; lava flows traveled 3 km down the Santa Teresa (W) and Las Lajas drainages. Pyroclastic flows continued to descend the flanks. Ash plumes rose 1.7 km and drifted 35 km W and SW. Activity declined at 1500 on 29 July; ash plumes rose 800 m. On 30 July there were 3-5 explosions detected per hour, generating gray ash plumes that rose 550-850 m and drifted 10 km W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 150 m above the crater. Lava flows remained incandescent as far as 1.8 km in the drainages. Ash fell in Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and Panimaché I and II (8 km SW). INSIVUMEH noted that at 0130 on 30 July the activity ended. Minor explosions generated ash plumes that did not rise higher than 750 m. INSIVUMEH reported that on 15 July activity at Fuego increased, characterized by eight explosions per hour detected by the seismic network and ash plumes that rose 1.1 km above the crater. Ash fell on the W and SW flanks. During 17-19 July there were 3-6 explosions per hour detected. Ash plumes rose as high as 850 m above the crater and drifted at least 12 km W and SW, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Yepocapa (8 km N), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and Panimachel I and II (8 km SW). Some explosions generated shock waves that rattled nearby homes and sounds resembling jet engines were heard every 3-8 minutes. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m high, and avalanches reached vegetated areas. INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-10 July there were 6-8 explosions per hour at Fuego, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 950 m above the crater and drifted W and NW. Ash fell in Yepocapa (8 km N), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Panimache (8 km SW), and other nearby areas. Some explosions generated shock waves, and incandescent material was ejected 150 m high. There were 18 explosions detected during 11-12 July; ash plumes rose as high as 850 m and drifted more than 10 km W and SW. INSIVUMEH reported that during 30 June-5 July explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 950 m and drifted W and SW. Some explosions also ejected incandescent material as high as 150 m that then fell onto the flanks and caused minor avalanches. In a special bulletin posted on 5 July, INSIVUMEH noted that 18 explosions were registered within a 24-hour period. Ash plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted W and SW. From (INSIVUMEH) - Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3,763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the N, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene, after which growth of the modern Fuego volcano continued the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

GUATEMALA - Santa Maria - Santiaguito

September 24th, 2016

INSIVUMEH reported that a strong Vulcanian explosion at 2140 on 17 September generated a dense ash plume that rose 2.5 km above Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex and drifted 30 km SW. Another large explosion occurred during 17-18 September that also produced a 2.5-km-high ash plume. Five more moderate explosions were also detected. A moderate explosion during the evening of 19 September produced an ash plume that rose 800 m and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in San Marcos Palajunoj. INSIVUMEH reported that a strong explosion at 1455 on 11 September generated a dense ash plume that rose 2.5 km above Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex and drifted 25 km W and SW. A moderate explosion during 11-12 September produced an ash plume that rose 900 m and drifted SW. INSIVUMEH reported that explosions at 0001, 0015, and 0018 on 4 September generated a mushroom-shaped ash plume that rose 2 km above Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex and drifted SE and E. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2 km down the WSW, S, and SE flanks. Ash fell in Santa María de Jesús. On 5 September the seismic network recorded two moderate explosions. Gas emissions rose from the complex during 5-6 September. INSIVUMEH reported that at 0858 on 28 August a strong Vulcanian explosion at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated a dense ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted 100 km W and SW. Pyroclastic flows descended the flanks. Ashfall was reported in San Marcos (10 km SW), Loma Linda (6 km WSW), and Palajunoj (18 km SSW), and was expected to impact additional areas downwind as the plume continued to drift. Moderate explosions were detected later that day. On 29 August a 25-m-wide, 1.5-m-deep hot lahar triggered by rainfall descended the Cabello de Ángel drainage, a tributary of the Nimá I river drainage on the S flank, carrying tree trunks and blocks up to 1.5 m in diameter. The lahar had a strong sulfur odor. White-and-blue gas emissions were observed on 30 August. CONRED stated that at 0808 on 18 August a strong and loud explosion at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated a dense ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted S and SW. Pyroclastic flows descended the flanks. INSIVUMEH reported that gas emissions were observed during 20-21 August, along with some weak avalanches originating at the dome. Another strong and loud explosion was detected at 0203 on 23 August, generating a mushroom-shaped ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted W and SW. Pyroclastic flows descended the E flank. Ashfall was reported in San Marcos (10 km SW), Loma Linda (6 km WSW), and Palajunoj (18 km SSW), and possibly in the local ranches of El Faro and La Florida. Later that day three moderate explosions produced ash plumes that rose 800 m and drifted W and SW, causing ashfall in San Marcos, Loma Linda, and Palajunoj. In a special report, INSIVUMEH stated that a strong explosion at Caliente cone, part of Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, occurred at 0629 on 14 August and generated pyroclastic flows that descended the E flank. An ash plume rose about 1.3 km above the complex and drifted S and SW, causing ashfall in San Felipe (15 km SSW), Mazatenango, and Retalhuleu (27 km SW). A moderate explosion on 15 August generated an ash plume that rose 900 m and drifted E. A loud explosion at 0658 on 16 August produced a mushroom-shaped ash cloud that rose 2.5 km and drifted W and SW. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2 km down the San Isidro and Nima II drainages. Ash fell in San Marcos (10 km SW), Loma Linda (6 km WSW), Palajunoj (18 km SSW), and possibly in multiple fincas including El Faro, La Florida (5 km S), Patzulin (SW flank), and El Patrocinio. INSIVUMEH reported that on 8 August an 18-m-wide hot lahar triggered by rainfall descended the Cabello de Angel drainage, a tributary of the Nima I river drainage on the S flank of Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, carrying tree trunks and blocks up to 1.5 cm in diameter. Explosions during 8-9 August produced ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted 15 km SW, W, and NW. INSIVUMEH reported that at 1330 on 15 July an explosion at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated an ash plume that rose 2.4 km and drifted NW. Gas plumes rose from the complex during 17-18 July. At 0235 on 19 July an explosion generated avalanches and a pyroclastic flow that traveled SE down Caliente dome. An ash plume rose 1 km and drifted SW. INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-8 July explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km and drifted 10 km S and W. On 10 July a strong, loud explosion was followed by pyroclastic flows that traveled 2 km down the S and SW flanks, and an ash plume that rose 3 km and drifted 40 km W. INSIVUMEH reminded the public to stay at least 5 km away from the volcano. Gas plumes rose from the crater during 11-12 July. CONRED reported that an explosion at 1002 on 29 June at Caliente cone, part of Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, generated pyroclastic flows, and an ash plume that rose 2.5 km above the crater and drifted W and SW. Ash fell in El Faro. The report noted that more than 60 explosions had been detected so far this year. A strong explosion at 0920 on 1 July produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted SW. A pyroclastic flow descended the S flank. Ashfall was reported in San Marcos Palajunoj, Loma Linda, San Martin Chile Verde, and Malacatan. A loud explosion in the evening of 2 July was followed by pyroclastic flows that descended the SW flanks. A 30-m-wide hot lahar triggered by rainfall descended the NimaI and Cabello de Ángel drainages on 3 July, carrying rocks up to 1.5 m in diameter. In a special report posted on 23 June, INSIVUMEH reported that a strong explosion at Caliente cone, part of Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, occurred at 1337 and generated avalanches on the SE and SW flanks, and a very dense ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted SW and S. Gas plumes rose 50 m above the crater during 26-28 June. In a special report posted on 19 June, INSIVUMEH reported that a strong explosion at Caliente cone, part of Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, occurred at 0512 and generated pyroclastic flows and an ash plume that rose 5 km and drifted 40-50 km W, SW, and S. Ashfall was reported in multiple farms and towns including San Marcos (10 km SW), Loma Linda, Palajunoj (18 km SSW), El Faro (SW flank), Patzulin (SW flank), El Patrocinio, El Palmar (12 km S), San Felipe (15 km SSW), and Las Maria's. A loud explosion at 2239 on 20 June generated an ash plume containing lightning that rose 2.5 km. Shock waves were detected in areas within 15 km. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2 km down the W, S, and E sides of Caliente cone. Abundant gas emissions were visible the next day. INSIVUMEH reported that during 9-10 June explosions at Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted W. A 30-m-wide hot lahar triggered by rainfall descended the Nima I River, a tributary of Samala River, on 13 June, carrying tree trunks, branches, and rocks up to 70 cm in diameter. scientific blog about Santiaguito). The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santa Maria has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars

GUATEMALA - Pacaya volcano

July 28th, 2016

INSIVUMEH reported that during 23-24 July Strombolian explosions at Pacaya's Mackenney cone ejected material 75 m above the crater. During 24-26 July blue and white fumarolic plumes drifted S and N, and faint crater incandescence was visible at night and in the early morning. INSIVUMEH reported some weak explosions and fumarolic emissions at Pacaya during 16-18 July. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night or early in the morning. INSIVUMEH reported that Strombolian explosions from Pacaya's Mackenney cone were observed during 7-10 July. During 11-12 July weather conditions prevented visual observations of the crater, although weak crater incandescence was visible at night. Based on visual observations and seismic data, INSIVUMEH reported that gas plumes rose from Pacaya during 30 June-5 July. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night. INSIVUMEH reported that the seismic network at Pacaya recorded weak explosions during 23-28 June. During 23-25 June blue and white fumarolic plumes rose 100 m and drifted S and SW. Faint incandescence from the crater was visible on some nights; abundant incandescence was noted during 27-28 June. On 15 June CONRED reported that activity at Pacaya had increased, characterized by an increase in seismic amplitude, signals indicating explosions, and nighttime crater incandescence; based on INSIVUMEH notices, the activity continued through 23 June. Previously, INSIVUMEH reported that during 30 September-1 October and 3-6 October 2015 fumarolic plumes rose from Pacaya's Mackenney cone and drifted S. Low-frequency tremor was detected and incandescence from the crater was visible at night. Weak explosions were detected during 5-6 October. INSIVUMEH reported that during 17-19 September white-and-blue fumarolic plumes rose from Pacaya's Mackenney cone and drifted W and S. Tremor was detected and incandescence from the crater was visible at night. Weak explosions on 22 September generated an ash plume that rose 900 m above the crater and drifted W. Tremor continued to be recorded. CONRED reported that tremor at Pacaya which began on 16 June continued to be elevated at least through 18 August. INSIVUMEH reported that white-and-blue gas plumes were accompanied by a small gas emission on 1 September; the plume drifted W.INSIVUMEH reported a gradual increase of tremor amplitude at Pacaya during 17-18 June. Observers noted that small ash ejections from Mackenney cone were dispersed around the crater. Tremor continued to be detected during 20-22 June. Ash emissions continued to be confined to the crater area during 21-22 June, and incandescence from the crater was visible at night.INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-8 June white and blue fumarolic plumes rose above Pacaya's Mackenney cone. Ash emissions were observed about every 3-4 hours, and the seismic network detected signals indicating collapsed within the crater along with ash emissions.INSIVUMEH reported that during 12-13 February a series of weak explosions from Pacaya's Mackenney Crater generated dark gray ash plumes that rose 500-700 m above the crater and, along with fumarolic plumes, drifted 1.5 km S. During 14-15 February weak explosions continued to generate ash plumes; ash and fumarolic plumes drifted 800 m SE. The next day fumarolic and ash plumes drifted S and SW at a low altitude. During 16-17 February fumarolic plumes with small amounts of ash rose 100 m and drifted E. INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-10 February fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's Mackenney Crater drifted 700-800 m S and SW. In a special notice INSIVUMEH reported that on 28 January ash emissions originating from Pacaya's Mackenney Crater drifted 4 km S and SW. During field observations, scientists saw a defined central crater, 40-50 m in diameter, and ash emissions. Gas plumes rose from an area on the S flank. Seismic data was characterized by tremor and low-frequency events. In a report from 1 February, INSIVUMEH stated that low-altitude water vapor plumes with minor amounts of ash drifted W and SW. During 1-2 February fumarolic plumes rose 50 m and drifted 600 m S. In a special notice from 14 January INSIVUMEH reported that seismic data indicated weak ash emissions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater during recent days. White and blue fumarolic plumes drifted S during 16-20 January, and seismic data continued to indicate small-to-moderate explosions. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone. New Webcam

***************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

COSTA RICA - Arenal volcano

September 16th, 2013

OVSICORI-UNA conducted an overflight of Arenal on 14 September to measure gas emissions, and found low concentrations of carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen sulfide. An infrared camera detected a ring of thermal anomalies along the rim of Crater C.OVSICORI-UNA reported that plumes composed mainly of water vapor rose from the NE and SE edges of Arenal's Crater C on 8 and 9 September. Tremors indicative of hydrothermal and magmatic activity were detected on 8 September. The report noted that seismic and fumarolic activity had been very low in the past three years; however steam plumes associated with heavy rains had been frequent. The 1657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterised by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank. New webcam

COSTA RICA- Poas Volcano

July 28th, 2016

OVSICORI-UNA reported that a small phreatic eruption from the hot lake at Poas recorded at 0819 on 25 July ejected material 50 m above the crater lake's surface. According to news articles, phreatic explosions from the hot lake at Poas occurred multiple times in June. Explosions at 0900 on 5 June, 1854 on 13 June, and 1952 on 14 June ejected water and steam many meters above the lake's surface. Three small explosions, lasting about five seconds each based on the seismic signals, occurred during 0600-0603 on 18 June and ejected water, steam, and debris no more than 50 m above the lake's surface. Phreatic explosions were also registered on 19 June. Previous report was dated on 13 November 2014 OVSICORI-UNA reported a drastic decrease in temperature and gas flow from vents around the lava dome on the S edge of the hot lake at Poas. In addition incandescence from the dome was no longer visible, activity from fumaroles in the lake had decreased, and the lake water changed from greenish to milky. Phreatic eruptions had not occurred since late October. As of the 13th of October, OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new strong phreatic eruption occurred from the crater lake. The event ejected material over 250 m from the crater lake, causing ashfall on the lookout area and visitor's center. As of the 8th of October OVSICORI-UNA reported that a strong phreatic eruption from the hot lake at Poas was recorded at 1745 on 8 October. The event lasted one minute and ejected material over 250 m above the crater lake's surface. The seismic record indicated that it was the most energetic event so far in 2014.OVSICORI-UNA reported that a phreatic eruption from Poas was recorded at 1008 on 20 June. The explosion generated a plume 200 m above the crater lake. The plume was mainly water vapor with entrained lake sediments (which contained sulfur precipitates and altered rocks). Other gases such as SO2, H2S, HCL, HF, and others were also included. This was the second phreatic explosion to occur in June. There was no visual record of that event, but routine inspections by the National Park staff on 2 June determined that during the night, there had been a large explosion evidenced by significant fall deposits around the crater lake shoreline. A solar panel had also been damaged by falling rocks associated with that explosion. Seismicity suggests indicated explosive signatures at 1954 on 1 June. On 18 June, observatory staff noted that between 1000 and 1343, small phreatic eruptions were occurring within the lake. One of these explosions released a strong sulfur smell and large waves. The water temperature was recorded at 44.6°C with a pH of -0.49. Previously, OVSICORI-UNA reported that a strong phreatic eruption from Poás was recorded at 1532 on 30 March. The explosion ejected water, steam, gases, sediment, and fragments of altered rock 150 m above the crater lake's surface. The report noted several small phreatic eruptions that ejected material less than 50 m high, as well as large gas bubbles and vapor in the middle of the lake, during February and March.OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 0800 on 25 February officials at the Parque Nacional Volcán Poás noted that the gray crater lake had convection cells and weak fumarolic activity at the S edge of the lake around a cryptodome. At 1203 a strong phreatic explosion from Poás was recorded by webcams at the N end of the lake. The explosion ejected water, steam, gas, sediment, and rock fragments over 400 m above the lake's surface. Most of the material fell back into the lake, and onto the W, N, and E parts of the crater walls. Fumarolic activity around the cryptodome and lake convection both increased after the explosion. Previously, two other smallest phreatic explosions already occured on 14th and 21st of February. The lake of Poás currently presents a temperature between 45 and 50°C and a pH around 0, sometimes negative. The temperature of the fumaroles of the dome are around 400°C these days and were above 500°C in May 2013 and above 800°C in 2011. Previously, OVSICORI-UNA reported that during May temperatures of the cryptodome at Poás were high enough to produce nighttime incandescence. Maximum temperatures of 575 and 450 degrees Celsius were recorded on 8 and 30 May, respectively. Activity of the lake was very similar to that reported for May 2012, characterized by sporadic phreatic eruptions and a slow decline in the water level. On 8 May 2013 the water level was 0.5 m below the level measured on 8 May 2012. Phreatic eruptions occurred at 1100 on 1 May, at 1700 on 8 May, and at 1125 and 1510 on 28 May. Fumarolic activity was variable. During the early morning hours on 2 and 3 June, residents reported a gas plume rising 1 km above the crater floor. OVSICORI-UNA noted that recent plumes were high-temperature (450-575 degrees Celsius) and rich in sulfur dioxide, giving the plumes a bluish-white color. Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2,708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7,500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. Web camera from OVSICORI-UNA.

COSTA RICA - Turrialba volcano

September 20th, 2016

OVSICORI-UNA reported that starting at 0210 on 13 September ash emissions from Turrialba rose 300 m and drifted NNW. A small explosion was detected later that day at 1947. Small explosions were detected at 1804 and 2147 on 15 September. On 16 September small explosions were recorded at 0240, followed by three periods of passive ash emissions. An explosion at 1100 on 16 September generated an ash plume that rose 50 m above the crater and likely drifted S (inclement weather prevented visual observations). Ashfall was reported in the Parque Nacional Braulio Carrillo, and areas E of San José and Heredia including Ipís de Guadalupe. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 0200 on 13 September ash emissions from Turrialba rose 300 m and drifted NNW. Previously, OVSICORI-UNA reported that an explosion at Turrialba recorded at 1309 on 22 July generated an ash plume that rose 800 m and drifted W. Increased tremor coincided with the event. Ash-and-gas emissions rose from the crater for approximately 15 minutes, starting at 1543. Ash emissions were recorded with the webcam at 0600 on 23 July. Tremor levels fluctuated though the day; periods of increased tremor likely corresponded to ash emissions. Visual observations of the crater were hindered by fog. Tremor amplitude increased at 1800 on 24 July. Two explosions, at 2123 and 2217, ejected hot rock fragments, gas, and ash 500 m above the crater; the gas-and-ash plume drifted SW. Gas-and-ash emissions passively rose from the crater through the next morning. At 0722 on 25 July an explosion generated an ash plumes that rose 3 km above the crater and drifted NW, W, and SW. At 0826 another explosion produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km.Previously, OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1330 on 13 July Turrialba produced a weak ash emission that rose 100 m and drifted W. OVSICORI-UNA reported that strong tremor at Turrialba started at 0658 on 7 July. An accompanying explosion produced an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater and likely drifted WNW and WSW. Weather conditions mostly prevented views of the crater, although at 1551 a large amount of water-vapor-and-gas emissions with minor amounts of ash were observed. Ashfall was recorded in areas downwind including in neighborhoods of San José (Coronado, La Uruca, Tibias, Rancho Redondo, Guadalupe, Sabanilla, Moravia, Ipas, Sabanilla, La Guacima of Alajuela, and San Rafael de Alajuela), Heredia (38 km W), and Turrubares. Almost continuous tremor was detected through the next day; a period of increased tremor amplitude was detected during 1030-1230. Emissions of gas, water vapor, and large amounts of ash were visible with the webcam. Ash fell in many of the same areas as the day before. Tremor levels dropped at 2030, though increased again at 0030 on 9 July. Ash emissions rose no higher than 500 m above the crater around 0900 on 9 July. Ash emissions to 300 m above the crater and elevated tremor levels continued throughout the day. Ashfall was reported in Ipias de Guadalupe and San Rafael de Heredia. Tremor significantly declined at 0115 on 10 July. Views of the crater at 0600 showed emissions of water vapor and gas with minor amounts of ash. Tremor again increased on 11 July, at 0930, and a possible ash emission occurred between 1000 and 1030, although weather conditions prevented confirmation. OVSICORI-UNA reported increased tremor at Turrialba that began at 2125 on 28 June, likely coinciding with a gas-and-ash emission. Another signal at 2159 also likely coincided with an ash emission. No activity was observed with the webcam, although it was dark and cloudy. Activity had significantly decreased by 0800 on 30 June. Seismicity remained low through 5 July with only a few low-frequency earthquakes detected. Gas emissions were mostly comprised of water vapor. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 2030 on 23 June tremor increased at Turrialba and continued to fluctuate through the next day. At 0544 on 24 June a short-lived (less than three minutes) emission of ash and gas rose no higher than 200 m above the crater. A small gas-and-ash plume rose from the crater at 0650. Wind directions shifted from NW to SW. Tremor disappeared at 0740 but then reappeared at 0850 and continued. Neighborhoods in San José reported ashfall and a sulfur odor. From 2005 on 24 June through 1500 on 25 June there were 14 episodes of increased tremor amplitude, accompanied by gas-and-ash emissions that rose no more than 200 m. Rocks were occasionally ejected from the crater. A few more periods of increased tremor and ash-and-gas emissions were recorded later that evening and the morning of 26 June. Several neighborhoods in San José and Heredia reported ashfall and a sulfur odor. Between 0604 and 1930 on 26 June the seismic network recorded almost continuous, variable-amplitude volcanic tremor, with frequent spikes in amplitude associated with passive gas-and-ash emissions. At around 1930 tremor amplitude decreased and ash emissions ceased. Local areas continued to report ashfall. Tremor again increased on 28 June at 2159, though the height of the associated ash emissions was not distinguishable. OVSICORI-UNA reported that high-amplitude tremor at Turrialba began at 0145 on 16 June, accompanied by passive ash-and-gas emissions that rose 500 m above the crater. Tremor and emissions ceased at 0715. Emissions of ash and gas were again observed at 0805, for a brief 10-minute period, and at 1557. A vapor plume with minor amounts of ash was visible at 1700. On 19 June tremor began at 0410, along with passive ash-and-gas emissions that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted NW. Tremor significantly decreased at 0825. Tremor signals recorded at 1158 on 20 June indicated ash emissions; the wind direction was NW. OVSICORI-UNA reported that activity at Turrialba remained low during 8-9 June, characterized by minor degassing, along with small, sporadic long-period and low-frequency earthquakes. On 10 June at 0830 an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater. Ash emissions and a few explosions continued until the afternoon; tremor levels decreased at 1415 and ash emissions ceased at 1457. Ashfall and/or a sulfur odor was reported in multiple areas of Valle Central including San Luis, Santo Domingo, Moravia, San Francisco, and Coronado. Tremor remained low during 11-13 June, and gas emissions rose no higher than 500 m above the crater during 11-12 June (cloud cover prevented webcam views on 13 June). OVSICORI-UNA reported that activity at Turrialba had declined overall since 27 May, though seismicity continued to be dominated by long-period earthquakes and small low-frequency volcanic earthquakes. A small explosion at 0516 on 1 June generated an ash plume that rose 300 m above the vent and, based on wind dispersion models, likely drifted NW. Some residents of Valle Central reported ashfall. Continuous spasmodic tremor that began at 2240 was associated with ash emissions that rose as high as 1 km and drifted N. At 0037 on 2 June an explosion was followed by high-amplitude spasmodic tremor and a dense ash-rich plume that rose 1 km and drifted NNW. Ash emissions continued; at 0520 and 0600 ash plumes rose as high as 2 km and drifted NW, N, and NE. Tremor amplitude decreased at 1240. Afternoon clouds prevented observations of ash emissions. Ashfall was reported in several neighborhoods in San José, including San Rafael de Moravia (31 km WSW), Sabana (38 km WSW), and in Limon, including Buenos Aires (17 km N), and Pococa­ (45 km N). The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.INFORMATION from OVSICORI - SVE Volcanic fieldtrip on group request.

COSTA RICA - Rincon de la Vieja volcano

May 5th, 2016

OVSICORI-UNA reported that a moderate hydrothermal explosion occurred at 1437 on 1 May in Rincon de la Vieja's crater lake. The seismic network recorded the explosion for 11 minutes.
OVSICORI-UNA reported that the seismic station located 1.8 km from Rincon de la Vieja recorded increased activity between late September and early November 2015, which became further evident in February 2016. Field investigations were conducted in February and March to assess this recent activity. Between October 2015 and the first half of March 2016, the seismic network detected 69 events accompanying eruptive events though few of them and any resulting deposits were visually confirmed. Of the 69 events, seismic signals indicated that 28 of them occurred as a series of explosions during 17-18 October 2015, culminating with a major eruption at 0059 on 18 October. During February-15 March both the number of eruptive events and the energy of those events increased significantly; the data suggested that the events were phreatic. The two highest-energy events occurred at 0912 on 9 February and at 1354 on 9 March. During fieldwork on 3 March, volcanologists found sediment deposits from the crater lake in an area about 200 m from the active crater, from phreatic activity and possibly strong westward-blowing winds. They heard three phreatic explosions, at 1204, 1209, and 1318; the third one was the strongest and lasted just over a minute. All three were followed by a strong sulfur dioxide odor. On 8 March volcanologists noted ash deposits, from recent weeks, as far as about 120 m from the crater rim covering an estimated area of 0.02 square kilometers. The temperature of the lake water was 45 degrees Celsius on average and 55 degrees in the convection cell. Gas measurements suggested a magmatic component, with a carbon dioxide to sulfur dioxide ratio of 2. The ratio of water vapor to sulfur dioxide was about 300, higher than the 100-200 ratio detected in previous years; degassing of the lake increased in March. Preliminary analysis of ash ejected during March activity suggested the possibility of a magmatic component. Photos from area residents of explosions during 9-10 March showed ash-and-steam plumes rising as high as 850 m above the crater .
Rincon de la Vieja, a composite stratovolcano in Northwestern Costa Rica forms a NW-trending ridge consisting of several eruptive centers that have coalesced through time. Elevations of the individual cones range from 1670 to 1920 meters and nine craters are readily identified by their topographic expression. Numerous phreatic eruptions have occurred since 1851 (as recently as November, 1995), all from the Active Crater. The last major eruption involving juvenile magma occurred at ~3,500 ybp, producing the Rio Blanco tephra deposit. Ash, pumice, and lithics ejected during this eruption were deposited in a highly asymmetrical dispersal pattern WSW of the Active Crater, indicating strong easterly prevailing tradewinds at the time of the eruption. Historical descriptions of the summit crater morphology suggest that conditions there have changed little over the past century.
*****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

NICARAGUA - Masaya volcano

September 1st, 2016

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 28 August a gas plume with possible ash rose from Masaya to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km W. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 15 August a possible ash plume from Masaya rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. Elevated seismicity and a thermal anomaly detected in satellite images indicated increased activity. In a report posted later that day the Washington VAAC noted that the webcam recorded minor ash emissions. Previously, INETER reported that during 18-19 May RSAM values at Masaya fluctuated between 300 and 700 units which are low-to-moderate values. The lava lake in Santiago Crater continued to strongly circulate and the vent widened through 24 May. INETER reported that between 1700 and 2400 on 3 May volcanic tremor at Masaya increased; RSAM values spiked at 1,000 units and then dropped to 250. Gas emissions at Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels, and the lava lake continued to strongly circulate. On 5 May RSAM values fluctuated between 250 and 500 units which are low-to-moderate values. INETER reported that during 27 April-3 May gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels. Seismic tremor decreased though continued to fluctuate between low to moderate levels. The lava lake continued to strongly circulate. INETER reported that during 20-23 April gas emissions at Masaya's Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels and RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 22 April the level of the lava lake decreased, though strong lake circulation was reported on 23 April. INETER reported that during 6-12 April the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. (Time-lapse video). Previously on 30 March INETER reported that the lava lake rose in Masaya's Santiago crater and several landslide deposits from the precious few days were visible in the NE crater. RSAM values were at moderate-to-high levels. On 4 April SINAPRED noted that tremor continued and the widening of the vent in the SE part of the crater persisted. According to a SINAPRED report on 28 March INETER noted that lava-lake activity at Masaya's Santiago crater was intense and the craters continued to gradually widen. Emissions were at low levels. INETER reported that on 3 March the lava lake on the SW floor of Masaya's Santiago crater was very active. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. Previously, INETER reported that the lava lakes in three vents on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater were active during 20 February-1 March. Volcanic tremor remained high and RSAM values were at high to very high levels. On 23 February small explosions ejected spatter onto the crater floor. During fieldwork volcanologists observed active lava lakes in all three vents on the crater floor, and noted that the inner walls of the crater were being eroded due to the lava lake. A new vent was forming on the SE part of the crater floor. During a second visit on 24 February INETER staff noted that the vents had become larger due to landslides on the crater walls. Small streams of lava sporadically originated from the NE vent. By 1 March the two vents in the SW part of the crater had almost merged. On 17 February INETER reported that the lava lake on the floor of Masaya's Santiago crater remained visible. RSAM values were at high levels and gas emissions were low. During 10-11 February sulfur dioxide emissions at Masaya rose to high levels (1,500 tons per day), and RSAM values were at moderately-high levels due to higher levels of volcanic tremor. This activity coincided with an increase in the size of the lava lake. Gas emissions were at moderate and low levels on 12 and 16 February, respectively. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindiri­ and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage. (GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Telica volcano

May 20th, 2016

Based on information from INETER, SINAPRED reported that 30 explosion at Telica occurred during 7-8 May, producing gas-and-ash plumes that rose 600 m and drifted S and SW. The explosions originated from a new vent in the N part of the crater; lava emissions were also observed. INETER reported high micro-seismicity and low outgassing during 11-16 May. Incandescence from vents on the crater floor was visible during 11-12 May; sounds from jetting gasses were noted on 11 May. RSAM values were 180-190 units during 11-12 May, dropping to 80 units during 12-14 May. INETER reported that during 6-11 April micro-seismicity at Telica remained high and lava in a vent on the crater floor was observed. Gas emissions were at low to moderate levels and RSAM values were low. On 30 March INETER reported that micro-seismicity at Telica remained high and was characterized by small, high-energy earthquakes. Incandescence emanated from the crater floor. On 4 April SINAPRED noted that seismicity continued at a high level and warned the public to stay away from the crater. In a 28 March report, SINAPRED noted that incandescence from Telica's crater continued to be observed, and reminded people to stay away from the crater. Previously, INETER reported high micro-seismicity at Telica during 20 February-1 March. Incandescence from the vent on the crater floor increased; lava in the vent was first observed on 25 February and persisted through 1 March. Five gas-and-ash explosions were recorded during 19 February-1 March, generating plumes that rose 300 above the crater and drifted W and SW. The strongest event started at 0819 and produced gas-and-ash emissions for 14 minutes. INETER reported that high micro-seismicity at Telica was associated with gas explosions during 16-17 February. On 18 February SINAPRED stated that a small amount of lava was visible in a vent. Based on satellite data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 13 February a gas plume possibly containing ash rose from Telica to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW. On 16 February INETER reported that high micro-seismicity was associated with gas explosions. Previously INETER reported that four 5-minute-long explosions at Telica were detected at 0602, 0818, 0934, and 1124 on 25 November, and generated ash-and-ash emissions. On 26 November multiple gas-and-ash explosions were detected; the strongest explosion occurred at 0941 and produced an ash plume that rose more than 800 m above the crater. During 26-27 November a total of 29 explosions were detected, with 16 of those producing ash plumes. Based on wind and satellite data, pilot observations, and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 22 November an ash plume from Telica rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 100 km W. According to news articles, (at least) two explosions, at 0847 and 0848, generated ash plumes that rose 2 km and ejected tephra at least 900 m away. An unstated number of people living within a 900-m-radius evacuated, and residents in Agua Fría (also 900 m away) noted it was the first time variously-sized lapilli and blocks had reached their community. Ash fell in at least 70 communities in the municipalities of Quezalguaque (13 km SW), Posoltega (16 km WSW), Chichigalpa (20 km WSW), and Chinandega (30 km W). Previously, INETER reported that a 30-minute period of moderate-intensity explosions at Telica began at 0800 on 23 September. Abundant gas-and-ash emissions initially rose 400 m above the crater and drifted WNW, but then decreased to 50 m. Ashfall was reported in the community of Guanacastal. Explosions occurred at 1645 and 1648. Scientists conducting fieldwork observed deposits on the crater floor from an inner-wall landslide that had occurred on 17 July, and new fumaroles on the crater floor. Five explosions were detected on 24 September. Based on wind and satellite data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 September ash plumes rose as high as 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and N. During 28-29 September INETER noted that voluminous gas plumes rose from two vents on the crater floor. Telica, one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes, has erupted frequently since the beginning of the Spanish era. This volcano group consists of several interlocking cones and vents with a general NW alignment. Sixteenth-century eruptions were reported at symmetrical Santa Clara volcano at the SW end of the group. However, its eroded and breached crater has been covered by forests throughout historical time, and these eruptions may have originated from Telica, whose upper slopes in contrast are unvegetated. The steep-sided cone of 1061-m-high Telica is truncated by a 700-m-wide double crater; the southern crater, the source of recent eruptions, is 120 m deep. El Liston, immediately SE of Telica, has several nested craters. The fumaroles and boiling mudpots of Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica, form a prominent geothermal area frequented by tourists, and geothermal exploration has occurred nearby.(GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Momotombo

April 15th, 2016

INETER reported that three explosions at Momotombo during 5-6 April ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose 500 m above the crater. During 6-7 April there were 27 small explosions for a total of 438 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. The explosions ejected some incandescent material, and generated ash plumes that rose 200 m and drifted SW. RSAM values were low during 5-12 April. SINAPRED reported that on 2 April explosions at Momotombo produced gas-and-ash plumes and ejected incandescent tephra. On 28 March SINAPRED reported that 38 explosions were detected at Momotombo over a period of 24 hours, which ejected gas-and-ash plumes and incandescent tephra. The strongest event occurred at 1140 on 27 March and generated a plume that rose 1 km. During 2-3 March INETER reported that 53 small explosions at Momotombo generated low-energy gas plumes that rose 300 m above the crater. On 3 March some of the explosions produced ash plumes that drifted W and SW. RSAM values were at low to moderate levels. SINAPRED reported that during 5-6 March there were 78 explosions for a total of 279 explosions detected since 1 December 2015. One of the most significant explosions occurred on 6 March. The next day gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 1 km above the crater. INETER reported that during 19 February-1 March explosions at Momotombo were detected daily; 88 explosions were detected during 1 December 2015-1 March 2016. Explosions produced ash plumes, and ejected incandescent material onto the N, NE, E, and SE flanks. Ash plumes rose 1.7-2.3 km above the crater and drifted SW during 21-22 February; gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.8 km on 24 February; an ash plume rose 1 km on 25 February; and a small gas-and-ash plume rose 300 m on 26 February. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km down the N and NW flanks during 23-24 February. Explosions on 27 February ejected tephra 300 m above the crater. At 0646 on 1 March explosions ejected gas and incandescent tephra; an ash plume rose 1.2 km and drifted W and SW. The gas-and-ash emissions lasted 16 minutes, causing the plume to widen and darken the sky. INETER reported that during 16-17 February two explosions at Momotombo were accompanied by tremor, and produced ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The first and largest explosion (recorded at 0344) ejected incandescent tephra 800 m above the crater. RSAM values were at low-to-moderate levels. Based on webcam views and satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 February ash emissions rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and WSW. The next day ash emissions drifted SW. On 21 February ash plumes drifted about 80 km W and 25 km E. INETER reported moderate levels of gas emissions at Momotombo on 10 February; volcanic tremor and gas emissions increased to moderate-to-high levels the next day. An explosion on 12 February produced small ash emissions and ejected incandescent material onto the N and SE flanks. An explosion at 1305 on 15 February generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater and ejected incandescent tephra onto the N and NE flanks. INETER reported that during 4-5 and 7-8 February both RSAM values at Momotombo were low to moderate and emissions were at moderate levels. INETER reported that during 26-29 January RSAM values at Momotombo were at low to moderate levels, and gas emissions were at moderate levels. Crater incandescence from high-temperature gas emissions was observed at night during 26-27 January. A Strombolian explosion at 0344 on 30 January ejected tephra onto the E, NE, N, and NW flanks, and produced gas emissions. At 0529 on 31 January another explosion also ejected gas, ash, and incandescent material. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas including the communities of Boqueron, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), and La Sabaneta. Moderate levels of gas emissions drifted SW towards Puerto Momotombo.INETER reported that during 20-21 January both RSAM values and emissions at Momotombo were low. Volcanic tremor increased at 0900 on 22 January, causing RSAM values to rise to high levels. There were no changes to emissions. INETER recommended to the public to stay at least 6 km away from the volcano. INETER reported that at 1209 on 12 January a large explosion at Momotombo ejected incandescent material onto the flanks and generated an ash plume that rose 4 km above the crater. Tephra was deposited on the E, NE, N, and NW flanks. Ash plumes drifted downwind and caused ashfall in the communities of Flor de Piedra, La Concha (40 SSE), Amatistan, Guacucal (40 km N), La Palma, Puerto Momotombo (10 km WSW), La Sabaneta, Mira Lago, Asentamiento Miramar, Pancasan, Rene Linarte, Raul Cabezas, and Betania. At around 0500 on 15 January strong volcanic tremor was accompanied by small explosions in the crater; ejected ash and incandescent tephra were deposited on the W flank. Seismicity decreased during 16-17 January. INETER reported that during 29-30 December no explosions at Momotombo were detected, though Real-time Seismic-Amplitude Measurements (RSAM) continued to be at moderate-to-high levels. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, three gas-and-ash explosions on 2 January, at 1333, 1426, and 1434, excavated the remaining parts of the lava dome which was emplaced about a month ago. An ash plume rose 500 m above the crater, drifted S and SW, and caused ashfall in Puerto Momotombo (9 km WSW). Possible ash plumes from an explosion at 2129 were hidden by darkness. At 0420 on 3 January an explosion ejected lava bombs 2 km away and caused ashfall in La Paz Centro (18 km SW). Lava flows had advanced as far as 2 km down the NE flank. Based on INETER and SINAPRED reports, activity at Momotombo continued through 10 December. Fieldwork revealed a small, incandescent, circular crater halfway up Momotombo's E flank that was fuming during the morning on 6 December. An explosion on 7 December destroyed part of the crater. On 10 December SINAPRED reported that material had been accumulating in the crater since the beginning of the eruption on 1 December. Seismicity during 9-14 December was low and stable. Based on satellite and webcam observations, and seismic data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 2-3 December ash plumes from Momotombo rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-225 km NW and WNW. INETER reported that series of at least 4 small explosions occurred at the volcano on the morning, at 07:49, 08:17, 08:42, and 08:55 local time on 1st of December. The eruptions, in particular the last and largest one, produced steam and ash plumes that rose up to approx. 1 km from the summit. Light ash fall was observed in the community of El Papalonal and near the Momotombo geothermal plant to the SW of the volcano. Later, during the day, It seems that the volcano continues to erupt and have been intensifying its activity with near-continuous strombolian explosions accompanied with hot incandescent material and a small et slowly lava flows went down from the summit crater on the Northeast flank.Ashfall was reported in nearby communities to the W and SW, including La Concha, Los Arcos, Flor de la Piedra, La Paz Centro, and Leon. Some families in La Paz Centro self-evacuated. This is the first eruptive activity of the volcano in 110 years, the last confirmed eruption of Momotombo occurred in 1905 . Momotombo is a young, 1297-m-high stratovolcano that rises prominently above the NW shore of Lake Managua, forming one of Nicaragua's most familiar landmarks. Momotombo began growing about 4500 years ago at the SE end of the Marrabios Range and consists of a somma from an older edifice that is surmounted by a symmetrical younger cone with a 150 x 250 m wide summit crater. Young lava flows from Momotombo have flowed down the NW flank into the 4-km-wide Monte Galán caldera. The youthful cone of Momotombito forms a 391-m-high island offshore in Lake Managua. Momotombo has a long record of strombolian eruptions, punctuated by occasional larger explosive activity. The latest eruption, in 1905, produced a lava flow that traveled from the summit to the lower NE base. A small black plume was seen above the crater after an April 10, 1996 earthquake, but later observations noted no significant changes in the crater. A major geothermal field is located on the southern flank of the volcano. INETER

NICARAGUA - San Cristobal volcano

April 25th, 2016

INETER and SINAPRED reported that at 1020 on 22 April an explosion at San Cristobal produced an ash-and-gas plume that rose 2 km above the crater and drifted SW. The seismic network recorded 10 additional explosions by 1200. Ashfall was reported in local areas including Las Brisas (10 km S), San José (8 km SSE), Santa Narcisa, Pellizco Central (12 km SSE), Los Albanos, Los Lirios (18 km WSW), Santa Cruz (35 km SE), Las Grietas (14 km E), El Liberal, and San Lucas (13 km E). The INETER report noted that the last explosive activity occurred on 6 June 2015, though explosions that day were of lesser magnitudes. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.San Cristobal's last such activity occurred three years ago. GVN/GVP - NOTE : a SVE fieldtrip in Nicaragua is planned for November 2016- registration open here

NICARAGUA - Concepcion volcano

October 16th, 2015

Based on seismic data, INETER reported that a lahar at Concepcion detected between 1210 and 1305 on 14 October impacted local communities. Material was deposited in the streets of La Chirca (N), La Union (SE), and Los Ramos (SE).Previously, INETER reported that gas explosions continued to be detected at Concepcion; by 30 June a total of 2,417 explosions, 113 since 23 June, had been detected by the network since activity increased (date not specified).INETER reported that gas explosions continued to be detected at Concepcion; by 23 June a total of 2,304 explosions, 320 since 15 June, had been detected by the network since activity increased (date not specified). INETER reported that gas explosions continued to be detected at Concepcion; by 15 June a total of 1,984 explosions, 309 since 9 June, had been detected by the network since an unspecified date of increased activity.In an 9 June statement, INETER noted that 38 gas explosions had been detected in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number to 1,675 detected by the network since an unspecified date of increased activity INETER noted that 159-177 gas explosions had been detected during 27 May-1 June, bringing the total number to 1,493 detected by the network since an unspecified date of increased activity. INETER reported According to a 6 May news article, activity at Concepcion had increased about three weeks prior and was characterized by fluctuating levels of seismicity and gas explosions. In a 8 May statement, INETER noted that seismic activity and gas explosions at Concepcion had decreased since the day before; 15 gas explosions has been detected in a 24-hour period. By 24 May there had been a total of 987 gas explosions detected by the network since an unspecified date of increased activity. Volcano Concepcion is one of Nicaragua's highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua and is connected to neighboring Madera volcano by a narrow isthmus. A steep-walled summit crater is 250 m deep and has a higher western rim. N-S-trending fractures on the flanks of the volcano have produced chains of spatter cones, cinder cones, lava domes, and maars located on the NW, NE, SE, and southern sides extending in some cases down to Lake Nicaragua. Concepcion was constructed above a basement of lake sediments, and the modern cone grew above a largely buried caldera, a small remnant of which forms a break in slope about halfway up the north flank. Frequent explosive eruptions during the past half century have increased the height of the summit significantly above that shown on current topographic maps and have kept the upper part of the volcano unvegetated.(GVN/GVP)

*********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

El SALVADOR - San Miguel volcano

June 22nd, 2016

SNET reported that at 0800 on 15 June seismicity at San Miguel dramatically increased and remained elevated. At 0410 on 18 June a small explosion occurred in the central crater, ejecting tephra onto the flanks near the crater, and causing ashfall in areas to the NW. Voluminous gas emissions were visible drifting SW during 19-20 June, and local residents on the W
and SW flanks reported a sulfur odor. SNET reported that between 1304 and 1430 on 31 May seismic signals at San Miguel increased, and indicated rock fracturing at depth and possible gas-and-ash emissions. Though weather clouds partially covered the volcano, the webcam recorded some pulses of gas emissions. Seismicity decreased the next day. Previously, SNET reported that at 0520 on 12 January a gas-and-ash plume from San Miguel rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted WSW, causing ashfall in San Jorge, Caserios, La Piedra, Moritas, and La Placita. Gas-and-ash emissions continued through the rest of the day; ashfall was also later reported in San Rafael Oriente, Alegria, and Berlan en Usulutan. Seismicity declined during 12-14 January. Gas plumes with minor to no ash content rose as high as 300 m. On 14 January seismicity stabilized above background levels, and gas emissions were observed. The next day local observers reported a millimeter of ash deposited in Las Cruces, on the N flank. A webcam recorded gas emissions rising 400 m and drifting N throughout the morning. Gas emissions during 17-18 January were weak, only rising 150 m, and RSAM values gradually declined. At 0900 on 18 January the emission plume became dark and drifted SW. Previously SNET reported that at 1515 on 11 April a small explosion at San Miguel generated a gas-and-ash plume that rose 800 m and quickly dissipated to the SW. Minor ashfall (1 mm thick) was reported WSW of the crater, in La Piedra, Moritas, and San Jorge.Previously, SNET reported that at 0643 on 26 January a small explosion at San Miguel generated a plume that rose 300 m and quickly dissipated to the W. Local residents reported hearing rumbling and feeling tremor during the explosion. Minor ashfall was reported SW of the crater. The symmetrical cone of San Miguel volcano, one of the most active in El Salvador, rises from near sea level to form one of the country's most prominent landmarks. A broad, deep crater that has been frequently modified by historical eruptions (recorded since the early 16th century) caps the truncated summit of the towering volcano, which is also known locally as Chaparrastique. Radial fissures on the flanks of the basaltic volcano have fed a series of fresh lava flows, including several erupted during the 17th-19th centuries that reached beyond the base of the volcano on the N, W, and SE sides. The SE-flank lava flows are the largest and form broad sparsely vegetated lava fields. GVN - (SNET)

***************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

COLOMBIA - Galeras volcano

April 22nd, 2013

INGEOMINAS reported that during 15-21 May seismicity at Galeras was at a low level; during 19-20 May earthquakes with magnitudes 2.6 or less were concentrated in an area 3 km SW at depths near 4 km. Gas plumes rose 500 m above the crater and contained small amounts of ash during 15-16 and 20-21 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). INGEOMINAS reported that during 10-16 April 2913 earthquakes at Galeras were located in various areas as far as 13 km from the crater, at depths no greater than 14 km and with maximum magnitudes of 2. Moderate levels of sulfur dioxide were detected; plumes drifted NW. Cameras recorded ash emissions all week, especially on 9, 11, 12, and 14 April, when pulsating activity produced plumes that drifted W. Plumes rose no more than 1 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").INGEOMINAS reported that during 30 October-6 November 2012 seismicity at Galeras fluctuated but was slightly lower compared to the previous week. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were low. Cameras around Galeras recorded gas-and-ash plumes rising from the crater on 30 October and 1 November. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. Webcam image

COLOMBIA - Nevado del Ruiz

September 20th, 2016

Based on notices from the Bogota MWO and model data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 15 September an ash plume from Nevado del Ruiz rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that ash emissions at Nevado del Ruiz began at 0615 on 13 September, producing a plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. By 1345 the ash had dissipated.Servicio Geológico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 23-29 August seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was relatively unchanged compared to the previous week. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas rose from the crater. Ash emissions occurred on several days, and sometimes several times per day. Based on notices from the Bogota MWO, satellite and webcam images, and model data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 2-3 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 6.1-6.4 km (20,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. SGC noted that gas, steam, and ash plumes occasionally rose 1.8 km above the crater rim and drifted NW and W on 4 and 6 September. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that during 23-29 August seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz slightly increased compared to the week before. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas rose from the crater. Thermal anomalies were detected on 24 and 29 August. A period of tremor that started at 1747 on 26 August was associated with an ash emission that rose 900 m above the crater. A gas-and-ash plume, associated with a seismic signal at 1050 on 27 August, was confirmed by a pilot. Based on webcam images and seismic signals, an ash plume rose 1.3 km and drifted NW on 28 August. Gas, steam, and ash plumes occasionally rose 2.3 km above the crater rim and drifted NW and W on 29 August. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Based on information from the Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales, the Washington VAAC reported that on 19 August an ash plume from Nevado del Ruiz rose to an altitude of 6.9 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that during 2-8 August seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz remained at similar levels as the week before. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas rose from the crater. A gas, steam, and ash plume rose 850 m above the crater rim and drifted NW and W on 6 August. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that during 26 July-1 August seismicity levels at Nevado del Ruiz slightly increased as compared to the week before. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas rose from the crater. A gas, steam, and ash plume rose 700 m above the crater rim and drifted NW and W on 29 July. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Based on notices from the Bogota MWO and model data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 24 July a possible ash plume from Nevado del Ruiz rose to an altitude of 7.2 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. On 26 July an ash plume recorded by the webcam and identified in satellite images rose to an altitude of 6.9 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that during 12-18 July seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz slightly increased as compared to levels the week before. Several episodes of drumbeat earthquakes were recorded during 13, 15, and 16-17 July. These signals were low energy and indicated a growing lava dome. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas rose from the crater. Gas, steam, and ash plumes rose at most 500 m above the crater rim and drifted NW on 13, 14, 16, and 17 July. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Servicio Geologico Colombiano's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Manizales reported that a webcam recorded minor ash emissions rising from Nevado del Ruiz during 6-7 July. Based on notices from the Bogota MWO, satellite images, and model data, the Washington VAAC reported that on 8 July ash plumes rose to altitudes of 6.1-6.4 km (20,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. A thermal anomaly was visible on 9 July. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers >200 sq km. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the summit caldera of an older Ruiz volcano. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks of Nevado del Ruiz. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption. (GVN/GVP)

**********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

PERU - Ubinas volcano

January 22nd, 2016

Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) Observatorio Volcanologico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 12-18 January the seismic network at Ubinas recorded an increase in the number and magnitude of long-period earthquakes and a decrease in volcano-tectonic events. Thermal anomalies were detected on 13 and 15 January. At 0640 on 15 January a plume rose 500 m above the crater's base. At 1253 an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 3 km above the crater's base and drifted S and SW. The report noted that this was the first explosive event since 5 November 2015. Previously, Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) Observatorio Volcanologico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 10-16 November sporadic ash-and-gas emissions from Ubinas were observed during rare breaks in the cloud cover. On 13 November an ash plume rose 1.5 km above the crater floor and drifted S and SW. The next day ash plumes rose 600 m. Thermal anomalies were detected on 17 November. Long-period and hybrid earthquakes were less frequent than the previous week; volcano-tectonic signals increased although the energy levels remained low. Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) Observatorio Volcanologico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 3-9 November ash-and-gas emissions rose above Ubinas. A moderate explosion detected at 1216 on 5 November generated an ash plume that rose 2.2 km. Thermal anomalies were detected on 3, 5, and 8 November. Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) Observatorio Volcanologico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 27 October-2 November seismicity at Ubinas fluctuated; the level of long-period earthquakes remained high and continued to increase, while hybrid and volcano-tectonic signals also increased but remained at low levels. Steam-and-gas plumes with some ash rose from the crater. Thermal anomalies were detected on 30 October and 1 November. Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) Observatorio Volcanologico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 20-26 October seismicity at Ubinas decreased overall; the level of long-period earthquakes remained high while hybrid and volcano-tectonic signals were at low levels. On 21 October an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted NE and E. Bluish gas-and-steam plumes rose from the crater during the rest of the period. Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) Observatorio Volcanologico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 13-19 October seismicity at Ubinas fluctuated; moderate levels of seismicity were detected near the beginning of the period but then declined during the second half of the week. Thermal anomalies were detected during 13-14 October. Five explosions generated ash plumes that rose 2 km above the crater on 15 October.Instituto Geofosico del Peru (IGP) Observatorio Volcanologico del Sur (OVS) reported that long-period and volcano-tectonic events were at low levels at Ubinas during 15-21 September. Sporadic steam-and-gas plumes rose 600 m. Seismicity (hybrid and long-period events) increased during 20-21 September. An explosion on 21 September at 0914 produced ash plumes that rose 1.7 km and drifted S; ash emission continued until about 0800 the next day. Ashfall was reported in Querapi (4.5 km SE), Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Tonohaya (7 km SSE), Anascapa (11 km SE), Sacohaya, and San Miguel (10 km SE). Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) Observatorio Volcanologico del Sur (OVS) reported increased seismicity at Ubinas during 1-7 September, specifically an increase in the occurrence of long-period events and hybrid signals. Tremor increased during 5-7 September. A steam plume rose 1.5 km above the base of the crater on 2 September, and ash emissions were recorded during 6-7 SeptemberUbinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Peru. The upper slopes of the stratovolcano, composed primarily of Pleistocene andesitic lava flows, steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include some of Holocene age. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor explosive eruptions.

PERU - Sabancaya volcano

September 16th, 2016

Observatorio Vulcanologico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during a field inspection of Sabancaya on 25 August scientists noted five new fumarolic areas; two were located in the N part of the summit area, and three were on the NE flank. The number of hybrid earthquakes increased during 25-27 August. A small explosion at 0651 on 27 August produced a dense ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater and drifted E. Sabancaya, located on the saddle between 6288-m-high Ampato and 6025-m-high Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three volcanoes, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. Both Nevado Ampato and Nevado Sabancaya are only slightly affected by glacial erosion and consist of a series of lava domes aligned along a NW-SW trend. The name of 5967-m-high Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua Indian language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750. (GVN/GVP)

PERU - Misti volcano

June 5th, 2014

Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) reported that, during the last 12 months, seismicity at El Misti was dominated by volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. Two seismic swarms (more than 100 events per day) occurred during the last three months, on 19 May and 3 June. An increase in tremor was noted in April, although the total duration did not exceed 10 minutes and was generally low-amplitude. Long-period seismicity was not significant. In the last 15 days, seismicity increased slightly and tremor was recorded daily. Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that seismicity at El Misti increased during January, and a seismic swarm consisting of 119 volcano-tectonic events was detected during 14-15 January. Despite the increase, activity remained at a low level. El Misti, Peru's most well-known volcano, is a symmetrical andesitic stratovolcano with nested summit craters that towers above the city of Arequipa. The modern symmetrical cone, constructed within a small 1.5 x 2 km wide summit caldera that formed between about 13,700 and 11,300 years ago, caps older Pleistocene volcanoes that underwent caldera collapse about 50,000 years ago. A large scoria cone has grown with the 830-m-wide outer summit crater of El Misti. At least 20 tephra-fall deposits and numerous pyroclastic-flow deposits have been documented during the past 50,000 years, including a pyroclastic flow that traveled 12 km to the south about 2000 years ago. El Misti's most recent activity has been dominantly pyroclastic, and strong winds have formed a parabolic dune field of volcanic ash extending up to 20 km downwind. An eruption in the 15th century affected Inca inhabitants living near the volcano. Some reports of historical eruptions may represent in creased fumarolic activity. Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and (GVN/GVP)

******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

CHILE-ARGENTINA - Copahue volcano

July 12th, 2016

OVDAS- SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 16-30 June the eruption at Copahue was characterized by phreato-magmatic explosions and Strombolian activity. On 4 July, SERNAGEOMIN posted on their social media page photos from an overflight showing Strombolian activity from a crater atop of a pyroclastic cone which was forming on the floor of El Agrio crater. Based on webcam and satellite views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 7-8 July diffuse gas-and-steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow; SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 1.5 km of the crater. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 11 June the webcam at Copahue recorded steam-and-gas emissions possibly containing minor amounts of ash. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 23-26 March webcam and satellite images detected steam-and-ash emissions rising above Copahue's crater to altitudes of 3-3.3 km (10,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting NE, SE, and S. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 11 and 13-16 March webcam and satellite images detected steam-and-ash emissions rising above Copahue's crater to altitudes of 3.3-3.7 km (11,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and dissipating near the summit. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 5-7 March a webcam recorded minor stream-and-gas emissions near Copahue's crater; on 7 March the emissions drifted SE and ESE at altitudes of 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite and webcam views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 24-25 and 28 February steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash rose from Copahue and drifted E at altitudes of 3.3-4.3 km (11,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite and webcam views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 17 and 20 February steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash rose from Copahue and drifted SE at an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. Only gas emissions were visible on 19 February. Based on satellite and webcam views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 10-16 February Copahue generated almost continuous steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash that rose to altitudes of 3-3.6 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, SE, S, and SW. Based on satellite and webcam views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 3-9 February Copahue generated almost continuous steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash that rose to altitudes of 3-3.6 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 150 km ENE, ESE, SE, and S. Volcan Copahue is an elongated composite cone constructed along the Chile-Argentina border within the 6.5 x 8.5 km wide Trapa-Trapa caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.4 million years ago near the NW margin of the 20 x 15 km Pliocene Caviahue (Del Agrio) caldera. The eastern summit crater, part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters, contains a briny, acidic 300-m-wide crater lake (also referred to as El Agrio or Del Agrio) and displays intense fumarolic activity. Acidic hot springs occur below the eastern outlet of the crater lake, contributing to the acidity of the Rio Agrio, and another geothermal zone is located within Caviahue caldera about 7 km NE of the summit. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Copahue since the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions from the crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Villarica volcano

April 20th, 2016

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 3-15 April activity at Villarrica gradually declined after a minor seismic crisis on 3 April, though bursts of seismicity concentrated SE of the main crater suggested possible magma movement at depth. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a
1-km radius around the crater. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that at 0750 on 3 April 2016 the seismic stations at Villarrica began recording more energetic volcanic tremor. In addition, the webcam recorded increased surficial activity characterized by Strombolian explosions and intensifying crater incandescence. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 1-km radius around the crater and away from drainages. Latest reported activity past year - On 8 June 2015, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Villarrica continued the gradual decline observed in recent weeks. The Alert Level was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 3-km radius around the crater and away from drainages.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported no significant changes at Villarrica during 27 May-2 June. Seismicity fluctuated at low-to-moderate levels, and continued to indicate small explosions and degassing from the lava lake. Deformation data suggested minor inflation. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and 200 m away from drainages in the SW and NE quadrants.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported no significant changes at Villarrica during 20-26 May. Seismicity had significantly decreased, although the data continued to indicate small explosions and degassing from the lava lake. Deformation data suggested inflation during 24-26 May. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and away from drainages.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported no significant changes at Villarrica during 6-12 May. Activity was characterized by weak and infrequent Strombolian explosions from the lava lake, diffuse gas emissions with occasional ash, nighttime crater incandescence, and decreasing seismicity. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and away from drainages. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported moderate seismic activity during 29 April-5 May. Nighttime crater incandescence and a thermal anomaly detected daily in satellite images suggested an active lava lake, with mild and periodic Strombolian activity. Gas emissions were visible in the daytime. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and away from drainages.
Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot Villarrica's flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano have been produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 sq km of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks.

CHILE - Calbuco volcano

August 25th, 2015

Latest report - According to the civil protection agency, ONEMI, on 18 August 2015 OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity at Calbuco fluctuated at low levels and continued to decline, and only water vapor emissions rose from the vents. The Alert Level was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale). ONEMI maintained an elevated Alert Level of Yellow (mid-level on a 3-color scale) for the Llanquihue and Puerto Octay provinces, and an Alert Level Green for Puerto Montt and Puerto Varas. On 21 August the 10-km exclusion zone around the volcano was lifted, but SERNAGEOMIN warned that the 1.5 km exclusion zone around the craters remained in effect and the public should continue to stay away from
drainages.On 27 May OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity at Calbuco fluctuated at low levels and continued to decline. According to ONEMI, the 10-km evacuation zone remained in effect, with controlled access to some communities allowed for part of the day; about 500 people remained displaced. On 28 May OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level remained to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 20-26 May activity at Calbuco fluctuated at low levels and continued to decline. Inclement weather prevented observations of the summit area on most days; white plumes were observed rising 300-400 m and drifting SE during 24-26 May, and incandescence at the crater was observed at night during 25-26 May. According to ONEMI, the number of evacuees within the 20-km evacuation zone remained at 6,685 on 26 May. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale), and the 10-km-radius exclusion zone continued to be in effect.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 13-19 May activity at Calbuco fluctuated at low levels and continued to decline. Inclement weather prevented daily observations of the summit area, although incandescence at the crater was observed during 17-18 May. According to ONEMI, the number of evacuees within the 20-km evacuation zone remained at 6,685 on 18 May. On 19 May the Alert Level was lowered to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale), and the exclusion zone was changed to a 10-km radius.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 6 May activity at Calbuco fluctuated; a sudden increase of tremor that began at 1304 and lasted two hours was accompanied by increased gas-and-ash emissions. During 7-11 May the gas-and-ash emissions were steady and low (less than 1 km), and drifted E, SE, and S; inclement weather prevented observations during 8-10 and 12 May. Moderate levels of tremor were detected through 9 May, and then decreased to low levels through 12 May. According to ONEMI, the number of evacuees within the 20-km evacuation zone remained at 6,685 on 12 May. In addition 3,221 animals, including sheep, goats, cows, and horses, had been evacuated. The Alert Level remained at Red (the highest level on a four-color scale OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 29 April a weak ash plume rose as high as 1.5 km above Calbuco and seismicity remained stable. An event that began at 1308 on 30 April produced an ash plume that rose 3-5 km and drifted SE. A small lahar in the Blanco River may have been caused by a pyroclastic flow. Tremor amplitude increased and became sustained after the event. On 2 May the number of earthquakes increased. Seismicity significantly increased on 3 May, characterized by a swarm of volcano-tectonic events, and then decreased afterwards. Seismicity was low and stable on 5 May. A plume rose less than 1 km during 1-3 May; cloud cover prevented visual observations of the volcano during 4-5 May. According to ONEMI, the number of evacuees totaled 6,685 on 5 May. The Alert Level remained at Red (the highest level on a four-color scale). Previously, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that an eruption from Calbuco began at 1804 on 22 April, prompting the Alert Level to be raised to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale) and causing a 20-km exclusion zone to be declared. The eruption was preceded by an hour-long period of volcano-tectonic events followed by long-period events; no increases in seismicity had been noted since 2009 when real-time seismic monitoring started. After a large seismic event detected at 1735, a 90 minute eruption generated a sub-Plinian, gray ash plume that rose 15 km above the main crater and drifted mainly ENE, although fine ash drifted N and NW. Column collapses occurred locally and radially, affecting the headwaters of major rivers. Residents within the exclusion zone, in Chamiza, Lago Chapo, and Correntoso sectors, and in the town of Puerto Montt, were ordered to evacuate. Several roads and bridges were impassable due to ashfall. A larger second event on 23 April began at 0100, lasted six hours, and also generated a sub-Plinian ash plume that rose higher than 15 km and drifted N, NE, and E. Incandescent tephra was ejected as far as 5 km; deposits were concentrated to the N and NE, with thicknesses varying from tens of centimeters in the Region de Los Lagos to a few millimeters in the Los Rios and La Araucana areas. Pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum distance of 7 km and lahars traveled 15 km. Pumice fell in Region de Los Lagos, and ash fell in Los Rios and La Araucana. Tephra also fell in Argentine territory, NE of the volcano. Scientists aboard an overflight observed ash emissions from at least six vents on the W, SW, and S sides of the old lava dome. About 5,000 people had been evacuated and ONEMI warned people not to go within 200 m of drainages due to lahar hazards. At around 2330 a third phase of surficial activity was noted; ash plumes rose 2 km and drifted NE and E. On 24 April the ash plume continued to rise 2 km and explosions were detected. News articles noted that international flights in and out of several major cities were delayed or canceled. According to a news article, ash from the eruption reached southern Brazil on 25 April prompting some airlines to cancel flights using airports in Santiago, Buenos Aires, and Montevideo. Some houses in areas near the volcano collapsed from the weight of the ash. The ash plume persisted on 25 April, but rose to a lower height of 400 m, and sporadic explosions were detected. Seismicity declined during 26-27 April; the ash plume rose 1.5 km, and drifted NE and SE. ONEMI noted on 27 April that 246 of 4,514 evacuees were in shelters; the number of displaced people had peaked at 6,514 during 24-26 April. A satellite-based estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions was 0.3-0.4Tg by 28 April, detected as high as 21 km altitude. Although most ash had fallen out of the plume over Chile and Argentina, some may have remained in the stratospheric plume drifting around the globe; the leading edge of the gas plume had reached the Indian Ocean, S of Madagascar.Along with its neighbour Osorno, Calbuco is one of the most active volcanoes of the Southern Chilean Andes. The isolated late-Pleistocene to Holocene andesitic volcano rise to 2003 m South of the lake Llanquihue in the Chilean lake District. The Calbuco is elongated in a SW-NE direction and is capped by a 400-500 m wide summit crater. The compllex evolution of Calbuco included edifice collapse of an intemediate edifice during the late Pleistocene that produced a 3cu km debris avalanche that reached the lake. Calbuco has erupted frequently during the Holocene, and one of the largest historical eruptions in Southern Chile tool place from Calbuco in 1893-1894 and concluded with lava dome emplacement. Subsequent eruptions have enlarged the lava-dome complex in th summit crater.(GVN/GVP) - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)

CHILE - Lascar volcano

November 2nd, 2015

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that at 0932 on 30 October the webcam recorded an ash plume rising 2.5 km above Lascar and drifting NE. A low-to-moderate-level seismic signal accompanied the emission. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). ONEMI declared a Yellow Alert for the municipality of San Pedro de Atacama.
Lascar is the most active volcano of the northern Chilean Andes. The andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano contains six overlapping summit craters. Prominent lava flows descend its NW flanks. An older, higher stratovolcano 5 km E, Volcan Aguas Calientes, displays a well-developed summit crater and a probable Holocene lava flow near its summit (de Silva and Francis, 1991). Láscar consists of two major edifices; activity began at the eastern volcano and then shifted to the western cone. The largest eruption took place about 26,500 years ago, and following the
eruption of the Tumbres scoria flow about 9000 years ago, activity shifted back to the eastern edifice, where three overlapping craters were formed. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the mid-19th century, along with periodic larger eruptions that produced ashfall hundreds of kilometers away. The largest historical eruption took
place in 1993, producing pyroclastic flows to 8.5 km NW of the summit and ashfall in Buenos Aires. (GVN/GVP)

CHILE - Nevado de Chillan

September 8th, 2016

The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 2 September steam-and-gas emissions from Nevados de Chillán possibly contained minor amounts of ash. On 6 September the webcam recorded a short-duration, intense ash emissionServicio Nacional de Geologia and Mineria (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanologico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported that the seismic stations monitoring Nevados de Chillan recorded an increase in seismic signals indicating explosions and increased emissions from new craters on the E side of Volcan Nuevo and the Volcan Arrau dome complex. During 1-9 August there were 11 explosions detected; the highest energy signal was recorded at 1656 on 8 August and was accompanied by an emission that rose 2 km. That same day the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that a gas-and-ash puff rose to an altitude of 4.2 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-color scale, and the public was reminded not to approach the craters within a 3-km radius which had been extended due to the recent activity increase. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 1 August a webcam recorded an ash puff from Nevados de Chillan that rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l., and then emissions of gas and minor amounts of ash at crater level. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 21 July a webcam recorded an ash puff from Nevados de Chillan that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l., and then continuous emissions of gas and minor amounts of ash that rapidly dissipated at crater level. Previously, Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería SERNAGEOMIN Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS)reported that the seismic stations monitoring Nevados de Chillán's Volcán Arrau dome complex recorded an explosion at 1303 on 9 May; an associated plume rose 1.7 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-color scale, and the public was reminded not to approach the craters within a 2-km radius.Servicio Nacional de Geologia and Mineria (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanologico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported that during 1-15 April mostly white vapor emissions rose above Nevados de Chillan's Volcan Arrau dome complex; a small amount of ash was present in the emissions during 7-9 April, rising at most 400 m. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-color scale, and the public was reminded not to approach the craters within a 2-km radius. Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported that at 1425 on 29 January a phreatic explosion at Nevados de Chillán's Volcán Arrau dome complex generated an ash emission that was associated with a seismic tremor signal. During an overflight on 30 January volcanologists observed that the series of recent phreatic explosions had formed a new crater about 50 m from Arrau Crater, on the E flank. The new crater was 25-30 m wide and at a similar elevation as the crater formed on 8 January. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-color scale.Servicio Nacional de Geologia and Minera (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanologico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported that at 1755 on 8 January a phreatic explosion at Nevados de Chillan generated a short-duration ash emission and was associated with a long-period seismic event. At least one phreatic explosion occurred on 9 January, generating ash emissions. During an overflight that same day volcanologists observed a new crater on the E flank of the Volcan Nuevo lava-dome complex, about 40 m from the edge of the crater. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the middle level on a three-color scaleServicio Nacional de Geologico and Mineros (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanologico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported that increasing seismicity at Nevados de Chillan and increased activity of the hydrothermal system prompted an Alert Level increase to Yellow, on a three-color scale. During 1-31 December the seismic network recorded 1,259 seismic events, including 186 volcano-tectonic events with a maximum local M (LM) of 1.8 located 17 km NNW at a depth of 4 km, 1,030 long-period earthquakes with a maximum LM 1.7, 40 short episodes of spasmodic tremor, and three tornillo-type events. The webcam recorded a small white plume rising from the crater on 9 December. The compound volcano of Nevados de Chilan is one of the most active of the Central Andes of Chile. Three late-Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcanoes were constructed along a NNW-SSE line within three nested Pleistocene calderas, which produced ignimbrite sheets extending more than 100 km into the Central Depression of Chile. The largest stratovolcano, dominantly andesitic, 3212-m-high Cerro Blanco (Volcan Nevado), is located at the NW end of the group, and 3089-m-high Volcan Viejo (Volcan Chillan), which was the main active vent during the 17th-19th centuries, occupies the SE end. The new Volcan Nuevo lava-dome complex formed between 1906 and 1945 between the two volcanoes and grew to exceed Volcan Viejo in altitude. The Volcan Arrau dome complex was constructed SE of Volcan Nuevo between 1973 and 1986, eventually exceeding its height by 20 m. (GVN/GVP)

Chile - Argentina border - Planchon-Peteroa

July 4th, 2016

Based on Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) observations, on 1 July SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity at Planchon-Peteroa had begun increasing above baseline levels on 16 June; during 16-30 June the seismic network detected 944 volcano-tectonic events and 1,635 long-period events. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow. Previously,
based on Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) observations, SERNAGEOMIN reported an increase in the number of long-period earthquakes at Planchón-Peteroa beginning on 15 January. On 22 January the Alert Level was raised to Yellow. Planchón-Peteroa is an elongated complex volcano along the Chile-Argentina border with several overlapping calderas. Activity began in the Pleistocene with construction of the basaltic-andesite to dacitic Volcán Azufre, followed by formation of basaltic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Planchón, 6 km to the north. About 11,500 years ago, much of Azufre and part of Planchón collapsed, forming the massive Río Teno debris avalanche, which traveled 95 km to reach Chile's Central Valley. Subsequently, Volcán Planchón II was formed. The youngest volcano, andesitic and basaltic-andesite Volcán Peteroa, consists of scattered vents between Azufre and Planchón. Peteroa has been active into historical time and contains a small steaming crater lake. Historical eruptions from the complex have been dominantly explosive, although lava flows were erupted in 1837 and 1937. (GVN/GVP)

***********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

Volcan Popocatepetl - 19 December 2000 CENAPRED

Japan - Suwanojesima volcano

September 20th, 2016

The Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion at Suwanosejima on 15 September. An explosion on 17 September produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on a pilot observation and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 31 August ash plume from Suwanosejima rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 25-26 and 28-29 August explosions at Suwanosejima often generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 0.9-2.4 km (3,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, and SE. Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 11-12 and 14 August ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 1-2 August ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.5-3.4 km (5,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SE. Based on JMA notices, satellite-image analyses and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 18-19 July ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 June ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 18 May an explosion at Suwanosejima generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on JMA notices, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 4-5 May explosions at Suwanosejima generated ash plume that rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.Based on JMA notices, pilot observations, and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions at Suwanosejima during 20-21 April; ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NW on 20 April. Based on JMA notices, pilot observations, and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion on 14 April, and ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 0.1-2.1 km (3,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, E, SE, and S during 15 and 17-19 April. Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 21, 23-24, and 26 March explosions at Suwanosejima generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, W, and SE. Ash emissions continued on 27 March. Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 11 March an explosion at Suwanosejima generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 2-3 and 8 March explosions at Suwanosejima generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted SE. Explosions were also detected on 5 and 7 March. Previously, Based onJMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion at Suwanosejima on 6 January.Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 September 2015 ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Based on JMA notices and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 21 August ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Based on JMA notices, satellite-image analyses, and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from Suwanosejima rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SW, and W during 30-31 July and 4 August. On 2 August an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 persons live on the island.

JAPAN - Asosan volcano (Kyushu)

April 25th, 2016

JMA reported that field surveys at Asosan's Nakadake Crater on 20 April confirmed an eruption that had been detected on 16 April. Scientists observed deposits from a phreatic explosion at a vent in the S crater which contains a crater lake. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that a very small eruption at Asosan's Nakadake Crater was detected at 0830 on 16 April. A white plume rose 100 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that during 14-18 March white plumes rose as high as 300 m above Asosan's Nakadake Crater. Seismicity was low. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that during 7-14 March white plumes rose as high as 600 m above Asosan's Nakadake Crater. Seismicity was low. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that at 0656 on 4 March an explosion at Asosan's Nakadake Crater generated a milky-white plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim; white plumes rose 300 m afterwards. The amplitude of volcanic tremor had increased around the time of the eruption, but then had decreased afterwards. Fieldwork confirmed that a small amount of sediment had been ejected from the crater's hot lake, and ash had fallen on the E side of Aso and in Takamori (10 km ESE). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Previously, JMA reported that during 16-24 November white plumes rose 400-500 m above the rim of Asosan's Nakadake Crater. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Previously JMA reported that since the 14 September eruptive activity at Asosan's Nakadake Crater continued. On 23 October explosions generated ash plumes that rose 1.4-1.6 km above the crater, producing tepha-fall in areas to the W and NW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). On 18 September JMA reported that an eruption from Asosan's Nakadake Crater continued; ash plumes rose 900 m that same day. During an overflight scientists observed that pyroclastic-flow deposits from the 14 September explosion extended down the SE flank as far as 3 km; scientists from Kumamoto University estimated that about 4 million tons of ash were ejected that day. On 21 September an off-white plume rose 900 m. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that during 10-11 September a small-scale eruption from Asosan's Nakadake Crater generated a plume that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted S and SW. During fieldwork on 11 September, volcanologists observed .a grayish-white plume rising from the vent and sediment deposits around the vent. On 14 September an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 2 km, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-5). During an overflight later that day scientists observed ashfall in the crater area, on the N flank as far as 1 km, and on the SE flank as far as 1.3 km. Ashfall was reported over a wide area including Tamana, Kumamoto City, and Yamaga (W flank). According to a news article about 30 tourists in the area were evacuated, and some flights were either canceled or re-routed. Areas within 4 km of the craters were closed. An off-white plume rose 300 m above the crater on 15 September. . JMA reported that on 3 September a small-scale eruption from Asosan's Nakadake Crater generated a whitish plume that rose 200 m above the crater. During fieldwork later that day, scientists confirmed that the event originated in the SW part of the crater and minor ashfall had occurred. A white plume rose 400 m on 7 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5) A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Naka-dake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 AD. The Naka-dake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 AD. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic Strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. The summit crater of Naka-dake is accessible by toll road and cable car, and is one of Kyushu's most popular tourist destinations. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Nishinoshima island ( Izu-Bonin islands)

July 25th, 2016

JMA reported that no additional activity was observed after the 17 November 2015 eruption at Nishinoshima, which ejected bombs a few meters in diameter as far as 1 km from the vent, suggesting the eruption had stopped sometime in late November. Gas emissions decreased in June 2016. High-temperature areas around the crater continued to be detected. JMA reduced the warning statement for the island, specifying hazards were less severe around the crater (encompassing areas within 500 m), rather than more broadly near
the crater. According to a news article from 22 November, recent footage (from the previous week) of Nishinoshima showed that the eruption was ongoing with explosion from the central crater and lava flows. The new island was 1.9 km E to W, 1.95 km N to S, and 100 m high, based on Coast Guard reports. Previously, According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image of Nishinoshima acquired on 21 June showed a sulfur dioxide-and-steam plume rising from the 2.45-square-kilometer island and drifting NE. Hot spots from lava that had emerged from lava tubes were visible on a lava delta at the SE part of the island.According to news articles, the eruption at Nishinoshima continued at least through 27 February 2015. The Japan Coast Guard noted that the island had grown to about 2.46 square kilometers and the active cone was about 100 m tall. Explosions occurred several times per minute and ash-and-gas plumes rose 1.2 km. Steam plumes rose from areas where lava flows contacted sea water Previously, The Tokyo VAAC reported an ash plume from Nishinoshima that rose to an altitude of about 3,000 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 16 September 2014. The University of Hawaii reported that satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) resulted in frequent MODVOLC alerts for Nishinoshima, as recently as 11 September. Previously, Photographs and video taken from a Japanese Coast Guard helicopter on 11 and 13 June revealed continuing eruptive activity at Nishinoshima. Steaming along the shoreline indicated at least two locations with active, or recently active, lava ocean entries, possibly tube-fed since no surface incandescence was visible. Night video clearly showed an active lava flow and ocean entry being supplied from lava fountaining out of a cinder cone. A significant steam plume was rising from the center of the lava shield from hot tephra deposits over a broad area rather than a crater. However, pulsating tephra ejections and distinctly brown ash plumes were rising from two smaller craters. An incandescent lava lake was visible in one of the small craters on both days. Similar Coast Guard photos taken on 21 May showed a large ash-bearing plume and Strombolian in the center of the island. Minor steaming from two central cinder cones was photographed on 15 April, and incandescent lava could be seen in the crater of one.Based on satellite images, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 18 April a possible eruption from Nishinoshima produced a plume that rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Previously, photo and video posted by the Japan Coast Guard showed that on 20 January the Niijima portion of Nishinoshima was larger than the original island; the two islands had merged on 24 December 2013. White and brown plumes rose from Niijima and the water to the SW was discolored. According to a news article, since mid-December lava flows from the newly formed Niijima island expanded NE towards Nishino-shima, and on 24 December the two islands joined. The Niijima area was about 500 m long and 450 m wide. As of the 12th of December, JMA reported that strombolian explosions ended and only degassing generating a small plume above the crater was visible during the past days. However, it seems that a lava flow is still active on the flank of the volcano. As of the 28th of November. JMA reported that strombolian activity is still continuing. During a japanese overflight on 24th of November, a lava flow was visible on the cone of the volcano. Thislava flows from the crater extended to the coastline of the island, and bombs continued to be ejected. As of the 23rd of November, JMA reported that the eruptive activity is still continuing. During the past hours eruptive activity shifted from Surtseyan to Strombolian style. Explosions occurs with intervalle 2-3 mn ejecting incandescent material to some hundred meters hight. Since the beginning of the eruption the volcanic island enlarged from about 200 m to 400 m in diameter and developed a crater 150m wide. As of the 21st of November, JMA reported that a powerful eruption has created a new small island close to the uninhabited volcanic island called Nishinoshima. The eruptive activity started on Wednesday 20th of November and the same day at 10:20 AM japanese overflight noted smoke and ash billowing above the eruptive site with surtseyan explosive activity. Some hours after, at about 4 PM, a new island of 200 m in diameter was clearly visible at the sea surface. The Nishisnoshima volcanic island (38 m high) lies to 1000 km South from Tokyo in the Izu-Bonin volcanic chain also know as Ogasawara chain. This volcanic chain is made up of over 30 volcanic islands. Present Nishino-shima island was in enlarged in 1974 after fresh eruptions created a new section of the island. Previous to 1974, Nishino Shima formed a small, green island which had no eruptions in the past 10,000 years. The volcano takes the form of a caldera. The volcano has many large, submarine, satellite cones to the south, west and northeast. The southern cone rises to within 214 m of the surface, around 9 km SSE of Nishino-shima.

JAPAN - Kuchinoerabujima volcano (RyuKyu Islands)

June 22nd, 2016

On 14 June JMA reported that no activity at Kuchinoerabujima had been detected after a small eruption on 19 June 2015. The report noted that volcanic tremor had not been detected, the temperature of thermal areas had declined, sulfur dioxide gas flux was lower than values detected prior to the May-June 2015 eruption, and volcanic earthquake levels were lower than
levels detected in August 2014. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (the highest level on a 1-5 scale) on 14 June, and the public was reminded to stay at least 2 km away from Shindake Crater.
A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyus, 15 km west of Yakushima. Furutake, Shintake, and Noike were erupted from south to north, respectively, to form a composite cone that is parallel to the trend of the Ryukyu Islands. The highest peak, Furutake, reaches only 657 m above sea level. The youngest cone, 640-m-high Shintake, was formed after the NW side of Furutake was breached by an explosion. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shintake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furutake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shintake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions. (GVN/GVP)


JAPAN - Sakurajima volcano

August 24th, 2016

JMA reported that small-scale explosions occasionally occurred at Minamidake summit crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) during 15-19 August. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that during 10-13 and 15 August small-scale explosions occurred at Minamidake summit crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that on 4 August a small-scale explosion occurred at Minamidake summit crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) ejecting material as high as 400 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that on 26 July an explosive eruption at Showa Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) ejected tephra 800 m away from the crater and generated an ash plume that rose 5 km above the crater rim. Significant amounts of ash fell in the W and SW parts of the island and in multiple areas of Kagoshima (10-12 km W). The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that a small-scale explosion at Showa Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) occurred at 1336 on 29 June. An explosion at 0413 on 2 July generated an ash plume that rose 1.2 km above the crater rim, and ejected tephra as far as 800 m from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that on 3 June explosions at Showa Crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) generated an ash plume that rose 1.3 km above the crater rim, and a small pyroclastic flow that traveled 400 m SE. Tephra was ejected 800 m from the crater. A small-scale explosion occurred at Minamidake summit crater that same day; an ash plume rose 1.5 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano remained vigorously active. During 16-23 May the seismic network detected 15 explosions at Showa Crater, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km above the crater rim (on 16 May). A small-scale explosion occurred at Minamidake summit crater on 18 May. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that an explosion at the Minamidake summit crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) generated an ash plume that rose 3.7 km above the crater rim. During 13-16 May explosions from Showa Crater generated an ash plume that rose as high as 3.5 km above the crater rim. On 13 May the Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that on 8 May explosions from Showa Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) generated an ash plume that rose 3.3 km above the crater rim and ejected tephra as far as 1.3 km from the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that a small-scale explosion at the Minamidake summit crater (at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano) was detected on 20 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that during 11-15 April the seismic network at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano detected seven eruptions at Showa Crater. An event at 1924 on 17 April generated an ash plume that rose 2.2 km above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that during 4-8 April the seismic network at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano detected four explosions at Showa Crater, generating ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km above the crater rim. One of the explosions, recorded at 1333 on 6 April, produced an ash plume that rose 3.5 km. An explosion at 1922 on 8 April generated an ash plume that rose 3.7 km and ejected cinders as far as 1.3 km away. Small-scale explosions occurred at Minamidake summit crater on 5, 6, and 9 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that on 1 April an explosion at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above Showa's crater rim. An explosion at Minamidake summit crater also produced an ash plume which rose 800 m above its crater rim. Three of five explosions detected at Showa during 1-4 April generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km, and ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m. Reports of falling tephra, 2 cm in diameter, came from a town 3 km away. At 0608 on 3 April an ash plume from an explosion rose 700 m above Minamidake. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that an explosion at 0159 on 24 March from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 800 m, and generated an ash plume that rose 2.1 km above the crater rim. At 0825 on 25 March an explosion at Minamidake summit crater produced an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater rim. Two explosions at Showa Crater, detected at 0248 and 1044 on 26 March, sent ash plumes as high as 2.7 km and ejected tephra 1.3 km away onto the flanks. Tephra 8 mm in diameter fell 4 km away. Ash from an explosion at Minamidake rose as high as 2 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that small-scale explosions from Minamidake Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano were detected during 14-15 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported that at 1820 on 8 March an explosion from Minamidake Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano generated a plume that rose 1.9 km above the crater rim. During an overflight on 11 March scientists observed a white plume rising 500 m above Minamidake. Later that day, at 2007, an explosion produced a plume that rose 1.7 km. During 29 February-4 March JMA reported that two explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano ejected tephra as far as 500 m. At 0038 on 4 March an explosion at Minamidake summit crater generated an ash plume that rose 1.6 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).he Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76. Sakurajima webcam

***************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

 

USA - Kilauea volcano ( Hawaian islands)

September 24th, 2016

During 14-20 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. The lake level fluctuated between 11 and 28 m below the Halemaumau floor, and was sometimes visible from the Jaggar Museum (NW rim of Kilauea Caldera). A drop in the lake level during 16-17 September caused several collapses of solidified lava that had adhered to the crater walls. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple locations near Kamokuna. Scattered breakouts were active 2 km inland from the coast. During 7-13 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. The lake level fluctuated between 5 and 20 m below the Halemaumau floor, and was easily visible from the Jaggar Museum (NW rim of Kilauea Caldera). The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple areas near Kamokuna. A large section of the W part of the delta had collapsed on 5 September, causing a small explosion. Scattered breakouts were active 1.7-2 km inland from the coast. During 31 August-6 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Incandescence was evident in webcam images from several long-established vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor. A collapse at the W vent increased the size of the vent and a 40-m-diameter lava pond that was 23 m below the vent's rim. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple areas near Kamokuna and spanning about 1 km of coastline and increasing the size of the lava delta at the base of the sea cliff. Scattered breakouts were active on the coastal plain and the pali. During 24-30 August HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple areas near Kamokuna and spanning about 1 km of coastline and increasing the size of the lava delta at the base of the sea cliff. Scattered breakouts were active on the coastal plain and the pali. During 17-23 August HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple areas near Kamokuna and spanning about 1 km of coastline. Scattered breakouts were active on the coastal plain and the pali. During 10-16 August HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u O'o Craters floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple areas near Kamokuna. Scattered breakouts were active on the coastal plain and the pali. A small delta collapse during the afternoon of 9 August temporarily darkened the ocean-entry plume. During 3-9 August HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Late on 6 August an explosions triggered by a rockfall into the lake ejected voluminous amounts of hot spatter and rock debris onto the SE rim of Halemaumau Crater, covering a broad swath 80 m long and 50 m wide around the formerly-closed public overlook area. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at Kamokuna in an area that spans 150-240 m wide. A small delta had formed at the entry. An active lobe of lava advanced along the W side of the flow field, crossed the Emergency Access road 500 m W of the main flow, and entered the ocean overnight during 8-9 August. HVO reported that during 27 July-2 August the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea''s Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu''u ''O''o Crater''s floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu''u ''O''o Crater''s E flank, continued to enter the ocean at the Kamokuna area; the flow at the ocean entry continued to widen and by 30 July was 240 m across. Nighttime webcam views of the flow field showed incandescent areas mostly on the coastal plain. HVO reported that during 20-26 July the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to advance across the coastal plain. The most distal part of the flow had stalled on 18 July but was again active by 22 July. Based on National Park personnel observations, the flow front was about 370 m from the ocean by 24 July. At 0112 on 26 July lava reached the ocean. Nighttime webcam views of the flow field showed incandescent areas from skylights, and advancing lava on the pali and coastal plain. HVO reported that during 13-19 July the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to advance across the coastal plain. By midday on 15 July the lava flow was about 870 m from the ocean, advancing only 60 m since 12 July. A satellite image acquired on 17 July showed that the flow front was 820 m from the ocean. By the evening of 18 July the flow tip had stalled but breakouts were active a few hundred meters upslope. HVO reported that during 6-12 July the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. Episode 61g, a lava flow originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to advance across the coastal plain, burning vegetation in the adjacent kipuka at the base of the pali. By 10 July the lava flow was about 1 km from the ocean. HVO reported that during 29 June-5 July the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea's Overlook vent. Several incandescent vents on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's floor were evident in webcam images. A lava flow originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank continued to advance and spread SE. Webcams recorded bright incandescence from several skylights along the upper part of the tube system supplying lava to the front part of the flow, and also from the flow field. By 29 June the toe of the lava flow had reached the base of the pali (burning vegetation in the adjacent kipuka), and by 3 July it had advanced 690 m onto the coastal plain, 2.6 km from the ocean. January 2016 marked the 33rd anniversary of Kilauea's East Rift Zone eruption, which began on January 3, 1983, and continues today. Kilauea volcano, which overlaps the east flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions of Kilauea are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 sq km, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island. The Webcam images, which are updated every five minutes, can be accessed at : http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/cams/NCcam/ . From HVO - Near real-time web cam Pu'u'O'o. Halemaumau webcam

USA - Mauna Loa volcano (Hawaian islands)

March 20th, 2016

On 17 March HVO reported that seismicity at Mauna Loa remained above long-term background levels and was characterized by shallow earthquakes occurring beneath the Southwest Rift Zone (SRZ) at depths of less than 5 km. GPS data showed continuing deformation related to inflation of a magma reservoir beneath the summit and upper SRZ, with inflation recently
detected in the SW part of the magma storage complex. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. Previous News - On 18 September 2015 HVO reported that for at least the previous year the seismic network at Mauna Loa detected elevated seismicity beneath the summit, upper Southwest Rift Zone, and W flank; the rate of these shallow earthquakes varied but overall had remained above the long-term average. The earthquakes locations were similar to those preceding recent eruptions in 1975 and 1984, although the magnitudes were comparatively low. In addition, ground deformation consistent with recharge of the volcano's shallow magma storage system was also detected during the previous year. The rate and pattern of the deformation was similar to that measured during a period of inflation 2005, unrest that did not lead to an eruption. However, since the observations indicated that Mauna Loa is no longer at background levels, HVO raised the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory.
Massive Mauna Loa shield volcano rises almost 9 km above the sea floor to form the world's largest active volcano. Flank eruptions are predominately from the lengthy NE and SW rift zones, and the summit is cut by the Mokuaweoweo caldera, which sits within an older and larger 6 x 8 km caldera. Two of the youngest large debris avalanches documented in Hawaii traveled nearly 100 km from Mauna Loa; the second of the Alika avalanches was emplaced about 105,000 years ago (Moore et al. 1989). Almost 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is covered by lavas less than 4000 years old (Lockwood and Lipman, 1987). During a 750-year eruptive period beginning about 1500 years ago, a series of voluminous overflows from a summit lava lake covered about one fourth of the volcano's surface. The ensuing 750-year period, from shortly after the formation of Mokuaweoweo caldera until the present, saw an additional quarter of the volcano covered with lava flows predominately from summit and NW rift zone vents. (GVN/GVP)

***************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

U.S.A. - Axial seamount (Juan de Fuca Ridge)

September 4th, 2015

An eruption at Axial Seamount, inferred to have started at 2230 on 23 April with an earthquake swarm, was confirmed during 14-29 August by bathymetric data and observations made during a ROV Jason dive. Two large lava flows from the N rift zone (8-16 km N of the summit caldera) were at most 127 m thick; some of the thicker areas had drained collapse features indicating they had molten interiors when emplaced. The ROV traversed the flows for about 2 km. New, thinner lava flows were also identified in the NE summit caldera and on the NE rim. Previously, Geologists reported that starting at 2230 on 23 April thousands of small earthquakes were detected at the Axial Seamount, and then the seafloor dropped by 2.4 m over a three-day period. It was unclear if the earthquakes and deflation meant an eruption or a large intrusion of magma that did not reach the surface. Axial Seamount rises 700 m above the mean level of the central Juan de Fuca Ridge crest about 480 km west of Cannon Beach, Oregon to within about 1400 m of the sea surface. The volcano is the most magmatically robust and seismically active site on the Juan de Fuca Ridge between the Blanco Fracture Zone and the Cobb offset. The summit is marked by an unusual rectangular-shaped caldera (3 x 8 km) that lies between two rift zones and is estimated to have formed about 31,000 years ago. The caldera is breached to the SE and is defined on three sides by boundary faults of up to 150 m relief. Hydrothermal vents colonized with biological communities are located near the caldera fault or along the rift zones. Following the discovery of hydrothermal venting north of the caldera in 1983. Detailed mapping and sampling efforts have identified more than 50 lava flows since about 410 AD (Clague et al., 2013). Eruptions producing fissure-fed lava flows that buried previously installed seafloor instrumentation were detected seismically and geodetically in 1998 and 2011 and confirmed shortly after each eruption during submersible dives. (GVN/GVP)

****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

U.S.A. - Pavlof volcano (Alaska)

August 11th, 2016

AVO reported that since an ash-and-steam explosion at Pavlof on 27 July, activity had continued to decline. On 4 August AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. During 5-9 August seismicity remained low but above background levels. Elevated surface temperatures were observed in one nighttime satellite image during
7-8 August.AVO reported that on 28 July vigorous steam-rich gas plumes from Pavlof were visible in webcam images from Cold Bay (60 km SW) and Black Hills (35 km NNE). The report also noted that recent satellite images and a pilot observation indicated minor ash emissions associated with degassing which rose to an altitude less that 4.5 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange and Volcano Alert Level was raised to Watch. On 29 July seismicity began to decrease. On 30 July minor steam emissions were visible in webcam images from Black Hills, and on 2 August a weak thermal anomaly was detected. AVO reported that seismic activity at Pavlof remained elevated during 13-19 July. A steam plume was visible in satellite images and reported by observers in Sand Point (90 km E) on 18 July. The next day persistent steam plumes with occasional minor ash-producing explosions were observed in satellite views. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. On 11 July, AVO noted that during the previous 24 hours a steam cloud from Pavlof was seen drifting SW by observers in Sand Point (90 km E) and by pilots flying near the volcano. Satellite images showed the cloud drifting 72 km SW. No unusual seismicity was detected. At 1300 the webcam recorded a minor ash emission rising tens of meters and drifting a few kilometers SW. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. On 1 July AVO reported that seismicity at Pavlof had increased during the previous 24 hours and minor steam emissions had been recorded by the webcam in the morning. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow and Volcano Alert Level was raised to Advisory. Seismicity on 2 July was lower but remained elevated. Tremor ceased on 3 July but was again detected during 4-5 July. AVO reported that activity at Pavlof had returned to baseline levels following a brief eruptive period in mid-May; minor ash emissions were last observed on 16 May. On 17 June AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Green and Volcano Alert Level to Normal. On 20 May AVO reported that the period of volcanic activity at Pavlof that began on 13 May had ended; eruptive activity had not been evident in satellite or seismic data since the low-level ash emissions observed on 17 May. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and Volcano Alert Level to Advisory, and noted that pauses in eruptive activity of days to weeks were common during eruptive episodes at Pavlof. AVO reported that at about 1035 on 13 May seismic activity at Pavlof increased to levels typically associated with low-level eruptive activity; cloud cover prevented visual observations of the volcano though no thermal signals or ash emissions were evident through the cloud deck. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch due to the possibility of an eruption in progress. On 14 May seismicity remained above background levels. Clear satellite and webcam views revealed no evidence for an eruption, and no ash emissions or thermal anomalies at the summit were observed. During 1927-2107 on 14 May ash emissions were evident in webcam views and reported by local observers. A diffuse ash plume rose to altitudes of 4.6-5.5 km (15,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and remained in the vicinity of the volcano. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite data at 0850 on 15 May. Periods of elevated volcanic tremor and a small explosion associated with minor ash emissions began at 0445 on 17 May; observers in Cold Bay (60 km SE) and Sand Point (90 km E) reported ash emissions interspersed with steam emissions. A National Weather Service SIGMET noted that ash was below an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.On 22 April AVO stated that seismic activity at Pavlof Volcano had continued to decrease, and no anomalous activity had been detected in satellite images since weakly elevated surface temperatures were seen on 8 April. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green and Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal. On 6 April AVO stated that the eruption at Pavlof had ended; during the previous week satellite images indicated no signs of ash emissions or lava effusion, and seismicity was at low levels. Thermal anomalies at the summit were occasionally visible though likely indicating cooling processes of previously erupted lava. AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. AVO reported that the intensity of the eruption at Pavlof greatly decreased during 29-30 March, though a news article noted that ash from the eruption had caused more flights in and out of Yellowknife and Regina, Canada, to be cancelled. Elevated surface temperatures identified in satellite data and visual observations of low-level, intermittent ash plumes were noted during brief breaks in poor weather conditions. Seismicity remained elevated above background levels through 4 April, and was characterized by occasional short-duration tremor bursts. Cloud cover obscured satellite and web-cam views, though weakly elevated surface temperatures were detected in a few satellite images during 1-5 April. Airwave signals, indicative of small explosions at the summit, were recorded by the seismic stations at 1842 on 3 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavlof, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing Strombolian to Vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode, when a fissure opened on the N flank, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows. (GVN/GVP)

USA - Cleveland volcano (Alaska)

June 8th, 2016

AVO reported that seismic activity at Cleveland had remained low since explosions were detected in infrasound (pressure sensor) and seismic data on 5 and 10 May. No significant activity had been observed since satellite data confirmed the eruption of a small-volume lava dome within the summit crater on 18 May; weakly elevated surface temperatures detected during 2-3
June were consistent with cooling lava. On 3 June AVO lowered the Level of Concern Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. AVO reported that a small lava dome in Cleveland's summit crater first observed on 18 May had grown to about 60 m in diameter, though it had not changed since 23 May. Weakly elevated surface temperatures detected in satellite images during 25-26 May were consistent with the presence of the new lava dome. Seismicity remained low through 31 May. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. Based on analysis of satellite data, on 18 May AVO reported that a small-volume lava dome had erupted in Cleveland's summit crater during the past several days. The 50-m-diameter dome was similar in size and morphology to the past 10 domes extruded and destroyed since 2011 (the most recent cycle was earlier in May). Weak seismicity detected on 17 May was likely caused by lava extrusion. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that an explosion at Cleveland was detected at 0732 on 10 May by infrasound (air pressure) sensors. Cloud cover prevented satellite views during most of the previous week; nothing noteworthy was detected in satellite data and no anomalous seismicity was recorded after the explosion through 14 May. Energetic steaming and highly elevated surface temperatures in the summit crater were observed in satellite data on 15 May. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that an explosion at Cleveland was detected at 1844 on 5 May by both infrasound (air pressure) sensors and seismic data. AVO raised the Level of Concern Color Code Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. Satellite views the next day were obscured by clouds; no signs of ash was detected above the cloud deck. AVO noted that the event likely modified the new, small lava dome that had been growing in the summit crater since the previous explosion on 16 April. No activity was observed in satellite images nor detected by the seismic and infrasound networks during 6-8 May. A small explosion was detected at 0732 on 10 May by infrasound sensors. A minor amount of ash was possibly generated by the explosion, but nothing was detected in satellite data and AVO received no reports of ash emissions from local observers or passing pilots.On 29 April, AVO reported that no activity had been detected at Cleveland following the 16 April explosion; seismicity had returned to low levels within an hour of the event and no infrasound (pressure sensor) signals had been detected. Recent satellite images indicated that the August 2015 lava dome was gone and had been replaced with a small cinder cone within the summit crater. The Level of Concern Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. AVO reported that during 20-26 April no unusual seismicity was detected at Cleveland, and partly to mostly cloudy satellite images captured no activity. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported an explosion at Cleveland at 1058 on 16 April was detected by both infrasound (air pressure) and seismic data. AVO raised the Level of Concern Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch. Seismicity decreased to background levels within an hour of the explosion. Satellite views the next day were obscured by clouds below 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l.; no signs of ash had been detected above that altitude. The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

USA - Shishaldin volcano (Alaska)

March 15th, 2016

On 10 March AVO reported that there had been a continual decrease in thermal activity at Shishaldin over the past several months; no anomalous activity had been observed in several clear satellite images since 13 January, when moderately elevated surface temperatures were detected. Airwaves generated by low-level explosive degassing had not been detected in infrasound data since 7 February. Low-amplitude seismic tremor was at background levels. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal.
Previously, AVO reported that no anomalous activity at Shishaldin had been observed in satellite data since weakly elevated surface temperatures were detected on 16 October. In addition, low-amplitude seismic tremor continued but was likely not indicative of a continuing eruption. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Advisory. AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be slightly elevated over background levels during 11-17 November, indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater continued. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. The beautifully symmetrical volcano of Shishaldin is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes of the Aleutian Islands. The 2,857-m-high, glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. Constructed atop an older glacially dissected volcano, Shishaldin is Holocene in age and largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the W and NE sides at 1,500-1,800 m elevation. Shishaldin contains over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of Strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, sometimes producing lava flows, have been recorded since the 18th century.

*********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

Pu'u' O'o cone ( Kilauea ) - HVO -

ITALY - Etna volcano ( Sicily)

August 11th, 2016

INGV reported that during mid-July weak ash emissions rose from a vent located high on the E flank of Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. The emissions continued periodically until early August. Pulsating glow from mild, intra-crater explosions in the Voragine (VOR) crater was recorded during 7-9 August.Previously, On 22 May a vent on the upper E flank of New Southeast Crater cone produced a series of ash emissions which rose several hundred meters above the summit and dispersed. Some of the emissions had a thermal signature, indicating the presence of hot material. That evening Strombolian activity resumed at NEC; the rate and intensity of the activity fluctuated through the night. The strongest explosions ejected incandescent bombs up to a few hundred meters above the crater rim and onto the flanks. On 23 May sporadic ash emissions continued from the vent on the upper E flank of the New Southeast Crater cone. New powerful paroxysm at Voragine Crater of Mount Etna Volcano, Sicily. In the night, lava fountains and explosions from the Voragine Crater, in a astonishing scenario, with the fresh snow fallen on 20th of May on the Volcano. The tremor is increased again during the day of 20 May, and strombolian activity has taken place. The peak of the 3 peak in 72 hours was reached in the early morning of May 21, unfortunately obscured by clouds and ash obscuring webcams. sources. thermal camera also recorded activity from a vent in the S portion of Northeast Crater (NEC). Observers noted that a fracture had formed on the SE flank of the central cone. In addition, an effusive vent in the saddle between the cone and the old cone of the Southeast Crater produced a small lava flow that traveled towards the Valle del Leone. Activity decreased around 0500 and was over at about 0600. During the afternoon of 18 May 2016, the lava fountaining activity from Etna's Voragine crater passed into a modest Strombolian activity, which continued to feed the lava overflow toward west until the late evening. A second lava flow, which was emitted from an effusive vent located near the lower of the two conelets formed during the subterminal activity of July-August 2014, at the eastern base of the Northeast Crater (NEC), expanded into the northern portion of the Valle del Bove in the direction of Monte Simone. This lava flow remained active until the early morning hours of today, 19 May 2016; its most advanced front seemed to be stagnating after midnight. Shortly before midnight, there was a new increase in the volcanic tremor amplitude, and the clinometer installed at Punta Lucia, about 1 km northwest of the NEC, recorded renewed inflation of the summit area of the volcano.In the morning, the volcanic tremor amplitude showed a sharp increase, and contemporaneously loud and virtually continuous bangs were heard in populated areas to the east and south of the volcano. A dense eruption cloud was blown by the strong wind toward east at an altitude of little more than 1 km above the summit of Etna. Ash and lapilli fell onto the east flank of the volcano, in an narrow sector immediately adjacent to the north to area affected by the tephra fall on the previous day. Observation of the activity was difficult due to rather poor weather conditions; instrumental data - mainly the location of the volcanic tremor source and the origin of the infrasonic signals - indicate that a new paroxysmal episode was underway at the VOR. This was confirmed a few hours later when the images transmitted by the termal monitoring camera EBT (Bronte) revealed a new lava overflow toward west, feeding a lava flow that descended on top of the lava of the previous evening. Eruptive activity was continuing at 09:00 local time, though the volcanic tremor amplitude was diminishing. At the time this update goes online, the inclement weather conditions are preventing observation of the activity going on at Etna's summit. Previously, Based on INGV webcam views, and VONA and SIGMET notices, the Toulouse VAAC reported a small eruption at Etna on 31 March which ended the next day. Previously INGV reported that during January eruptive activity at Etna was at low levels. During the last week of January and on 6 February ash emissions rose from a vent located high on the E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. At 0422 on 23 February an explosion at Northeast Crater (NEC) ejected incandescent tephra several tens of meters above the crater rim, and produced a dark ash plume that drifted NE. A camera recorded lightning flashes in the plume. Weak ash emission rose from the crater during the rest of the morning. INGV reported that after intense activity at Etna's Voragine Crater, Bocca Nuova, and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) during the first 10 days of December, activity shifted to the Northeast Crater (NEC). During 9-10 December Strombolian activity was detected at NEC, with a few ejected incandescence bombs falling onto the outer flank and abundant ash emissions. Activity gradually diminished over a few days. On 13 December ash emissions rose from NSEC and on 18 December the Voragine Crater produced two brief ash emissions. Ash emissions began at 1100 on 28 December from a vent located high on the E flank of the NSEC cone. The emissions ceased in the afternoon; very minor and sporadic explosions continued from the same vent during the following days. INGV reported that grayish-brown ash plumes rose from Etna's Northeast Crater on 9 December and drifted SE. Seismicity had significantly decreased. During the evening of 5 December activity at Voragine Crater progressively diminished. Between 0300 and 0400 on 6 December surveillance cameras recorded the onset of vigorous Strombolian activity from the vent on the E flank of the NSEC cone. Repeated collapses of both old and new material from the cone's flank generated hot avalanches that traveled a few hundred meters E towards the Valle del Bove. Ongoing effusive activity through the day produced two lava flows; one advanced NE for less than 1 km and the other advanced E. Strombolian activity continued through the evening. On 7 December a second vent on the E part of NSEC was also active, and the main lava flow had advanced 4 km. During the early morning hours of 8 December Strombolian activity progressively diminished and then ended. Later that afternoon weak Strombolian activity and ash emission were observed at the Northeast Crater. INGV reported that after a progressive intensification of activity during the evening of 2 December, an eruption at Etna's Voragine Crater peaked between 0330 and 0410 on 3 December. During the peak period sustained lava fountains rose over 1 km above the crater with some jets of hot material rising 3 km high. An ash plume rose several kilometers high and drifted NE, causing ashfall in Linguaglossa, Francavilla di Sicilia, Milazzo, Messina, and Reggio Calabria. Activity had almost ceased by dawn. This event was among the largest in the last 20 years, similar to large events occurring at the same crater on 22 July 1998 and 4 September 1999. At about 1000 on 4 December renewed activity at Voragine Crater was characterized by tall lava fountains and an ash plume that rose 7-8 km high. The ash plume had a mushrooming top and produced deposits of coarse-grained pyroclastic material on the upper SW flank above 2 km elevation. Ashfall was reported in Giarre-Zafferana Etnea on the E flank. The activity was accompanied by frequent ash emissions from a new pit crater that had recently opened on the upper E flank of the New Southeast Crater (NSEC) cone. Two more events occurred at Voragine Crater during 4-5 December, between 2130 and 2215 on 4 December and 1555 and 1635 on 5 December, again producing tall lava fountains and many-kilometer-high ash plumes. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur at Etna. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more of the three prominent summit craters, the Central Crater, NE Crater, and SE Crater (the latter formed in 1978). Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank. (webcam). . www.ct.ingv.it . Live cam Etna - Etna monitoring page - New Etna Southwest crater webcam

ITALY - Stromboli volcano (Eolian Islands)

August 28th, 2016

INGV reported that although unfavorable weather conditions often obscured views of the active vents at Stromboli during 16-22 August, some of the hourly explosions were recorded by a webcam. Explosions mainly occurred from two vents in the S part of the crater and one vent in the N part. Low-to-medium intensity explosions from the N vent ejected coarse material
mixed with ash. The S vents were variably active, with some explosions ejecting coarse material tens of meters above the crater rim. The report noted that the rate of explosions, geochemistry, and seismicity were all at low, normal levels for Stromboli, with the exception of an increased number and intensity of very-long-period earthquakes on 22 August.
Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean."Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout historical time. The small, 926-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a horseshoe-shaped scarp formed as a result of slope failure that extends to below sea level and funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli since Roman times.www.ct.ingv.it

*****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

Iceland - Katla volcano

September 1st, 2016

The Iceland Met Office (IMO) reported that seismic activity within Katla's caldera had increased in mid-June and then began to decline. On 29 August two earthquakes of about M 4.5 occurred in the NE part of the caldera, the largest earthquakes detected at Katla since 1977. The ensuing swarm that same day produced over 100 earthquakes, the largest of which was M 3.3. Seismicity was low after the swarm had ended. Throughout the summer, electrical conductivity levels in the Múlakvísl River, which drains from the E side of the Mýrdalsjökull glacier that covers Katla, had remained unusually high, reflecting a constant source of geothermal meltwater. There had also been frequent reports of a sulfur odor close to Múlakvísl; gas measurements near the source of Múlakvísl revealed unhealthy levels of hydrogen sulfide, also indicating high concentrations of geothermal fluids. IMO noted that the recent earthquake activity does not appear to have significantly affected conductivity levels in Múlakvísl. IMO stated that summertime increases in caldera seismicity are an almost annual occurrence at Katla, often associated with the drainage of geothermal meltwater causing minor floods in glacial rivers from Mýrdalsjökull. Katla volcano, located near the southern end of Iceland's eastern volcanic zone, is hidden beneath the Myrdalsjökull icecap. The subglacial basaltic-to-rhyolitic volcano is one of Iceland's most active and is a frequent producer of damaging jökulhlaups, or glacier-outburst floods. A large 10 x 14 km subglacial caldera with a long axis in a NW-SE direction is up to 750 m deep. Its high point reaches 1380 m, and three major outlet glaciers have breached its rim. Although most historical eruptions have taken place from fissures inside the caldera, the Eldgjá fissure system, which extends about 60 km to the NE from the current ice margin towards Grímsvötn volcano, has been the source of major Holocene eruptions. An eruption from the Eldgjá fissure system about 934 CE produced a voluminous lava flow of about 18 cu km, one of the world's largest known Holocene lava flows. Katla has been the source of frequent subglacial basaltic explosive eruptions that have been among the largest tephra-producers in Iceland during historical time and has also produced numerous dacitic explosive eruptions during the Holocene.

ICELAND - Bardarbunga volcano

April 28th, 2015

On 26 April the Icelandic Met Office (IMO) lowered the Aviation Color Code for Bardarbunga to Green (the lowest on a four-color scale). No further signs of unrest had been noted since the end of the eruption on 27 February; seismicity within the caldera and the associated dyke intrusion continued to decline.Previously, the Icelandic Met Office reported that the eruption at Bárdarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, which began on 31 August 2014, had ended on 27 February; the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow. During an overflight scientists did not see any incandescence from the vents, although gas emissions persisted. Radar measurements showed that no increase in the extent of the lava field had been detected since mid-February.During 17-19 February, Icelandic Met Office reported continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, though the overall intensity of the eruption continued to decrease. Only one active vent was present in the crater, and the lava level in that crater continued to sink. The eruption plume rose no more than 1 km above the ground and drifted NE, and the lava channel was crusted over beyond the uppermost 200-300 m. The lava tube continued to feed the N and NE parts of Holuhraun, inflating the lava field. The reduced effusion rate was no longer able to sustain active breakouts in an area 17-18 km ENE from the vent. A 24 February report noted that the rate of subsidence was less than 2 cm per day and lava flows decreased substantially. Seismic activity continued to decrease although it was still considered to be strong. During 11-17 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; the overall activity was persistent, but lower compared to recent weeks and months. Seismicity remained strong. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted and GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 85 square kilometers on 14 February; measurements from 4 and 12 February showed almost no changes in the extent of the field. During 4-10 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. A 6 February statement noted that although there was a visible reduction in activity during the previous two weeks, seismicity remained strong. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted and GPS easurements showed that subsidence continued.During 27 January-3 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, with a lava-flow rate of about 100 cubic meters per second. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. On 27 January the plume rose an estimated 1.3 km. A map made on 21 January showed that the lava field was thickening and not expanding significantly; the erupted volume was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers (15% uncertainty). During 21-27 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Ba¡rdarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded along the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Very high values of sulfur dioxide, about 84,000 mµg/m3, were recorded at the eruption site on 21 January; this value was the highest recorded at ground level since the eruption started. Total subsidence of the Bárdarbunga surface since mid-August was 61 m, and the volume of erupted lava was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers. The lava field covered 84.7 square kilometers on 22 January. A report issued on 27 January stated that the average rate of lava emission during the previous three weeks was just less than 100 cubic meters per second, herefore the intensity of the eruption was slowly decreasing.During 14-20 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.3 square kilometers on 15 January. During 7-13 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.1 square kilometers on 10 January. During 31 December-6 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Subsidence continued at a rate of 25 cm/day. The lava field covered 83.4 square kilometers on 6 January. Preliminary analysis of radar measurements taken during an overflight on 30 December showed that the lava is on average 10 m thick in the E part, 12 m thick at the center, and about 14 m in the W part. The maximum thickness, near the craters, was about 40 m at the E margin of the lava lake. A preliminary estimate for the volume of the lava was 1.1 cubic kilometers. Total subsidence of the Ba¡rdarbunga surface since mid-August was 59 m. During 24-30 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. The lava field covered 82.8 square kilometers as of 29 December.During 10-16 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. A decreased rate of subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued. The lava field covered just over 78.6 square kilometers on 15 December.During 3-9 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection reviewed data from the beginning of the eruption on 31 August to 3 December and found a decreased rate of subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera from up to 80 cm/day to 25 cm/day, with most of the subsidence concentrated at the center of the caldera. Data also showed a decline in the intensity of the eruption at Holuhraun, although seismic activity remained strong. After 100 eruptive days the lava field covered just over 76 square kilometers on 9 December, making it the largest lava field in Iceland since the Laki eruption (1783-1784). Additionally, the gas emissions have had an impact all over Iceland for the first time in 150 years.During 26 November-2 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Based on a field report from 25 or 26 November the activity was characterized as pulsating; lava surged from the vent for 2-3 minutes, every 5-10 minutes, causing bulges in the upper parts of the lava channel. Measurements obtained during an overflight on 26 November indicated that the total amount of subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera was about 50 m, with an estimated volume of 1.4 cubic kilometers. The rate of subsidence in the center of the caldera had decreased slowly compared to the first month of the eruption. Observers in Dyngjusandur, NE of the vent, photographed the plume at 1441 on 27 November and indicated that the top of the plume was 3.1 km above Dyngjusandur, and the base of the aerosol-laden lower part of the plume was about 1.4 km above the sand plain. A thermal image from 1 December showed several changes to the lava field: in just over 24 hours a new lava extrusion at the NE margin traveled 450 m; a new flow traveled N, just W of the lava lake; and a new flow was forming S of the lava lake, and then to the E of that flow. The lava field covered just over 75 square kilometers on 1 December. During 18-25 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; FLIR thermal images of the craters on 18 November showed that the most intense area of thermal convection was at the northern part of the eruption site, called Heimasjta. Lava flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. On 20 November observers characterized the eruption as pulsating explosions in the crater every 10-15 minutes, followed by a gush of lava down the main channel with splashing on either side During 12-18 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; lava from the lava lake in the main vent, Baugur Crater, flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Seismicity remained strong, although a report on 14 November noted that the number of earthquakes over M 5 seemed to be decreasing. The lava field covered 71.9 square kilometers on 14 November.During 5-11 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued, and seismicity remained strong. The lava field was 60 square kilometers on 9 November. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted.During 29 October-4 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued; by 31 October the depression was about 42 m. The lava field was 65.7 square kilometers on 31 October. As of the 28th of october, effusive activity is still continuing. Lava is still issuing and is covering about 0.79km2/day. caldera subsidence continued at a rate 50cm per day. During 15-21 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued at a rate of 30-40 cm per day, concentrated in the NE part of the caldera, and on 15 October was an estimated 0.75 cubic kilometers. On 18 October a M 5.4 earthquake was detected at 0940 in N Bardarbunga making it one of the biggest earthquakes since the start of the eruption. The lava field continued to grow and the lava production continued at the same rate; the lava field was 60.7 square kilometers on 19 October. From 15th to 16th of October seismic activity increased. About 130 earthquakes were recorded. Lava flows are still running to the North ans to the East. During 8-14 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued. The lava field continued to grow, with lava production unchanged. Seismic activity was low in the N part of the dyke and around the eruption site.During 1-7 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continued. Seismic activity at the N part of the dyke and around the vents declined, although the lava field continued to grow and lava production continued at the same output. Lava field measured more than 50 km2. On 5 October a new lava front at the S edge of the main lava flow advanced E. During 23-30 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Ba¡rdarbunga caldera continued and had reached 27-28 m by 24 September. On 29 September the subsidence rate slowed slightly and was about 40 cm per 24 hours. Lava production continued at the same rate; the lava field was 46 square kilometers on 30 September. During 17-23 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Chemical analysis and geophysical modeling indicated that the source of the magma was at a depth of more than 10 km. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bardarbunga caldera and crustal movements signified that the volume of magma in the dyke slightly increased. On 21 September the lava field measured 37 square kilometers. Field scientists estimated that about 90% of the sulfur dioxide gas from the eruption originated at the active craters and the rest rose from the lava field. Dead birds were also found around the eruption site. A report on 22 September noted that the total volume of the erupted lava was 0.4-0.6 cubic kilometers and the flow rate was 250-350 cubic meters per second. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bárdarbunga caldera; the volume of the depression was an estimated 0.6 cubic kilometers on 23 September During 10-16 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Lava flows continued to advance at a consistent rate toward the E and W, and by 13 September, the lava field measured 24.5 km2. The main flow had entered the river bed of Jokkuls Follum and continued to follow its course; steam rose from the river where the lava was in contact but no explosive activity occurred. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bardarbunga caldera; approximately 23 m of total subsidence was measured during a survey on 14 September. Seismicity persisted mainly around the caldera and the Dyngjujokull glacier. The largest earthquakes, M 5.5, M 5.3, and M 5.0, were detected on 10, 11, and 15 September respectively. IMO reported continued elevated SO2 emissions during 10-16 September and issued warnings to the public in the municipality of Fjarjarbyggen on 13 September. As of the 4th of September in the afternoon IMO reported that eruptive activity was continuing. Lava fountaining slightly increased during previous hours et lava emissions continued. (total covered surface is now about 10.8 km2. Lava tongue strench about 4km distance to the Northeast. During the past hour a graben formed below the Dynjujokull icecap. The seismicity remained at a high level. As of the 3rd of September, IMO reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing and characterized by small lava fountaining above the central part of the fissure and lava flows emissions around. In the morning the lava rate emisssions was 150 m3/s. The surface covered from the beginning of the eruptive phase is 6,5 km2 and the total volume between 30-40 millions/m3 (about 1/10 of the estimated dyke volume). Seismic activity remained important and a strong eartquakes mag 5.5. occurred in the morning located close the caldera. During 27 August-2 September the Icelandic Met Office reported ongoing seismic activity at Bárdarbunga volcano. On 27 August an overflight showed a 4-6-km-long row of cauldrons 10-15 m in diameter S of Bárdarbunga. The Aviation Color Code remains at Orange. As of the 1st of September in the morning , IMO reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing, characterized by lava fountaining and lava flows emission along the fissure. As of the 31st of August IMO reported that a new eruptive phase (second one) started probably on Sunday early morning. At 5:49 AM webcam showed an eruptive activity at the same place of the previous activity along the fissure. Eruptive activity was characterized by lava fountaining and lava flows emissions. Seismic activity remained important, mainly concentrated along a - 15 km line strenching from from Dynjujokull icecap to the area of the 29th of August eruption. As of the 30th of August, IMO reported that the first fissural eruptive phase ended. The new bulletin reported that the eruptive activity culminated between 00:40 AM - 1:00 AM, then dropped. At about 4:00 AM the short lava flows were not longer supplied. Alert level lowered from red to orange. Previously, as of the 29th of August, IMO reported that an 100 m -long eruptive fissure opened at midnight at about 10 km North Vatnajokull. Webcam images showed red glowing and small lava fountaining above the basaltic fissure. Later bulletin reported that the fissure strenched 400 m to 1 km long. The activity dropped at 2:40 AM . On the morning webcam showed only a small gas plume issued from the fissure. On 26 August the location of the seismicity was located primarily along the 10 km long tip of the dike that extended 5 km beyond the glacier margin. During 22-26 August several earthquakes in the 4.7-5.7 magnitude range had been detected at or near the volcano. On 23 August seismic tremor indicated a small lava-eruption 150-400 m beneath the Dyngjuj0kull glacier, prompting a change in the Aviation Color Code to Red. On 24 August observations from an overflight indicated there was no eruption and the Aviation Color Code was changed to Orange. However the seismic activity remains important with 700 eathquakes from Sunday 00 AM to 2:30 pm (two with more than 5 in magnitude). As of the 23rd of August, RUV reported that a possible mall sub-glacial volcanic eruption has started near Bardarbunga volcano, under the icecap of Dyngjujökull glacier in the northern part of Vatnajökull Glacier, according to the Icelandic Met Office. All air traffic is now prohibited in a large radius around the volcano. The National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police has raised the alert phase to emergency phase accordingly. Furthermore, the Met Office has raised the aviation color code from orange to red resulting in the air space above the eruption site being closed. The eruption is considered a minor event at this point. Because of a pressure from the glacier cap it is uncertain whether the eruption will stay sub-glacial or not. The Coast Guards aircraft, TF-Sif, is currently monitoring the area and there are no visible signs of a plume at this moment. Nothing indicates floods because of the eruption. At this stage measurements taken are based on a small event. The Jökulsárgljúfur canyon has been closed and evacuation of tourists in that area and around Dettifoss waterfall has started. The situation at this stage does not call for evacuation of habitants in Kelduhverfi, Öxarfjördur and Núpasveit. People in those areas are encouraged to watch news closely and have their mobiles switched on at all times.This story, by the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV), was updated on 23 August 2014, at 15.13 GMT - Previously, during 13-19 August the Icelandic Met Office reported increased seismic activity at Bardarbunga volcano. On 16 August more than 200 earthquakes were reported under the NW Vatnajokull ice cap, and GPS stations have shown an increasing signal upward and away from the volcano since early June 2014. On 16 August the Aviation Color code was increased to Yellow. On 18 August the Icelandic Met Office reported an earthquake swarm to the E and another to the N of Bardarbunga. A M4 earthquake was recorded that was the strongest in the region since 1996. By 18 August there had been 2,600 earthquakes detected at the volcano; earthquake locations from N and E swarms had been migrating NE, but in the evening activity of the N swarm had decreased significantly. That same day the Aviation Color code was raised to Orange. The large central volcano of Bárdarbunga lies beneath the NW part of the Vatnajokull icecap, NW of Grimsvotn volcano, and contains a subglacial 700-m-deep caldera. Related fissure systems include the Veidivotn and Trollagigar fissures, which extend about 100 km SW to near Torfajokull volcano and 50 km NE to near Askja volcano, respectively. Voluminous fissure eruptions, including one at Thjorsarhraun, which produced the largest known Holocene lava flow on Earth with a volume of more than 21 cu km, have occurred throughout the Holocene into historical time from the Veidivotn fissure system. The last major eruption of Veidivotn, in 1477, also produced a large tephra deposit. The subglacial Loki-Fogrufjoll volcanic system located SW of Bárdarbunga volcano is also part of the Bárdarbunga volcanic system and contains two subglacial ridges extending from the largely subglacial Hamarinn central volcano; the Loki ridge trends to the NE and the Fogrufjoll ridge to the SW. Jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods) from eruptions at Bardarbunga potentially affect drainages in all directions. ( Icelandic Met Office) - Webcam and seismic recording

ICELAND - Grimsvotn volcano

September 16th, 2016

On 8 September the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) stated that the water level of the Skaftla river at Sveinstindur (the closest gauging station at 28 km downstream from the ice margin) rose significantly in the previous 24 hours, suggesting the beginning of a glacial outburst flood (jokulhlaup), originating from Grimsvotn's Western Skaftla ice cauldron. The discharge rate of Skaftla at Sveinstindur was 270 m³/s. IMO warned that hydrogen sulfide released from the floodwater as it drains is particularly potent at the river outlet from the ice margin, where concentrations may reach poisonous levels. On 23 June the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) stated that the water level of the Skafta river at Sveinstindur (the closest gauging station at 28 km downstream from the ice margin) and electrical conductivity both rose in recent days, indicating the beginning of a glacial outburst flood (jokulhlaup), originating from Grimsvotn's Western Skafta ice cauldron. The western ice cauldron last drained in June 2015. The discharge rate of Skafta at Sveinstindur was 112 m³/s. IMO warned that hydrogen sulfide released from the floodwater as it drains is particularly potent at the river outlet from the ice margin, where concentrations may reach poisonous levels. Grimsvotn, Iceland's most frequently active volcano in historical time, lies largely beneath the vast Vatnajokull icecap. The caldera lake is covered by a 200-m-thick ice shelf, and only the southern rim of the 6 x 8 km caldera is exposed. The geothermal area in the caldera causes frequent jokulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) when melting raises the water level high enough to lift its ice dam. Long NE-SW-trending fissure systems extend from the central volcano. The most prominent of these is the noted Laki (Skaftar) fissure, which extends to the SW and produced the world's largest known historical lava flow during an eruption in 1783. The 15-cu-km basaltic Laki lavas were erupted over a 7-month period from a 27-km-long fissure system. Extensive crop damage and livestock losses caused a severe famine that resulted in the loss of one-fifth of the population of Iceland. (GVN/GVP) - Icelandic volcanoes data base


******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

CAPE VERDE - Brava volcano island

August 11th, 2016

According to the Universidade de Cabo Verde in a report posted on 4 August, Instituto Nacional da Meteorologia e Geofisica (INMG) recorded increased seismicity at Brava beginning at dawn on 2 August. In response authorities evacuated 300 people, based on a news report. Earthquakes were felt by residents during 3-4 August. Scientists and technicians from the
Universidade de Cabo Verde (UniCV), Instituto Vulcanologico das Canarias (INVOLCAN), and Serviso Nacional da Protecion Civil (SNPC) began monitoring carbon dioxide emissions though found nothing unusual during 4-7 August. . Brava Island, 20 km west of Fogo, is the westernmost of the southern Cape Verde islands. The 10-km-wide island contains 15
morphologically youthful craters located along two or three lineaments intersecting along the crest of the island. The youthfulness of the craters and numerous minor earthquakes in recent years indicate that a significant volcanic hazard still exists (Wolff and Turbeville, 1985). Most of the younger eruptions originated from the interaction of phonolitic magmas with a large groundwater reservoir contained within an older volcanic series characterized by thick welded ignimbrites and block-and-ash flow deposits. Carbonatitic lavas are also found on Brava.

************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

 

FRANCE - Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion island)

September 18th, 2016

As of the 18th of September, OVPF reported that volcanic tremor at Piton de la Fournaise stabilized during 14-17 September. Field observations on 15 September revealed that the two volcanic cones that had formed on the lower part of the fissures had begun to coalesce. Lava from the northernmost cone flowed N and NE, and by 0900, was active midway between Piton Partage and Nez Coupé de Sainte Rose. The height of the lava fountains grew in the afternoon, rising as high as 60 m, likely from activity ceasing at the southernmost cone and focusing at one main cone. On 16 September the main cone continued to build around a 50-m-high lava fountain; lava flows from this vent traveled NE. Tremor rose during the night on 17 September, and then fell sharply at 0418 on 18 September, indicating the end of surficial activity. During 11-18 September the erupted volume was an estimated 7 million m3. . As of the 11th of September a bulletin of the OVPLF reported that seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise was low in August, following an elevated number of volcano-tectonic events the second half of July. Gas emissions were low and dominated by water vapor; CO2 emissions had been elevated during 21-27 July. Inflation had stopped in early August and slight deflation was detected through 2 September. Seismicity increased on 10 September, and elevated levels of SO2 at fumaroles were detected. A seismic crisis began at 0735 on 11 September, characterized by several earthquakes per minute. Deformation suggested magma migrating to the surface. Volcanic tremor began at 0841, synonymous with the beginning of the eruption. Several fissures opened in the N part of the l'Enclos Fouqué caldera, between Puy Mi-côte and the July 2015 eruption site, and produced a dozen 15-30-m-high lava fountains distributed over several hundred meters. Tremor levels decreased by a factor of four, and by 2100 were stable. The eruption continued on 12 September.
Previous eruption - As of the 27 th of May 2016, a bulletin ot the OVPLF reported that following a decreasing of the volcanic tremor at 8:45 AM the eruption ended at about 11 AM and only degassing was occurring. As of the 26th of May, OVPLF reported that following the increasing of the seismicity and deformation yesterday 25th opf May a volcanic tremor occurred at 11.40 pm and a new eruption started on Thursday 26th of May around 8:05 (6:05 Metropolitan hour) with a magma projection probably close the Château Fort area crater, but bad weather prevented for the time to visually confirm the eruption. The prefecture of the meeting initiated therefore "warning 2-2 Plan 'ORSEC Volcano': ongoing eruption." public access to the areas affected by the eruption "is prohibited until further notice." According local new a new scories cone was growing at 1850 m elevation at about 1-1,5 km from crater Chateau-Fort due to lava fountaining falls; The eruptive activity wasz still continuiing in the evening. - Previous 2015 eruptive activity - As of the 31st of October 2015 OVPDLF reported that the eruptive activity ended suddently at 4:17 pm; The eruptive tremor dropped rapidly within 2 mn time. On 31st of october at 5 pm no lava fountains and strombolian explosions were visible from new Piton Kalla and Pelé. Previously, as of the 30th of October, eruptive activity was still continuing characterized by slight glowing within the new cone.OVPDLF reported that on 29 October the seismic network at Piton de la Fournaise detected a clear increase in background noise, interpreted as tremor. At about 0400 the tremor became continuous and relatively strong. Lava fountains were visible in one of the vents. OVPDLF reported that the effusive phase of the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise seemed ended at 0802 on 19 October; around the same time tremor started to increase, and then gradually increased again starting at 0800 on 22 October. Observers reported that a small explosion in the vent ejected spatter. Previous news - Activity continued to increase on 17 October. The cone continued to grow; the base was 100 m in diameter and it was about 40 m high. Parts of the cone rim continued to collapse, and a notch in the rim allowed for periodic lava-lake overflows. OVPDLF reported that on 12 October there was a strong increase in tremor intensity at Piton de la Fournaise, with values reaching or exceeding those detected during the first few hours of the beginning of the eruption (24 August). A strong increase in sulfur dioxide emissions was also detected by a ground-based DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer); values on 2 October were 205 tonnes per day (t/d) and values on 12 October were 1,990 t/d. A satellite-based sensor recorded 1,138 t/d during 13-14 October which was twice the amount measured on 24 August. The satellite-based lava-flow rate on 14 October was 12 m³/s, consistent with model data. Strain measurements showed deflation. Several small ephemeral vents across the lava field produced lava flows, and in many instances hornitos were present at these vents. A hornito SW of the cone ejected spatter during 13-14 October.OVPDLF reported that seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise continued to slowly increase during 1-9 October, and deformation data showed a trend of deflation since 27 September. Inclement weather inhibited gas flow measurements; the few measurements taken showed continued sulfur dioxide emissions and a significant increase in water vapor emissions. During 6-9 October the lava lake remained active; bursting gas bubbles ejected lava onto the edges of the 30-35-m-high cone. Pahoehoe lava flows issued from ephemeral vents on lava tubes, and in many instances hornitos were present at these vents. Lava was active as far as 2.5 km from the base of the cone and burned vegetation near the base of Piton de Bert. The lava-flow rate peaked at 11 m³/s during 1-4 October then returned to the previous rate of 5-10 m³/s. On 7 October lava flowed out of a breach in the cone. As of the 8th of October, eruptive activity is still continuing. OVPDLF reported that seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise slowly increased during 24 September-2 October, and deformation data showed a trend of deflation since 27 September. Inclement weather inhibited gas flow measurements; the few measurements taken showed a slight increase in sulfur dioxide emissions. During fieldwork on 27 September volcanologists noted continuous lava fountains. Small lava flows were active, though the fronts of the two larger ones were not progressing. As of the 2nd of October, OVPDLF reported that the eruption is still continuing, 40 days from the beginning of the volcanic activity. On 24 September OVPDLF reported that, since 20 September, seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions at Piton de la Fournaise stabilized but remained at high levels. The cone was 30 m high; lava fountains were lower and less frequently observed. A white water vapor plume rose from the vents. Lava flows continued to be active, mainly traveling as far as 3 km S and less than 3 km E. During 22-23 September a new lava tube formed to the W of the lava field. Since the beginning of the eruption deformation data indicated no deflation. Early on in the eruption the flow rate decreased from 60 cubic meters per second to between 5 and 10; the rate declined during 28 August-7 September and then increased again, starting on 7 September. On 14 September OVPDLF reported that during the previous several days seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions at Piton de la Fournaise intensified. Tremor levels fluctuated. The two lava lakes separated by a partition in a single vent remained active. Lava flows emerged from and were active beyond a 50-100 m lava tube; the largest lava flows were not longer than 1.5 km. By 17 September seismic activity, deformation, and gas emissions had stabilized, and only one lava lake was active. As of the 15th of September OVPDLF reported that eruptive activity increased. since several days, gas emission, seismicity and deformation increased. Several ephemeral vents are visible on the active fissure. The longest lava flows is running to about 1,5 km-long. lPDLF reported that scientists conducting fieldwork at Piton de la Fournaise during 31 August-1 September observed one active cone (20 m high) filled with a lava lake. Fluctuating lava fountains rose 15-20 m above the lake surface and gas bubbles exploded. Lava traveled through a 50-m-long lava channel and was a total of 1 km long. During 1-2 September seismicity increased, and the lava flow length increased to 2 km. Tremor remained high on 5 September. The lava lake was in two separate but side-by-side vents and lava fountains were lower compared to recent days. Five small lava flows were near the foot of the cone; four were 30 m long and the fifth was 1 km long. Tremor levels started to decline on 7 September but remained at a high level through 9 September.OVPDLF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise fluctuated during 26-27 August, causing variations in the height of the lava fountains and emissions. One vent remained active, and lava flows from that vent traveled at least as far as 3.5 km. At daybreak on 28 August a small plume rose 400 m and drifted S; inclement weather prevented views during most of the day. During an overflight the next day, scientists observed two growing cinder cones housing lava lakes and lava fountains. An 'a'a lava flow was active, and a large gas plume rose 3 km. On 24 August OVPDLF reported continued deformation and an increase in seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise during the previous several days, and a significant increase in seismicity that morning. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions increased at 1600, and at 1711 the seismic and deformation network indicated a magmatic intrusion. Lava fountains were visible at 1850 from a fissure on the S flank of Dolomieu Crater, at about 2000 m elevation, near Rivals Crater. The fissure ropagated towards the top of Rivals, and at around 2115 a fissure opened to the NW, below Bory Crater. The lava-flow rate was 30-60 cubic meters per second. By the next morning fountains at higher elevations ceased, and were only active from a 100-m-long section near Rivals Crater. The lava flow rate had significantly decreased to 10 cubic meters per second. Near the top of the active fissure a 140-m-high cone had formed.Previous news - As of the 2nd of August, OVPDLF reported that at 1115 on 2 August tremor stopped, after several hours of fluctuating intensity, and lava was no longer being effused.Eruptive activity ended. It was the third erupive activity since early 2015. Previously, OVPDLF reported that a sharp increase in seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise, increased gas emissions, and deformation recorded on 30 July prompted an Alert Level increase and an evacuation. A fissure eruption began the next day at 0920, preceded by 90 minutes of high seismicity and 80 minutes of major deformation; it was confirmed by a hiker and then by observation of a gas plume. A 1-km-long fissure opened in the NE part of the l'Enclos Fouqué caldera and produced dozens of lava fountains. Based on satellite images and gas data the flow rate was estimated to be 28 cubic meters per second initially and then 11 cubic meters per second later that day. A gas plume rose to altitudes of 3.2-3.5 km (10,500-11,500 ft) a.s.l. By the evening there were only five fountains, and a lava flow had traveled as far E as Plaine desmondes (NE part of the caldera). According to a news article, lava fountains were 40 m high, forming 20-m-high cones on 31 July. At 1115 on 2 August tremor stopped, after several hours of fluctuating intensity, and lava was no longer being effused. PREVIOUS ERUPTION - As of the 30th of May, OVPDLF reported that following slow tremor decreasing since 27th of May, the eruption stopped at about 8:50 PM on 30th of May.During the 13 days of eruptive activity about 8 millions/m3 were emitted. OVPDLF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise that began on 17 May continued through 26 May. After a peak on 17 May, sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated but had gradually decreased overall. Lava-flow rates estimated by satellite data had also fluctuated but showed an overall decrease from 24.2 cubic meters per second on 17 May to 2.5 cubic meters per second on 21 May. During 21-22 May observers reported large variations in activity, including increasing heights of the lava fountain (over 50 m high), collapsing parts of the newly formed cinder cone, and a new very fluid lava flow adjacent to the main flow. During an overflight on 23 May scientists observed a large blue sulfur dioxide plume above the vent, lower lava fountains, a smaller vent in the cone, and the presence of a lava tube about 200 m downstream of the vent. During 24-25 May activity remained unchanged; low lava fountains and low-level lava flows persisted. As of the 22nd of May, eruptive activity was still continuing from main active vent. Activity remained stable during the past days.Lava front flows was at about 1000 m elevation and 3.5 km from the road. Seimic activity remained elevated. On 18 May only one fissure was active and the SSW-drifting gas plume was much smaller. Hydrogen sulfide emissions continued to be high, and carbon dioxide emissions increased. Lava fountains from a single vent along the second fissure, further E, rose 40-50 m. The lava flow had traveled 4 km, reaching an elevation of 1.1 km. Three field observations occurred on 19 May; scientists observed lava fountains 20-30 m high, and the advancing lava flow which had traveled 750 m in the previous day, reaching 1 km elevation.Previously, OVPDLF reported that during 4-16 May the number and magnitude of earthquakes at Piton de la Fournaise increased, and inflation was detected at the base of the summit cone. Gas emissions intensified; specifically hydrogen sulfide emissions increased on 5 May after a peak of sulfur dioxide values on 3 May. A seismic crisis was detected on 17 May. Between 1100 and 1230 the network detected 200 volcano-tectonic events, and then at 1250 a more intense seismic crisis began. Significant deformation at the crater rim was detected and a few minutes later, at 1345, an eruption started outside and SE of Dolomieu crater in the Castle crater area. Visual confirmation occurred 15 minutes later as clouds moved away. Volcanologists observed the area and noted lava fountains from three fissures, and two lava flows. A very large gas plume emitted during the first few hours of the eruption rose 3.6-4 km altitude and drifted NW. The fissure furthest W stopped issuing lava fountains before midnight. Previous eruption ended when tremor began to decrease at 1700 on 15 February 2015, intensely fluctuated, and then disappeared around 2230. Incandescence visible with a webcam likely indicated draining lava tubes. Eruptive episode seemed ended on 16th of February. OVPDLF reported that during 11-13 February visibility of the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise that began on 4 February from vents located 100 m outside and to the W of Bory Crater was hampered by poor weather conditions; tremor remained elevated. As of the 10th of February, OVPLF reported that 9 February a vent was still weakly active with small explosions and small splashes of lava. Tremor remained stable and low on 10 February. Previously, OVPDLF reported that 180 earthquakes at Piton de la Fournaise were recorded from 0400 to 0900 on 4 February, including five events greater than M 2. A seismic crisis began at 0910, tremor was recorded at 1050, and an eruption began at 1100. Observers noted that a fissure had opened on the S flank, triggering an Alert Level 2-2 (ongoing eruption) and the restriction of access by the public to the summit area. The fissure was 500 m long, starting from an area located 100 m outside and to the W of Bory Crater. Activity was concentrated on the southernmost part of the fissure. Lava was ejected from the vent about 10 m high and rapidly flowed SSW towards the Rivals Crater, branched, and spread in an area S and SE of the crater. By the late afternoon the farthest-reaching branch had traveled past Cornu Crater. Tremor levels decreased through the day and were relatively low by 1800; on 6 February tremor levels were very low. Small cones had formed over the vents and produced low gas plumes. Inclement weather reduced visibility of the eruption site, although on 8 February observers noted that lava continued to flow from the vents, and another flow traveled further W. Previous short eruption ended on 22nd of June 2014, a morning bulletin from OVPLF reported that the eruptive tremor decreased slowly during the afternoon and probably the eruption ended during the night. OVPDLF reported that an eruption began at Piton de la Fournaise at 0120 on 21 June 2014 following a period of elevated seismicity. This new activity marks the end of more than three years of quiescence. During 7-20 June volcano-tectonic and rockfall-type earthquakes were recorded, with the largest number occurring on 17 June. The locations of these earthquakes were relatively consistent between 500 and 1,200 m a.s.l. within Dolomieu crater. There were neither significant gas emissions nor indicators of pre-eruptive deformation. On 19 June, a field campaign by the Observatory team confirmed the activity detected by the permanent monitoring network (geodetic, thermal, and gas). At 0006 on 21 June the seismic crises escalated and continued for 74 minutes. Localized deformation began at 0020 and continued for ~3 hours. Tremor began at 0120 and incandescence was observed by the remote cameras at 0135. The eruption was entirely contained within the Enclos Fouqué area on the ESE side of the central cone. Aerial observations by helicopter revealed an active lava fountain from a fissure that was within view of the Piton Bert webcamera. The fountaining built a spatter rampart and two lava flows extended ~1.5 km from the fissure. One lava flow extended 250 m after passing the Langlois crater (~2 km SE of Dolomieu crater); the second lava flow passed that crater on the E and S edge and extended an additional 500 m. (OVPLF ) The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Reunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. (OVPF information) - Journal de l'île de la Réunion - ). Live webcam - IPGP

*********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

TANZANIE - Lengai volcano

October 30th, 2012

News and recent photos taken in September 2012 at the summit crater. Previously, as of the 22nd of February 2010 GNN/GVP reported that periodic eruptions from a small fissure and steam emissions from an area of the crater rim next to a part that had collapsed were observed on 11 February, and three fresh black hornitos were noted on the W part of the crater floor, a cone-shaped grey hornito in the middle of the floor and a new black lava flow to the S were seen during 14-15 February. Previous Informations : June-August 2009: a few reports received during the summer, including ones documenting visits in August by Thomas Holden , in July by David Gregson , and in June by Tobias Fischer , indicate that Lengai continues to produce small effusive eruptions within the pit crater. Thomas Holden reported that on his climb in late August (exact date unknown) he saw active lava flows. Tobias Fischer witnessed flows and a small lava lake ~5m in diameter in June.  David Gregson did not see significant activity but heard sounds of activity at depth. Although the activity appears to have returned to the typical eruptions of fluid natrocarbonatite lava for which Lengai is so well known, no samples of the new flows have been obtained for analysis due to their inaccessability deep inside the pit crater.  It is not known how similar the new lava is in composition to the lavas produced prior to the 2007-2008 eruption. (From Fred Belton website) Previous information : qccording to Frederick Belton team which climbed Ol Doinyo Lengai on 18 June 2009reported that the new active cone covered the former crater floor entirely except for an area N of the summit. The new cone's W, N, and E sides stood about 30 m above the rim of the former crater and enclosed a deep crater. The visitors saw a few small vents on the crater's floor. Frequent emissions of ash-poor plumes originated from the SW part of the crater's floor, producing light ashfall. They heard continuous loud rumbling noises, occasional gas-jetting sounds, and rockfalls. As of the 21st of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania erupted on 19th of February, according to an aviation report. Ash was observed to 38,000 ft. Pilots have been advised to avoid flying near the volcano. The activity at Lengai seems to be increasing. In the past two weeks, explosions have ejected ash plumes rising several kilometers. On 15 Feb., Dutch pilots observed and photographed an eruption plume rising to estimated 12 km (36,000 ft). The Toulouse VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by pilots on 15 February and rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. As of the 24th of January, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that a visitor to Ol Doinyo Lengai informed that it erupted on 14 January. According to this visitor "shower of stones" fell at their location about 50 m from the summit and a lava flow went another direction. Typical ash eruption from the new ash cone in the N crater. A small group from Volcano Discovery , local mountain guides and partners stayed near and on Lengai volcano during 17-21 January. During this period, Lengai continued to erupt ash to several 100 metres above the new ash cone during phases lasting several hours alternating with periods of quiet when only a weak plume of very fine gray ash and gas was issuing out of the new ash cone. Photos from an eruptive phase of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano consisting in near continuous ash emissions from its new crater and taken from the summit during a recent expedition in January 2008 have been posted at the Discovery: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/volcano-tours/photos/lengai/0108.html . These photos also document the impressive recent changes on the volcano and help to illustrate the significant hazards present when climbing Lengai or staying at its top. The Toulouse VAAC reported previously that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by visiting scientists on 20 December and rose to an unreported altitude. As of the 20th of October, John Seach has reported that a pilot report indicated an eruption of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania occurred at 0830hrs local time today. An ash plume reached 25,000 ft. altitude, and was visible from a distance of 50 miles. The eruption lasted 30 minutes. As of the 7th of September, according to Matthieu Kervyn De Meerendre, University of Gent (Belgium) has reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai has re-erupted again. A large eruption (?) seems to be taking place at Lengai volcano, this time for real On 4 September 2007, reports started coming in that a large (natrocarbonatite) lava flow is descending the West flank. A considerable ash plume was visible on satellite data. Over 30 thermal anomalies have been detected by the MODIS team since August 23 - more than during the large eruption in March 2006. On 4 and 5 Sep, the thermal anomaly at the summit was extremely strong. From this and satellite imaginery, it seems that there was a short overflow to the East and a major overflow to the West starting on September 1st (it could be a bush fire on the volcano flank ignited by lava). New overflows on 5 Sep seem to be taking place on the W and NW flanks. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep craters walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

CONGO - Nyamulagira volcano

July 3rd, 2014

On 29 June NASA reported that Nyamuragira vented steam and other volcanic gases and there was a glow from the lava lake. NOAA reported that an Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite detected high SO2 concentrations above Nyamuragira. The University of Hawaii reported that Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite
data detected thermal anomalies and issued six MODVOLC alerts for the volcano's N side. Previously, according to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January 2014 showed a gas-and-steam plume rising from Nyamuragira.
Previous 2012 news about last eruption - As of the 28th of January, MODVOLC is still recording thermal anomaly on the volcano and probably the eruptive activity is still going on. (photos from M.Rietze).The initial scoria cone appeared inactive and second cone formed to the N of the first cone. Both cones were about 300 m high. The second cone was extremely active during the duration of the observations (about 15 hours) with fire fountains over twice the height of the cone; lava flowed N. The observers, about 1.5 km away, felt the heat from the eruption as well as lapilli fall. The VolcanoDiscovery Team observed the fissure eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November 2011 during 22-25 January 2012 from the newly formed cinder cones located about 10 km E of the summit crater. They reported three coalescent cones with the largest cone containing a small lava lake. The lake ejected spatter every few seconds as high as 200 m above the summit; individual bombs reached the base of the cone. Lava flows from the vent extended several kilometers N. Numerous small breakouts formed secondary flows, and a large breakout about 2 km N of the cone fed a large lava flow about 20 m wide. Burning forests were reported to the NNE. Satellite imagery acquired on 3 January from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed an active lava flow to the NE of the central vent over the fissure located 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater. A sulfur dioxide-rich plume was also detected.According to OMI data, SO2 plume is still rose above of the volcano suggesting tha the eruption is continued. As of the 8th of December, the eruptive activity is still continuing. Thermal anomaly and gas plume are still visible from satellite image. On 18 November, Virunga National Park reported that lava flows from the eruption along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater had possibly stalled. An observer aboard an overflight a few days before noted that the lava did not appear to have moved any further N. A photo taken from the Rumangabo headquarters (7.5 km NE of the eruption site) on 16 November showed a tall cinder cone with lava fountains rising above the rim. The eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November, after two days of intense seismic activity, was located along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of the main crater, close to one of the 1989 eruption sites. Virunga National Park staff had previously been observing the eruption from a hilltop in Rumangabo, but on 9 November the staff and rangers traveled to the site. After a 3-hour hike, the team viewed the eruption from the S and noted roaring and lava fountains, as well as thunder and lightning. The observers also noted that the ground was covered by black pumice. On 11 November about 100 people, including staff, rangers, carpenters, porters, and volcanologists, traveled to a similar but safer location to set up a camp for visitors. The eruption site was described as a flat area with a 500-1,000-m-long fissure, oriented perpendicular to the Albertine (Western) rift. Lava fountains rose as high as 300 m above a cinder cone. Slow-moving lava traveled N. GORISK noted that radar images acquired on 11 November showed the largest deformation ever detected by the method (InSAR) since the early 1990's over Nyamuragira. A very preliminary analysis of the observed deformation suggested an affected area of more than 250 square kilometers. The ground rose more than 50 cm at the eruptive site where the spatter cone was developing. Another 15 cm of deformation was detected within the Nyamuragira caldera accompanied by deflation on the flanks. Satellite images acquired on 12 November showed that the lava flow had traveled approximately 11.5 km during the six days of the eruption. As of the 15th of November, The eruptive activity was still continuing characterized by lava fountain about 300 m high and lava which overflowed on the North flank of the volcano.(video) .As of the 7th of November, Rangers from the Virunga National Park reported that an eruption began last night on Nyamuragira in the Democratic Republic of Congo in central Africa. The eruption was observed from the park headquarters and it was reported that it appears to be a flank eruption. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira (Also spelled Nyamulagira) is a massive basaltic shield volcano N of Lake Kivu and NW of Nyiragongo volcano. Lava flows from Nyamuragira cover 1,500 sq km of the East African Rift. The 3058-m-high summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km summit caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. About 40 historical eruptions have occurred since the mid-19th century within the summit caldera and from numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano's flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938. Twentieth-century flank lava flows extend more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

CONGO - Nyiragongo

April 25h, 2016

On 12 April the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma reported that activity at Nyiragongo had declined since 6 April, and that the level of the lava lake had dropped. A report dated 17 April stated that some volcanic earthquakes had been located within 5 km E and 10-15 km N of the crater; continuous volcanic tremor was recorded during 0200-0400 on 17 April. In a photo dated 19 April an incandescent vent atop a spatter cone appears to be in the same location as a lava lake that had been first noted on 1 March. Since Monday, February 29, 2016 around 4 AM, we were alerted by the Virunga National park, the operators of the stations and the surrounding population Nyiragongo volcano rumbles heard every minute from the volcano. On urgent request from the provincial committee of security in North Kivu, the team of scientists from the Goma Volcano Observatory sits on the summit of Nyiragongo crater since  March 1st, 2016 until now for direct observations of the activity of the lake lava of the volcano. Preliminary results of these observations are: Appearance of a secondary lava lake on the East side of the crater of Nyiragongo. Weakening of the eastern part; collapses source platforms to the origin of the often heard by the surrounding population rumblings that volcano.   The manifestations of this new secondary active lava lake are in the extension of the fracture that connects the Nyiragongo to its Baruta adventive cone toward to the direction of   Kibumba  zone.   Nyiragongo volcano is in a phase of intense activity and require a particular  attention. This activity is concentrated within the central crater towards the East (towards the Kibumba area) where a new secondary  lava lake is observed. From : PRELIMINARY REPORT OF CURRENT ACTIVITY OF  Nyiragongo VOLCANO FROM  29 FEBRUARY TO 2 MARCH 2016. KASEREKA MAHINDA, SCIENTIFIC DIRECTOR OF GVO. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark the levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late 19th century. About 100 parasitic cones are located on the volcano's flanks and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Monitoring is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater. (From GVO) - Nyiragongo Photos gallery - January 2011 (German group)
****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

ETHIOPIA - Erta Ale volcano

February 17th, 2016

As of the 16th of January 2016, according to Volcano Discovery correspondents from Ethiopia, the lava lake of Erta Ale has overflown. The first lava over-spilled the rim of the containing crater at midnight of 15-16 Jan 2016. It seems that the situation is similar to the spectacular events in November-December 2015 when the lava lake last overflowed. More details will be posted as soon as possible. During Volcano Discovery expedition November-December , the level of the lake had already been occasionally as close as only 1 meter beneath the rim. for three continuous days (19-21 November 2015). Upon team arrival on the morning of the 19th, the lava lake was only about 2-3 m below us. Local guide explained that the lava lake had been very active in the past few weeks and risen so highly for the first time since its overflow in late 2010.
Previous News 2012 - According to a member of Activ website, and following a recently 2012 fieldtrip a lava lake lies within the South pit-crater of the Erta Ale caldera. This lake was about 15 m depth with 50-60 m diameter. Important degassing occured from incandescent hornitos within the North pit-crater. News 2010 - As of the 5th of March 2010, according to Rafael Werndli reports an unusually hight lava level in the pit crater on Erta Ale in mid February 2010. The lake surface was approximately 20m below the pit's edge. The lava lake had a diameter of 100 to 110m. Occesional floodings of the uppermost terrace were observed. In addition a hornito was active in the north crater, ejecting scoriae and small lava flows. PREVIOUS INFORMATION AND REPORTS : As of the 20th of February 2008, the Stromboli-On-Line website has reported that upon their return to volcano Erta Ale, they found it to be in eruption on the 8th of February and have confirmed this information. Volcanologique de Geneve (SVG) trip on 8-9 February 2008 noted extensions of ropy lava in the N crater. The lake was little changed from the group's last visit in 2005. The group visited the N Crater, and, given its constant degassing, was able to take gas samples. They also measured the lake's surface temperature (700°C). The descent into this crater, seemingly easy, was made difficult by a mantle of very unstable lava scoria. An elevated level of the lava lake halted a subsequent descent.Previous information reported that on 7th of October 2005, according to Ethiopian newspaper an earthquake measuring 4.2 on the Richter scale, jolted northern Ethiopia (Teru area in Afar) on Tuesday triggering eruption of the Erta Ale. According to M; Manahlo Belachew, an expert in the seismology department of Addis Ababa University, the quake which strick the remote region afar is the 11th tremblor to rumble across the region since last month. As of 5th of October a hot spot was visible on the Erta Ale from the MODIS images which could confirmed an eruptive activty this day. Previous new report about recent activity of the Erta Ale : group of scientists assessed the visible changes at Erta Ale on 26 September after activity began around 24 September. In comparison to observations made in November 2004, they found that the southern main crater/pit had widened significantly, with portions of the previous crater walls having collapsed into the lava lake. A new cone-shaped construct had grown within the southern main crater where there had been a platform. A lava lake occupied the entire width of the inner crater/pit. In the northern crater/pit, there was a solidified lava bulge and abundant “smoking” along the crater walls. No incandescent lava was visible in the pit. Based on descriptions by local residents of seeing “red and glowing light shooting and rising into the air above the volcano,” the scientists believe that a Strombolian eruption probably occurred, emitting a significant volume of fresh magma within, and possibly out of, the pit. As of 4th of 0ctober, Personal source reported from Addis Ababa University that the recent earthquake that occured in Afar state has caused landslide and big fissure in Teru locality kebele 02 of the state near the active volcano Mount Erta Ale, a team of geologists who have just returned from the site disclosed. The earthquake observed from September 10 -24, 2005 is the culmination of volcanic activities in the area since millions of years ago, geologists Dr. Derge Ayalew and Dr. Gezahegn Yirgu told WIC. The geologists said the landslide and fissure are indicators that there would be a possible volcanic eruption in the future. The Physical Observatory of the Addis Ababa University recorded on Sunday earthquake that measured 5.5 on Richter scale following earthquake. In Erta Ale the volume of material inside the Crater is actually increasing i.e. rising up to the Crator rim. Due to all this recent geological activity the government is starting to evacuate the people residing around these areas. Previous Erta Ale visit : an international team led by SVE carried out a new visit at the Erta Ale from 22nd of January to 23rd of January 2005. During these two full days at the summit the eruptive activity showed no significant change since our previous observation carried out in November 2005. Degassing activity was still occuring from 3 of the 4 coalescents hornitos located in the SW part of the South crater, but decreased slightly in comparison with our December observations. There were about 10 m high and represented the only portion of the lava crust covering the crater floor where gas emissions were in evidence. One of the hornitos contained glowing molten lava visible from a window located in the upper part. During the clear day of Sunday 23rd of January, members of the team abseiled down within the crater to collect recent lava poured out from the hornitos during partial collapse. Degassing activity (mainly SO2) from the North crater has also slightly decreased in comparison with early December 2004. From a small terrace located in the NW part of the crater it was possible to observe the degassing activity from several hornitos ( some of them were several meters high in the central part of the " lava bulge ") - Near the NW wall of the crater two small red glowing areas were visible at the summit of two other hornitos. Seismic activity of the volcano, together with infrasound signals were recorded by a portable system of the University of Hamburg. Preliminary results of this deployment will be reported soon at this place. Informations : Henry Gaudru, SVE Geneva ; Alexander Gerst , University of Hamburg, Germany ; Georges Kourounis, Derek Tessier, Brian Fletcher (Toronto - Canada) , Motomaro Shirao (Tokyo- Japan) . A previous visit of the SVE-SVG group (4th of December 2004) have permits to observe an important change in the activity of the volcano. The lava lake activity stopped within the South pit crater and a solidified lava crust has filled the whole part of the crater floor (about 15 m below the crater rim). Three (4) coalescent hornitos (about ten meters high) have built on the solidified lava crust in the SE part of the South crater. During the night between 4th of 5th of December, some incandescent degassing lava was visible at the summit of two hornitos. Moreover, we have also noted that a new activity has recently occured within the North crater. A solidified lava bulge uplifted and filled more than 4/5 of the crater floor (about 20-25 below the crater rim). Strong and noisy degassing activity was occcuring in the central part of the lava bulge from several small hornitos. From the smell and bluish color, these gases contained a high quantity of SO2. During the night , ten small incandescent vents were visible at the periphery of the lava bulge. In the morning, two plumes rose above the volcano. Information : Henry Gaudru (SVE) and Co (SVG) - Erta Ale report in case of problem with this link look directly at "articles page" Recent Erta Ale photos 2011

*********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

INDIA - Barren Island volcano - Andaman islands

February 17th, 2016

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-15 February ash plumes from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km W. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 January-2 February ash plumes from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 165 km SW.Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-4 January an ash plume from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 85 km SW. Previously, bBased on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-9 October ash plumes from Barren Island rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-100 km NE. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 September an ash plume from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km E. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 19 August ash plumes from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km E.Previously, Based on pilot observations, analysis of satellite imagery, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-13 June ash plumes from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km NE.Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-7 June ash plumes from Barren Island rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-45 km NE and E. According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot observed an ash plume from Barren Island that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified in satellite images.Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 February an ash plume from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km SW. A SIGMET report noted that low-level ash plumes were also observed on 9 February. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of volcano that rises from a depth of about 2,250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the W, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. The morphology of a fresh pyroclastic cone that was constructed in the center of the caldera has varied during the course of historical eruptions. Lava flows fill much of the caldera floor and have reached the sea along the western coast during historical eruptions.

********************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

Piton de la Fournaise - Eruptive fissure - 16th November 2002 - Photo Laï-Yu (JIR)

PHILLIPINES - Mayon volcano

September 16th, 2016

On 8 September PHIVOLCS noted that recent changes at Mayon prompted a change in the Alert level from 0 to 1 (on a 0-5 scale). Continuous gas measurements consistently showed increased sulfur dioxide emissions above the baseline level of 500 tonnes/day, sometimes as high as 1,000 tonnes/day, since July. Global Positioning System data and tilt measurements showed a consistent inflationary trend since July, and precise leveling and electronic distance surveys the last week of August also indicated edifice inflation, possibly due to magma movement at depth. An earthquake swarm (146 events) located 10 km SE during 3-6 August likely indicated rock fracturing processes but may or may not be associated with magmatic activity. Steam emissions from the crater ranged from weak to moderate. PHIVOLCS reminded residents of the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) around the volcano.
Beautifully symmetrical Mayon volcano, which rises to 2462 m above the Albay Gulf, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple volcano has steep upper slopes averaging 35-40 degrees that are capped by a small summit crater. Historical eruptions at this basaltic-andesitic volcano date back to 1616 and range from strombolian to basaltic plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. Mayon's most violent eruption, in 1814, killed more than 1200 people and devastated several towns.

PHILIPPINES - Bulusan Volcano

September 20th, 2016

PHIVOLCS reported that, beginning at 1654 on 16 September, a four-minute-long phreatic explosion at Bulusan generated a dark grayash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted NE. Ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Casiguran, Gubat, and Barcelona. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).PHIVOLCS reported that on 20 July white-to-light-gray plumes rose to low levels above Bulusan and drifted WNW. During 21-25 July diffuse white plumes rose as high as 250 m above the crater and drifted NW and SW. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). PHIVOLCS reported that on 5 July voluminous emissions of white-to-grayish-white steam plumes rose 250 m above Bulusan's summit crater, and drifted SSE and SSW. Copious amounts of white steam rose 700 m above the crater the next day. During 7-9 July cloud cover obscured views of the crater. Diffuse white steam plumes drifted down the flanks on 10 July and rose as high as 70 m during 11-12 July. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). PHIVOLCS reported that during 0900-0918 on 23 June Bulusan's NW summit vent vigorously emitted dirty-white steam plumes that drifted down the WNW flank. The color of the plume suggested low-energy ash emissions; no seismic signals surrounding the event were detected, indicating a shallow source. Minor amounts of ash fell in the neighborhoods of Poblacion (11 km NW), Añog (12 km NW), and Bacolod (13 km NW) in the Municipality of Juban, and Mabini (12 km NNW) in the Municipality of Casiguran. A sulfur odor was detected in the neighborhoods of Mabini, Bacolod, Añog, and Puting Sapa (Juban). Steam plumes rose as high as 200 m during 25-26 June and drifted NW; steam plumes drifted down the flank on 28 June. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). PHIVOLCS reported that a seven-minute-long phreatic explosion at Bulusan began at 1303 on 19 June, and generated a dirty white ash plume that rose 300 m and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). PHIVOLCS reported that a five-minute-long phreatic explosion at Bulusan began at 1135 on 10 June, and generated an ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). Previously, PHIVOLCS reported that at 1701 on 22 February explosions at Bulusan generated a steam-and-ash plume that rose 500 m above the WNW fissure vent. The event was accompanied by a high-frequency earthquake followed by low-frequency earthquakes that lasted 4 minutes and 21 seconds. Rumbling sounds were heard in Puting Sapa, Juban, and Bolos, Irosin, and minor amounts of ash fell in barangays Puting Sapa, Sagkayon, and Caladgao in Juban, and barangay Bolos in Irosin. The report noted that no volcanic earthquakes were recorded prior to the eruption, though increased seismicity had been detected during 20-21 February. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). Luzon's southernmost volcano, Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 36,000 years ago. Bulusan lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic Bulusan complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit of 1565-m-high Bulusan volcano is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Bulusan since the mid-19th century. Information : PHIVOLCS -

PHILIPPINES - Taal volcano

January 4th, 2016

No recent news since the crisis in 2011 - NEWS 2011 - Taal Volcano's seismic network detected seven (7) volcanic earthquakes in september 2011 Field measurements on 20 September 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake yielded slightly increased water temperature of 33.6 ° C from 33.5 ° C, water level at a steady 1.74 meters and more acidic pH of 2.72 from 2.79 as compared to previous readings. Field measurements on 06 September 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake yielded slightly increased water temperature of 33.5 ° C from 33.4 ° C and water level increase of 1.74 meters from 1.65 meters as compared to previous readings. Ground deformation survey (precise leveling) on the Volcano Island last 21-28 July 2011 indicated that the volcano edifice is slightly deflated compared with 01-10 June 2011, but is nonetheless still inflated compared with baseline data. Baselines calculated from continuous GPS (Global Positioning System) data for the period February to July 2011 also recorded a very slight but steady inflation of the northeast flank of the Volcano Island. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission recorded on 27 June 2011 at the Main Crater Lake was 1,821 tonnes/day, which is above background levels. Field measurements on 30 August 2011 at the western sector of the Main Crater Lake yielded slightly decreased water temperature of 32.9 ° C from 33.6 ° C and water level increase of 1.29 meters from 1.20 meters as compared to previous readings.  Field measurements conducted last 26 July 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature remained unchanged at 33.4 ° C, the water level increased from 0.86 meter to 0.91 meter and the pH value showed insignificant change from 2.85 to 2.86 as compared with the previous readings on 12 July 2011.  Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. Measurements conducted last 19 July 2011 at the western sector of the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature changed slightly from 33.4 ° C to 33.0°C. The water level decreased from 0.85 meter to 0.81 meter and the pH value became less acidic from 2.80 to 2.91. Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake.  Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 01 - 10 June 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is slightly inflated relative to 26 April - 03 May 2011 survey.  Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate last 27 June 2011 at Taal Main Crater Lake yielded a value of 1,821 tonnes per day which is above the background level. As of the 18th of July, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded five (5) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. One (1) of these events was felt at Intensity II at Calauit, a barangay located at the eastern sector of the volcano. Field measurements conducted last 12 July 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature changed slightly from 33.4 ° C to 33.6°C. The water level increased from 0.74 meter to 0.86 meter and the pH value became less acidic from 2.74 to 2.85.  Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 01 - 10 June 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is slightly inflated relative to 26 April - 03 May 2011 survey.  Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate last 27 June 2011 at Taal Main Crater Lake yielded a value of 1,821 tonnes per day which is above the background level. Taal Volcano's status remains at Alert Level 1. As of the 5th of July. PHIVOLCS reported that Eleven (11) weeks after Taal Volcano's alert status was raised from Level 1 to Level 2 on 09 April 2011, the following monitoring parameters have been observed: 1.  The number of volcanic earthquakes recorded daily gradually declined to low levels beginning 1 st week of June 2011. From June 2 to 5, four (4) to eight (8) volcanic earthquakes were detected per day. Since June 6 to present, the number of recorded volcanic earthquakes further decreased to a daily count of zero (0) to six (6) small events. No perceptible volcanic earthquake has occurred since 02 June. 2.   Hydrothermal and steaming activities in the northern and northeast sides of the Main Crater and Daang Kastila area have abated.  Since 01 June 2011, the Main Crater Lake temperature remained at 32.5 ° C to 33.4 ° C, and despite becoming more acidic, measured pH of 2.78 – 2.59 vary around the baseline level of pH above 2.5.  All other geochemical parameters are returning to background levels. Bubbling activity at the northeastern sector of Main Crater Lake weakened and the activity has ceased in some of the bubbling sites. 3.   Ground temperature and total magnetic field measurements at Daang Kastila and in the Main Crater showed no significant changes in both parameters. 4.  Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) gas measurements at the Main Crater Lake since March 2011 showed a decreasing trend. From an elevated value of 4,670 tonnes per day (t/d) in March, CO 2 decreased to 2,057 t/d in May and then to 1,821 t/d in June. 5.  Precise leveling in June 2011 along the flanks of Volcano Island and Global Positioning System (GPS) data from November 2010 to June showed that the volcano is slightly inflated.  Ground deformation data, nonetheless, are not suggestive of large pressure build-up within the volcano edifice. The above observations suggest that Taal Volcano's activity has declined. In view thereof, PHIVOLCS is now lowering the status of the volcano from Alert Level 2 to Alert Level 1. As of the 24th of June, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded one (1) volcanic earthquake during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted last 21 June 2011 at the western sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 32.9 ° C to 33.1°C, the water level increased from 0.33 meter to 0.60 meter and the water became more acidic (pH value from 2.88 to 2.62) as compared with the previous readings on 31 May 2011.  Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake.  Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 1 - 10 June 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is slightly inflated relative to the 26 April - 03 May 2011 survey. Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas emission rates last 03-04 May 2011 at Taal Main Crater Lake yielded a value of 2,057 tonnes per day (t/d) which is above the background level. As of the 17th of June, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded four (4) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted last 14 June 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature decreased to 32.9°C from 33.8 ° C, the water level increased to 0.59 meter from 0.31 meter and the pH value showed an insignificant change to 2.67 from 2.69 as compared with the previous readings on 7 June 2011.  Bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. As of the 3rd of June, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded four (4) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted last 31 May 2011 at the western sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 32.5 ° C to 32.9°C, and the pH value became more acidic decreasing from 2.72 to 2.60.  Bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. As of the 2nd of June, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded thirteen (13) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Two of these events were felt at   Intensity II by residents of Calauit located at the eastern sector of the volcano. The events were reportedly accompanied with rumbling sounds. As of the 1st of June, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded twenty two (22) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Two of these events were felt at   Intensity II by residents of Calauit, Tuoran and Bignay located at the eastern sector of the volcano. The events were reportedly accompanied with rumbling sounds. Field measurements conducted on 31 May 2011 at the western sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 32.5 ° C to 32.9°C, and the pH value became more acidic decreasing from 2.72 to 2.60. Bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. As of the 30th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that a remarkable increase in the seismic activity occured on Taal Volcano. For the past 24 hours, Taal‘s seismic network detected a total of one hundred fifteen (115) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Twelve of these events were felt at Intensity I – IV by residents of Pira-piraso, Alas-as and Calauit located at northeast, southwest and southeast sectors of Volcano Island, respectively. One of these events (8:32 PM, 29 May) was felt at Intensity I, nine (9)  events (1:02:19 AM, 1:02:26 AM, 2:32 AM, 2:53 AM, 2:12 AM, 3:08:19 AM, 3:08:52 AM, 3:17 AM, 3:19 AM, 3:26 AM 30 May) were felt at Intensity II, one event (1:26 AM 30 May) was felt at Intensity III and another one (1:05 AM 30 May) was  felt at Intensity IV. All of these felt events were reportedly accompanied by rumbling sounds. As of the 26th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded three (3) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Field measurements conducted on 24 May 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature slightly increased from 32.5 ° C to 32.8°C, the pH value became more slightly acidic decreasing from 2.83 to 2.67 and the water level increased from 0.21 meter to 0.25 meter. Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 26 April - 03 May 2011 showed that the volcano edifice inflated slightly relative to the 05-11 April 2011 survey. Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas emission rates last 03-04 May 2011 at Taal Main Crater yielded a lower value of 2,057 tonnes per day (t/d) compared with that measured last March 2011 which had a value of 4,750 t/d. However, the obtained value is still higher than the emission rates of 1,875 t/d measured last February 2011. Previously, as of the 18th of may, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded five (5) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  As of the 13th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded five (5) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Field measurements conducted May 13, 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature slightly increased from 32.0°C (May 5, 2011) to 32.5°C. The water is still acidic with the pH value remained at 2.94 and the water level slightly increased from 0.19 meter to 0.21 meter as compared with the reading on May 5, 2011. Results of the ground deformation measurement (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 26 April -03 May 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is still inflated as compared with the 05-11 April 2011 survey. Results of gas measurements conducted between 03-04 May 2011 at Taal Main Crater yielded a carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of 2,057 tonnes per day (t/d). This emission value is down from 4,750 t/d last March 2011, but still higher than the emission rates of 1,875 t/d measured last February 2011. As of the 6th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded six (6) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted on 05 May 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 31.5 ° C to 32.0 ° C, the water became more acidic with pH value decreasing from 3.09 to 2.94 and the water level further receded to 0.19 meters from the 0.23 meters as compared to the last reading on 19 April 2011. As of the 25th of April, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded fourteen (14 ) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.Field observation and measurements conducted at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 30.5 ° C to 31.5 ° C. Result of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 05-11 April 2011 showed that volcano edifice is slightly inflated as compared with the 02-09 February 2011 survey. As of the 23rd of April, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded nineteen (19) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. One of these events, which occurred at 12:23 midnight, was felt at Intensity II at Brgy. Calauit on the southeastern part of the Volcano Island. Another event which occurred at 4:31 AM today was felt at Intensity III in Brgy. Pira-piraso at the northeastern part of Volcano Island accompanied by rumbling sounds.  Field observation and measurements conducted at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the temperature at the Main Crater Lake increased from 30.5 ° C to 31.5 ° C. As of the 19th of April, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded six (6) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Alert Level 2 is hoisted over Taal Volcano with the interpretation that magma has been intruding towards the surface, as manifested by CO 2 being released in the Main Crater Lake and increase in seismic activity.  Hence, PHIVOLCS advises the public that the Main Crater, Daang Kastila Trail and Mt. Tabaro (1965 -1977 Eruption Site) are strictly off-limits because sudden hazardous steam-driven explosions may occur and high concentrations of toxic gases may accumulate.  Breathing air with high concentration of gases can be lethal to human, animals and even cause damage to vegetation.  In addition, it is reminded that entire Volcano Island is a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ), and permanent settlement in the island is strictly not recommended. Taal volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines and has produced some of its most powerful historical eruptions. In contrast to Mayon volcano, Taal is not topographically prominent, but its prehistorical eruptions have greatly changed the topography of SW Luzon. The 15 x 20 km Talisay (Taal) caldera is largely filled by Lake Taal, whose 267 sq km surface lies only 3 m above sea level. The maximum depth of the lake is 160 m, and several eruptive centers lie submerged beneath the lake. The 5-km-wide Volcano Island in north-central Lake Taal is the location of all historical eruptions. The island is a complex volcano composed of coalescing small stratovolcanoes, tuff rings, and scoria cones that has grown about 25% in area during historical time. Powerful pyroclastic flows and surges from historical eruptions of Taal have caused many fatalities (gvn).

PHILIPPINES - Kanlaon volcano

July 28th, 2016

PHIVOLCS reported that during 20-25 July diffuse white plumes rose above Kanlaon; On 20 July plumes were a dirty-white color, and on 25 July they rose 200 m and drifted NW and SW. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported that during 22-23 and 25-26 June white steam plumes from Kanlaon rose as high as 800 m and drifted NW and SW; wispy steam plumes were observed on 27 June. Starting at 1640 on 23 June the seismic network recorded a 4-minute-long, explosion-type signal; weather clouds prevented visual observations of the summit area. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5). Based on visual observations, PHIVOLCS reported that a series of three eruptive events occurred at Kanlaon on 18 June, beginning at 0919 and lasting 27 minutes. These events were recorded by the seismic monitoring network as consecutive explosion-type earthquakes that lasted 30, 42, and 29 seconds, respectively. The first event, a steam-and-gas explosion, generated a light gray-to-white ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater and then later to 3 km. The second event, an ash eruption immediately following the first event, produced a dense black ash plume that rose 500 m. Lastly, a grayish ash plume rose 500 m. Minor ashfall was reported to the W in the barangays of Ara-al, San Miguel, and Yubo in La Carlota City (14 km W), Sag-ang in La Castellana (16 km SW), and Ilijan in Bago City (30 km NW). A diffuse sulfur odor was detected in Ara-al. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported that long-duration tremor began at Kanlaon at 0130 on 30 March. The tremor was accompanied by gas-and-steam plumes that rose 600-700 m and drifted SW and SSW during 30 March-1 April. On 31 March minor ashfall was reported in areas downwind including in parts of La Carlota City (14 km W), La Castellana, and Bago City in Negros Occidental. The tremor continued during 2-4 April, though the energy decreased, and steam plumes rose 400-500 m. On 5 April steam plumes rose 800 m and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported that at 1820 on 29 March the seismic network at Kanlaon detected an explosion that lasted about 12 minutes. The event was accompanied by a booming sound heard in communities to the W, including Ara-al, Yubo, La Carlota City (14 km W), and Canlaon City (8 km ESE) in Negros Occidental. Observers to the SE reported an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater; minor amounts of ash fell in areas downwind. Incandescent ejecta caused a small bushfire on the upper flank. A 25-second-long explosion was detected at 1918. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5). Previously PHIVOLCS reported that at around 1230 on 30 December a low-energy explosion at Kanlaon, observed by residents in barangays Cabagnaan and Sag-ang in La Castellana (16 km SW), produced an ash plume that rose 100 m above the crater and slowly drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS reported that at 1457 on 23 December the seismic network at Kanlaon detected an explosion. The event was not visually observed due to dense weather clouds around the summit area but rumbling was heard in nearby barangays including Cabagnaan, La Castellana (16 km SW), and Ara-al and Yubo, La Carlota City (14 km W). Minor amounts of ash fell in Ara-al, Haguimit, and La Granja, La Carlota City, and a sulfur odor was noted in barangay Tres Elis, La Castellana. An explosive event detected by the seismic network at 2109 on 24 December was again not visually observed. Trace amounts of ash fell in Ara-al, Haguimit, and La Granja, and a sulfur odor was reported in Tres Elis. White steam plumes rose 100 m above the crater and drifted SW on 26 December. A five-minute long ash event that began at 1329 on 27 December was accompanied by rumbling heard in a few local barangays. An eruption plume, viewed from the SE flank, rose 1 km above the crater, and may have risen as high as 4.5 km based on pilot observations. Minor ashfall was noted in Ara-al, Yubo, and La Granja, Cabagnaan, Sag-ang (La Castellana), barangay Miranda, Hinigaran (Negros Occidental), Municipality of Pontevedra (Negros Occidental), and reached as far as Nueva Valencia, Guimaras (58 km WNW). The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5). Kanlaon volcano (also spelled Canlaon), the most active of the central Philippines, forms the highest point on the island of Negros. The massive 2435-m-high andesitic stratovolcano is dotted with fissure-controlled pyroclastic cones and craters, many of which are filled by lakes. The largest debris avalanche known in the Philippines traveled 33 km to the SW from Kanlaon. The summit of Kanlaon contains a 2-km-wide, elongated northern caldera with a crater lake and a smaller, but higher, historically active vent, Lugud crater, to the south. Historical eruptions from Kanlaon, recorded since 1866, have typically consisted of phreatic explosions of small-to-moderate size that produce minor ashfalls near the volcano.

******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

Mayon volcano - Philippines

INDONESIA Volcanoes activity VSI - CVGHM reports : Recent events 2015 and news 2016

Merapi (Java) - Latest News 2014 - PVMBG reported that during 30 May-5 June 2014 seismicity at Merapi fluctuated at normal levels and declined as compared to the previous two weeks. Deformation measurements showed no significant changes. Solfatara plumes rose 400 m and drifted W on 31 May. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4).PVMBG reported that during 16-22 May 2014 seismicity at Merapi fluctuated at normal levels and deformation measurements showed no significant changes. Solfatara plumes rose 300 m and drifted W on 27 May. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 23 May. PVMBG reported that seismicity at Merapi decreased during 9-15 May, as compared to the previous week. Thumping noises continued to be reported from multiple observation posts, and on 12 May fumarolic plumes rose 350 m. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 29 April. PVMBG reported that during 2-8 May white plumes rose as high as 650 m above Merapi. Thumping noises continued to be reported from multiple observation posts. Seismicity fluctuated but remained above background levels. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 29 April.PVMBG reported that during 20-29 April 2014 seismicity at Merapi increased and thumping sounds were heard within an 8 km radius. On 25 April white fumarolic plumes rose 450 m and drifted W. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 29 April.PVMBG reported that field observations of Merapi conducted two days after the explosion on 20 April 2014 revealed that a fracture in the dome had widened 70 m to the W, and new material had been deposited in the W part of the crater. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4).PVMBG reported that Merapi observers at the Ngepos post noted white plumes rising 300 m above the lava dome on 15 April 2014. Seismicity increased during 18-20 April. During 0426-0440 on 20 April an explosion occurred and rumbling was heard in areas as far as 8 km away. Ash plumes were observed from some observations posts, but foggy conditions prevented views from others. Based on satellite images and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 260 km WNW. PVMBG noted that ashfall was reported in areas within 15 km S, SW, and W. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4).PVMBG reported explosions from Merapi on 9 March 2014. An explosion detected at 0654 was followed by a plume observed on CCTV from Pasarbubar that drifted W. Two Explosions were also recorded at 0655. At 0708 a volcanic earthquake occurred and CCTV in Market Bubar recorded brown plumes that rose 1.5 km above the crater. At 0730 ash fell in the villages of Umbulharjo (30 km S), Kepuharjo, Sidorejo (27 km NNE), and Balerante (6 km SSE). During 14-20 March dense gas plumes rose 600 m. Seismicity was at normal levels. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4). The Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately N of the major city of Yogyakarta. The steep-sided modern Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, was constructed to the SW of an arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated and inhabited lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time. The volcano is the object of extensive monitoring efforts by the Merapi Volcano Observatory (MVO).

Dieng volcano complex (Java) - PVMBG noted that due to decreased activity and no observable flow of gas in high concentrations from the crater the Alert Level for Dieng was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 11 August 2014. Residents and visitors were advised to not enter the crater and to be vigilant if excavating to depths greater than 1 m around the crater.CVGHM reported that on 28 March 2013 gas emissions continued to be elevated at Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Plumes containing carbon dioxide drifted 2 km towards the S valley of Kali Sat, prompting a road closure until the early evening when the gas concentration decreased. On 30 March carbon dioxide gas emissions were not detected; however, "smoke" rose at most 100 m above the crater. Hydrogen sulfide odors were very potent in areas 1 km W and weak in areas 1.5 km S. On 19 April sulfur dioxide odors were reported. On 24 March Sileri Crater lake water changed from dark gray to brown. On 7 April white plumes rose 50 m and the water color returned to normal. Diffuse white plumes rose 15 m on 20 April. Other craters had not exhibited any changes by 28 April. Based on gas concentrations, seismicity, and visual observations, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 May and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 500-m radius. The Dieng plateau in the highlands of central Java is renowned both for the variety of its volcanic scenery and as a sacred area housing Java's oldest Hindu temples, dating back to the 9th century AD. The Dieng volcanic complex consists of two or more stratovolcanoes and more than 20 small craters and cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age over a 6 x 14 km area. Prahu stratovolcano was truncated by a large Pleistocene caldera, which was subsequently filled by a series of dissected to youthful cones, lava domes, and craters, many containing lakes. Lava flows cover much of the plateau, but have not occurred in historical time, when activity has been restricted to minor phreatic eruptions. Toxic volcanic gas emission has caused fatalities and is a hazard at several craters. The abundant thermal features that dot the plateau and high heat flow make Dieng a major geothermal prospect.

Kawah Ijen volcano (Java) - PVMBG noted that due to decreased volcanic seismicity the Alert Level for Ijen was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 11 August 2014. Residents and visitors were advised to not approach the crater rim or crater floor. Previously, past year,CVGHM reported that during 1 July-25 August 2013 diffuse white plumes rose 100-150 m above Ijen's crater, the lake water was light green, and seismicity decreased. On 26 August the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors, tourists, miners, and hikers were reminded not to approach the crater within 1 km. Previously, CVGHM reported that, although weather conditions at Ijen often prevented views of the volcano during 1-24 July 2012, white plumes were occasionally observed rising 50-100 m above the crater. Seismicity indicated unrest, and along with visual observations, prompted CVGHM to raise the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 24 July. CVGHM reported that during 1-30 April white plumes from Ijen rose 100-200 m above the crater; during 1-11 May diffuse white plumes rose 50-100 m. From the beginning of April until 13 May the amplitude and number of earthquakes gradually decreased and the crater lake water temperature decreased by eight degrees Celsius. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 13 May. On 24 March 2012, CVGHM reported that Ijen's lake water chemistry changed during 10 January-17 March, exhibiting a significant increase in carbon dioxide, especially after 5 February, and an increase in acidity. The lake surface temperature increased from 28.8 degrees Celsius on 3 March to 45.1 degrees Celsius on 17 March. The lake water temperature at a depth of 5 m also rose from 42.7 to 44.7 degrees Celsius on 3 and 17 March, respectively. Seismicity increased starting in March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). CVGHM raised the Alert Level for Ijen from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 March because of increased seismicity and visual observations. On 10 March scientists observed some plant damage around the crater lake and a 10-m-wide area of disrupted water on the crater-lake surface.CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Ijen from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 February based on decreased seismicity and visual observations of white plumes rising as high as 300 m above the crater. In addition, a decrease in lake water temperature was measured, which ranged from 42 degrees Celsius on 20 January to 37 degrees on 2 February. The Ijen volcano complex consists of a group of small stratovolcanoes constructed within the large 20-km-wide Ijen (Kendeng) caldera. The N caldera wall forms a prominent arcuate ridge, but elsewhere the caldera rim is buried by post-caldera volcanoes, including Gunung Merapi stratovolcano, which forms the 2,799 m high point of the Ijen complex. Immediately W of Gunung Merapi is the renowned historically active Kawah Ijen volcano, which contains a nearly 1-km-wide, turquoise-colored, acid crater lake. The picturesque lake is the site of a labor-intensive sulfur mining operation, in which sulfur-laden baskets are hand-carried from the crater floor. A half dozen small-to-moderate phreatic eruptions have taken place from Kawah Ijen during the 20th century.

Papandayan volcano (Java) - PVMBG reported that during 1 September-16 November seismicity at Papandayan was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes but also consisted of deep
volcanic earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and hybrid events. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post where observers noted white plumes rising at most 35 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius.
PVMBG reported that during 1 June-13 July seismicity at Papandayan was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes but also consisted of deep volcanic earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and hybrid events. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post; where observers noted white plumes rising at most 30 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius. PVMBG reported that during 1-11 June shallow volcanic earthquakes at Papandayan occurred at an average rate of 26 events/day. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post; observers noted white plumes rising at most 50 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius. PVMBG reported that during 22 April-25 May seismicity at Papandayan was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes but also consisted of volcanic earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, tremor, and local and remote tectonic earthquakes. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post; observers noted white plumes rising at most 30 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius. PVMBG reported that during 1 March-21 April seismicity at Papandayan was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes but also consisted of volcanic earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, and local and remote tectonic earthquakes. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post; observers noted white plumes rising at most 100 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius..Papandayan is a complex stratovolcano with four large summit craters, the youngest of which was breached to the NE by collapse during a brief eruption in 1772 and contains active fumarole fields. The broad 1.1-km-wide, flat-floored Alun-Alun crater truncates the summit of Papandayan, and Gunung Puntang to the N gives the volcano a twin-peaked appearance. Several episodes of collapse have given the volcano an irregular profile and produced debris avalanches that have impacted lowland areas beyond the volcano. Since its first historical eruption in 1772, in which a catastrophic debris avalanche destroyed 40 villages, only two small phreatic eruptions have occurred from vents in the NE-flank fumarole field, Kawah Mas. (GVN/GVP)

Mount Semeru ( Java) -Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that a short-duration eruption from Semeru generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 25 km SW. Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 25 and 27 May ash plumes from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-40 km SW. Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 April an ash plume from Semeru rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km NE. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 February ash plumes from Semeru rose to altitudes of 6.7-7.9 km (22,000-26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. According to a news article, a lava-dome collapse on 13 February generated pyroclastic flows that traveled 4-5 km down the S and SE flanks; the nearest village in that direction is 9 km away. PVMBG reported that there were 21 explosions recorded at Semeru during 1-17 January, generating dense gray plumes that rose 100-500 m above the crater and drifted E, N, and W. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating explosions and emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale from 1-4); visitors and residents were warned to avoid the SE flank within 4 km of the crater.PVMBG reported that during 1 November 2015-4 January 2016 white and gray plumes from Semeru rose as high as 500 m above the crater and drifted E, S, and W; inclement weather sometimes prevented observations. In November nine incandescent avalanches traveled 100-500 m down the flanks. During December 2015-4 January 2016 incandescent material was occasionally ejected above the crater. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating avalanches and emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale from 1-4); visitors and residents were warned to avoid the SE flank within 4 km of the crater.PVMBG reported that during 1 June-15 November both white plumes and gray-to-brownish plumes from Semeru were observed rising as high as 600 m above the crater and drifting in multiple directions; inclement weather sometimes prevented observations. The ash plumes were generated by frequent explosions; 32-74 explosions occurred per month during the June-October interval, although only 7 were counted during the first half of November. A few avalanches traveled 300-500 m S down the Besuk Kembar drainage during July-August. Two incandescent avalanches traveled 500 m down the drainage during 1-15 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale from 1-4); visitors and residents were warned to avoid the SE flank within 4 km of the crater. PVMBG reported that during August-29 September both white plumes and gray-to-brownish plumes from Semeru were observed rising as high as 600 m above the crater and drifting in multiple directions; inclement weather sometimes prevented observations. Rockslides from the crater traveled 500 m down the S flank in August. Seismicity was dominated by explosions and emission signals. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale from 1-4); visitors and residents were warned to avoid the SE flank within 4 km of the crater. .Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The volcano, rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967. (GVN/GVP)

Lokon Empung (Sulawesi) -Although inclement weather sometimes obscured views of Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan Crater, PVMBG reported that during 1-14 September observers at the post in Kakaskasen Tomohon (North Sulawesi, 4 km from the crater) saw white plumes rising as high as 250 m above the crater. The number of shallow volcanic earthquakes was the highest on 1 September (20 recorded), and then fluctuated between 1 and 4 per day during 2-14 September. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km.Although inclement weather sometimes obscured views of Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan Crater, PVMBG reported that during 5 February-8 March observers at the post in Kakaskasen Tomohon (North Sulawesi, 4 km from the crater) saw white plumes rising as high as 200 m above the crater. Seismicity increased; shallow volcanic earthquakes notably increased on 6 March. Deformation data indicated inflation. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 March due to significant increases in deformation and seismic data. Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 2.5 km. Although inclement weather sometimes obscured views of Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan Crater, PVMBG reported that during 1 December 2015-4 February 2016 observers at the post in Kakaskasen Tomohon (North Sulawesi, 4 km from the crater) saw white plumes rising as high as 400 m above the crater. Seismicity fluctuated but decreased overall. No deformation was detected. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 February. Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. The twin volcanoes Lokon and Empung, rising about 800 m above the plain of Tondano, are among the most active volcanoes of Sulawesi. Lokon, the higher of the two peaks (whose summits are only 2.2 km apart), has a flat, craterless top. The morphologically younger Empung volcano has a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep crater that erupted last in the 18th century, but all subsequent eruptions have originated from Tompaluan, a 150 x 250 m wide double crater situated in the saddle between the two peaks. Historical eruptions have primarily produced small-to-moderate ash plumes that have occasionally damaged croplands and houses, but lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows have also occurred.(GVN/GVP)

Rinjani volcano (Lombok) - As of the 28th of September 2016 , BNPB reported that a new explosive activity occurred at the Rinjani from the Bajujari cone. This eruption started without warning on Tuesday 27th of September during the afternoon delaying flights from the International airport on nearby Bali. The eruptive column rose to about 2000 m high.Part of the eruption column collapsed into pyroclastic flows that reached short distances around the cone (less than 1000 m runout length). The ash plume itself drifted quickly southwest. There have been no reports of injuries from the eruption so far but more than 250 people, mainly tourists remained unaccounted for. More than 1,000 other people were evacuated after Mount Barujari erupted just before 3 p.m. Tuesday (3 a.m. ET). Based on satellite and pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption at Rinjani on 1 August 2016 generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 9.8 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. Ash plumes were first visible in satellite images at 1150, and according to PVMBG passengers aboard a plane noted that ash plumes rose 2 km above the crater. BNPB noted that the Lombok International Airport closed at 1655 and was scheduled to reopen at 1000 the next day. Later on 1 August ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.3-6.1 km (14,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SW, and W. No plumes were visible at 1730; conditions had returned to normal levels although BNPB warned that the public should stay at least 1.5 km away from the volcano.
Previous news 2015 - PVMBG reported that during 25 October-24 November 2015 white and gray plumes rose as high as 2.6 km above Rinjani's Barujari Crater. Incandescent material was sometimes ejected 30-150 m high. Gray plumes observed during 25 November-24 December rose as high as 2.5 km. During 25 December 2015-18 January 2016 white plumes rose 50 m above the crater. Seismicity had also decreased to background levels. On 20 January the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded not to approach the crater.Based on satellite and ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 and 5 December ash plumes from Rinjani rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.9 km (12,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-110 km SW and W. Based on satellite and ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-30 November ash plumes from Rinjani rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 320 km SW and W. Based on satellite and pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18-23 November ash plumes from Rinjani rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 95 km SW, WNW, and W. A thermal anomaly was visible on 18 November; that same day the VAAC noted that activity had continued to decline. Based on observations conducted at a volcano observation post in the village of Lawang Sembalun, PVMBG reported that during 11-13 November dense white-and-gray plumes rose as high as 2.6 km above Rinjani's Barujari crater. Elevated levels of continuous tremor were detected by the seismic network, although RSAM values showed a declining trend. Strombolian activity continued to feed N-to-E-trending lava flows. A lava flow entered lake Segara Anak, causing an increase in the lake level and increased flow in the Kokok Putih river. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 3-km radius. BNPB reported on 14 November that ash plumes rose as high as 1.6 km and drifted WSW; ashfall was reported in some villages downwind. The report also noted that flight conditions were normal at the airport. Based on satellite observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-17 November ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 240 km NW, WNW, W, and SW. PVMBG reported that after an eruption occurred at Rinjani on 25 October tremor amplitude increased, and was continuous from 1109 on 2 November through 0600 on 5 November. During 25-31 October dense white emissions rose 900 m above Barujari Crater. During 1-5 November dense gray-to-brown ash plumes rose as high as 1.6 km above the crater. The webcam showed incandescent material being ejected from the crater on 4 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 3-km radius. Based on a 9-November PVMBG notice, BNPB reported that a lava flow had traveled 1 km E of the crater, towards the Koko Putih River. Incandescent material was ejected 750 m above the crater and ash plumes rose 2.5 km. Based on satellite observations and pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-10 November ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.3-6.1 km (14,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 740 km NW, W, SW, and S. Rinjani volcano on the island of Lombok rises to 3726 m, second in height among Indonesian volcanoes only to Sumatra's Kerinci volcano. Rinjani has a steep-sided conical profile when viewed from the east, but the west side of the compound volcano is truncated by the 6 x 8.5 km, oval-shaped Segara Anak (Samalas) caldera. The caldera formed during one of the largest Holocene eruptions globally in 1257 CE, which truncated Samalas stratovolcano. The western half of the caldera contains a 230-m-deep lake whose crescentic form results from growth of the post-caldera cone Barujari at the east end of the caldera. Historical eruptions dating back to 1847 have been restricted to Barujari cone and consist of moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows that have entered Segara Anak lake.

Egon volcano (Flores Islands -PVMBG reported that during 20 January-1 February seismicity at Egon was dominated by signals indicating emissions; shallow volcanic events had decreased.RSAM values increased on 25 January but did not exceed values detected during the previous peak on 12 January; overall seismicity had declined. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and residents were advised to stay at least 1.5 km away from the crater. PVMBG reported that during 1-12 January seismicity at Egon was dominated by shallow volcanic tremor, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Seismicity had increased on 15 December 2015, and then fluctuated through 11 January. RSAM increased significantly on 12 January due to an earthquake detected at 0936. PVMBG noted that the pattern of seismicity was similar to that observed before a phreatic eruption on 15 April 2008. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and residents were advised to stay at least 3 km away from the crater. On 20 January BNPB reported that activity increased again, prompting the PVMBG to raise the Alert Level to 3. The report noted that access to the Mapitara district was closed due to a strong sulfur dioxide odor in that area, and that 927 people living within 3 km of the volcano had been evacuated (501 people refused to evacuate). Diffuse white plumes rose as high as 50 m above the crater. PVMBG PVMBG reported that during October-November seismicity at Egon was at baseline levels, characterized by an average of one event per day of both deep and shallow volcanic earthquakes. On 15 December the network recorded 29 shallow volcanic earthquakes, a number significantly above baseline. PVMBG raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) that same day and advised residents and tourists to stay at least 1.5 km away from the crater. Gunung Egon volcano sits astride the narrow waist of eastern Flores Island. The barren, sparsely vegetated summit region has a 350-m-wide, 200-m-deep crater that sometimes contains a lake. Other small crater lakes occur on the flanks of the 1703-m-high volcano, which is also known as Namang. A lava dome forms the southern 1671-m-high summit. Solfataric activity occurs on the crater wall and rim and on the upper southern flank. Reports of historical eruptive activity prior to explosive eruptions beginning in 2004 were inconclusive. A column of "smoke" was often observed above the summit during 1888-1891 and in 1892. Strong "smoke" emission in 1907 reported by Sapper (1917) was considered by the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (Neumann van Padang, 1951) to be an historical eruption, but Kemmerling (1929) noted that this was likely confused with an eruption on the same date and time from Lewotobi Lakilaki volcano.

Slamet volcano ( central Java ) - PVMBG reported that during 21 April-21 May dense white plumes rose as high as 700 m above Slamet's crater. Seismicity consisted of emission signals and tremor; RSAM values fluctuated. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were warned to not approach the crater within a radius of 2 km.
PVMBG reported that during 1 February-10 April 2015 dense white plumes rose 50-800 m above Slamet's crater. Seismicity consisted of emission signals and tremor; emission signals started to increase on 18 February and periods of continuous tremor were recorded during 21-22 and 28-29 March. RSAM values fluctuated but rose overall. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were warned to not approach the crater within a radius of 2 km.PVMBG reported that during 1 November-5 January 2015 white plumes rose at most 1.5 km above Slamet's crater. RSAM values fluctuated but decreased overall in December through 5 January. Deformation and geochemical data showed no significant changes. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 January. Residents and tourists were warned to not approach the crater within a radius of 2 km. PVMBG reported that during 13-16 September white plumes rose 50-200 m above Slamet's crater. An explosion on 17 September produced a dense blackish-gray ash plume that rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted S and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200-500 m high and booming noises were reported. Ash fell in areas as far as 20 km S. Although white plumes mostly rose from the crater the next day, an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted W. Slamet is composed of two overlapping edifices, an older basaltic-andesite to andesitic volcano on the west and a younger basaltic to basaltic-andesite one on the east. Gunung Malang II cinder cone on the upper eastern flank on the younger edifice fed a lava flow that extends 6 km to the east. Four craters occur at the summit of Gunung Slamet, with activity migrating to the SW over time. Historical eruptions, recorded since the 18th century, have originated from a 150-m-deep, 450-m-wide, steep-walled crater at the western part of the summit and have consisted of explosive eruptions generally lasting a few days to a few weeks. (GVN/GVP)

Gamalama (Ternate) -Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-4 August ash plumes from Gamalama rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, E, and NE. On 5 August PVMBG noted that seismicity continued to be elevated although inclement weather prevented visual observations. PVMBG reported that at 0628 on 3 August a weak explosion at Gamalama generated an ash plume that rose 500-600 m above the crater and drifted SE and S. Ash emissions declined at 0655. Ashfall was reported in areas on the SSE flank including Ake Huda. The report also noted a brief airport closing. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. PVMBG reported that During 1 January-6 March seismicity at Gamalama fluctuated but decreased overall; shallow volcanic earthquakes and signals indicating emissions appeared on 3 March and a series of deep volcanic earthquakes were detected on 6 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. PVMBG reported that during 1 August-4 November seismicity at Gamalama fluctuated, and was dominated by hybrid earthquakes and signals indicating emissions. Three periods of increased seismicity were recorded during 3-5 and 11-19 August, and 8-22 October, though seismicity declined overall. A sudden, small eruption from a fissure on the NW flank occurred at 1953 on 8 September with no precursory seismicity, and produced a plume that rose 1 km. Gray plumes rose from 300-600 m the vent during 9-24 September. White plumes rose from Main Crater and fissures on the E and NW flanks as high as 200 m during 1 October-3 November. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a 1.5-km radius. Gamalama (Peak of Ternate) is a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire island of Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera and is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. The island of Ternate was a major regional center in the Portuguese and Dutch spice trade for several centuries, which contributed to the thorough documentation of Gamalama's historical activity. Three cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit of Gamalama, which reaches 1715 m. Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the volcano. Eruptions, recorded frequently since the 16th century, typically originated from the summit craters, although flank eruptions have occurred in 1763, 1770, 1775, and 1962-63. (GVN/GVP)

Dempo volcano (Sumatra)- Observers at the PVMBG Dempo observation post reported that during 1 June-9 September no plumes rose from Dempo's crater and seismicity was low. On 10 September the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale from 1-4). Visitors and residents were advised not to approach the craters. Previously, observers at the PVMBG Dempo observation post reported that during 0730-0900 on 27 April 2015 diffuse gray-white plumes rose 50 m above Dempo crater. Seismicity had increased during April as compared to the previous month. On 29 April the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale from 1-4). Visitors and residents were advised not to go within a 1-km radius of the summit. Dempo is a prominent 3173-m-high stratovolcano that rises above the Pasumah Plain of SE Sumatra. The andesitic Dempo volcanic complex has two main peaks, Gunung Dempo and Gunung Marapi, constructed near the SE rim of a 3 x 5 km caldera breached to the north. The one called Dempo is slightly lower, with an elevation of 3049 m and lies at the SE end of the summit complex. The taller Marapi cone, with a summit elevation 3173 m, was constructed within a crater cutting the older Gunung Dempo edifice. Remnants of 7 craters are found at or near the summit of the complex, with volcanism migrating to the WNW with time. The large, 800 x 1100 m wide historically active summit crater cuts the NW side of Gunung Marapi (not to be confused with Marapi volcano 500 km to the NW in Sumatra) and contains a 400-m-wide lake located at the far NW end of the crater complex. Historical eruptions have been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive activity that produced ashfall near the volcano. (GVN/GVP)

Raung volcano ( Java island) -PVMBG reported that, although inclement weather conditions often prevented visual observations of Raung during 25 August-21 September, white plumes
were occasionally seen rising as high as 200 m above the crater. Seismicity fluctuated but continued to decrease. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded not to approach the crater within a 2-km radius. PVMBG reported that ash plumes from Raung rose as high as 1 km above the crater during 16-24 August and drifted NW. Seismicity fluctuated but continued to decrease. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 24 August, and the public was reminded not to approach the crater within a 2-km radius. PVMBG reported that the eruption at Raung was ongoing during 24 July-10 August. Ash plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater and crater incandescence was visible. Seismicity fluctuated but remained elevated; RSAM values peaked on 4 August (the highest recorded since the beginning of the eruption) and then decreased again. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was reminded not to approach the crater within a 3-km radius. Based on satellite observations and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-14, 16, and 18 August multiple ash plumes from Raung rose to altitudes of Based on weather models, webcam views, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-11 August ash plumes from Raung rose to altitudes of 4.3-5.2 km (14,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 760 km ESE, SE, SSE, and SW. On 4 August BNPB reported that during the previous three days the Strombolian eruption at Raung increased in intensity. Ash fell in Sempu, Songgon, Glenmore, Gambiran, and Banyuwangi. On 4 August dense blackish gray ash plumes rose 800 m and drifted SE. Raung, one of Java's most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The 3332-m-high, unvegetated summit of Gunung Raung is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the west flank produced a large debris avalanche that traveled 79 km from the volcano, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and west, respectively.

Bromo volcano (Tengger caldera) - Java Island -Based on analyses of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 August minor gas-and-steam emissions from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone remained localized within the caldera. Based on analyses of satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-31 July and 1 August ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km NW, W, and SW.
Based on analyses of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-24 July ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km NW and W. Based on satellite images, wind data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-16 and 19 July ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.3 km (7,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km NW, SW, and SE. BNPB reported that the Abdul Rachman Saleh Airport in Malang (26 km W) closed again due to ash, from 2307 on 15 July to 0900 on 16 July; six flights were diverted and two were cancelled. Minor amounts of ash fell in the communities of Probolinggo (35 km NE) and Lumajang (36 km SW). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1 km. Based on satellite images, wind data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-12 July ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to altitudes of 2.7-3 km (9,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 120 km S, SSW, SW, and W. BNPB reported that the Abdul Rachman Saleh Airport in Malang (26 km W) closed from 2300 on 11 July to 0900 on 12 July due to thin ash deposits around the airport. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and visitors were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1 km. Based on satellite images and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-28 June ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km SW and W. Based on satellite images, wind data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 June 2016 ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 20 km S and SE. Based on satellite images, wind data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-3 June ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 65 km N and NW. Based on satellite images, wind data, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-31 May ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km NW, SW, S, and NNE. Based on satellite images and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-24 May ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 75 km NE Based on satellite images and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 April ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to altitudes of 3-3.6 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, SW, and SE. Based on satellite images and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 April ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and almost 20 km NW. On 26 April another ash plume rose to the same altitude and drifted W. The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley. The most recent of the calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes. (GVN/GVP)


Kerinci volcano (Sumatra) -Based on satellite data and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-9 June ash plumes from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and N. Based on satellite data and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-6 June ash plumes from Kerinci rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.6 km (14,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and N. Based on reports from PVMBG and satellite data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 May 2016 an ash plume from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l.and drifted WSW Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 April an ash plume from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l.Based on reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 April an ash plume from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l., and drifted NE and E. Based on reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC stated that on 16 April ash plumes from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on a pilot observation and reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 April ash plumes from Kerinci rose to altitudes of 4-4.3 km (13,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E. Based on satellite images and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 March-2 April 2016 and 4-5 Apri 2016 l ash plumes from Kerinci rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.9 km (14,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l., and drifted NW, N, and E. The 3800-m-high Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. Kerinci is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. The volcano contains a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit of Kerinci. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. The frequently active Gunung Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838. Latest activity occurred in June 2013.

Sinabung volcano (Sumatra) - volcano of the year 2015 - 2016 - Special Summary from the beginning of the eruption -Based on ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 17 September an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on satellite images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-3 September 2016 ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 4.3-5.5 km (14,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WSW. BNPB reported increased activity at Sinabung on 24 August. Observers at the PVMBG Sinabung observation post noted a marked increase in seismicity, and counted 19 pyroclastic flows and 137 avalanches from the early morning until the late afternoon. Foggy conditions obscured visual observations of the activity through most of the day, although incandescent lava as far as 500 m SSE and 1 km ESE was noted in the morning, and a pyroclastic flow was seen traveling 3.5 km ESE at 1546. The lava dome had grown to a volume of 2.6 million cubic meters. There continued to be 2,592 families (9,319 people) displaced to nine shelters. Activity remained very high on 25 August; pyroclastic flows continuously descended the flanks, traveling as far as 2.5 km E and SE, and 84 avalanches occurred during the first part of the day. Based on satellite images and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 August ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW and NNE. On 29 August ash plumes reported by ground-based observers rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector.Based on satellite images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17 and 21-22 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Based on satellite images, model data, ground reports from PVMBG, and the Jakarta MWO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on satellite images, model data, ground reports from PVMBG, and the Jakarta MWO, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-5 and 7 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-5.5 km (12,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, NE, and NNW. Based on satellite and webcam images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 July and 1 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 4-4.3 km (13,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SSE.Based on satellite and webcam images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 and 24-25 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, NE, and SE. Based on satellite images, model data, and ground reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-16 and 19 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW.Based on satellite images, model data, notices from the Jarkarta MWO, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6, 8-9, and 11 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-5.5 km (12,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, NE, and W.Based on PVMBG ground-based observations, satellite images, and webcam views, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 June-5 July ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-5.5 km (11,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. On 3 July BNPB reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued at a very high level. Lava was incandescent as far as 1 km down the SE and E flanks, and multiple avalanches were detected. An explosion at 1829 generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted E and SE, causing ashfall in Medan (55 km NE). The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SSE sector, and 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. There were 2,592 families (9,319 people) displaced to nine shelters, and an additional 1,683 families in temporary shelters waiting for relocation. Based on PVMBG ground-based observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25-27 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on satellite and webcam images, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19-20 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.6 km (14,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-11 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-5.9 km (11000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, WSW, and W. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-7 June ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-3.9 km (11000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-29 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.9 km (12,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18, 21-22, and 24 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-5.5 km (12,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and E. BNPB reported that pyroclastic flow descended the flanks at 1648 on 21 May, killing six people and critically injuring three more. The victims were gardening in the village of Gamber, 4 km SE from the summit crater, in the restricted zone. The report noted that activity at Sinabung remained high; four pyroclastic flows descended the flanks on 21 May, and ash plumes rose as high as 3 km. BNPB reported that a lahar passed through Kutambaru village, 20 km NW of Sinabung and near the Lau Barus River, at 1545 on 9 May, killing one person and injuring four more. One person was missing. A news article noted that three houses were also damaged. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-13 and 16 May ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-4.5 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, WNW, and NW.Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-5 and 9-10 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.8 km (12,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-30 April and 4 May ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.2 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WSW. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 20-21, 23-24, and 26 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.5 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15-50 km SW, W, and NW.Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-16 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.9-4.5 km (13,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNW, NW, and W. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6, 8-10, and 12 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.8 km (11,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and WNW. On 10 April BNPB reported that the eruption at Sinabung has not shown any signs of ceasing since the onset of activity in September 2013. Activity remained high, characterized by almost daily lava extrusion and pyroclastic flows, and high levels of seismicity. Four events on 10 April generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km. BNPB noted that although there were no new evacuees that day, 9,322 people (2,592 families) remained in 10 evacuation centers. Many families awaited relocation; 1,212 people had already been permanently relocated to new homes. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4); the public was reminded to stay outside of a 3-km radius. People within 7 km of the volcano in the SSE sector, within 6 km in the ESE sector, and within 4 km in the NNE sector should remain evacuated. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30 March-2 April and 4 April ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.3-4.2 km (11,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-24 and 28-29 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.9-5.5 km (13,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km NW, W, and SW. A low-level ash plume was identified by PVMBG on 27 March. Based on satellite images, ground reports, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-19 and 21-22 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 2.7-4.9 km (9,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 65 km WSW, W, WNW, and NW. Based on satellite images, ground reports, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-10 and 13-15 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.9 km (12,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km NW, W, and SW. Based on satellite images, ground reports, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2 and 5-6 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km SE, SW, and W. Based on satellite images, ground reports, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24 February-1 March 2016 ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.6-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km in multiple directions. Based on satellite images, ground reports, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 18 and 20-23 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km S, SW, W, and NW.Based on satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-5.2 km (11,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and almost 30 km NE. Based on satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km NW. Based on information from the Jakarta MWO, the DarwinVAAC reported that on 30 January and during 1-2 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Based on information from PVMBG and satellite images, the DarwinVAAC reported that during 20-22 and 25 January ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, NW, and N. PVMBG reported that during 4-14 January 2016 inclement weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. As many as 192 hot avalanches and 12 pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-3 km ESE. Ash plumes from a total of 40 events rose as high as 3 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche and pyroclastic-flow signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week, and indicated lava-dome growth. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano in the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. Based on information from PVMBG and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-15 and 17-19 January ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. Based on information from PVMBG, ground reports, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-12 January ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.3 km (12,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 15-40 km SW, W, NW, and NE.PVMBG reported that during 21-28 December inclement weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. As many as 21 hot avalanches and pyroclastic flows traveled 0.7-1.5 km ESE, producing ash plumes that rose 1 km. Ash plumes from explosions rose as high as 3 km and drifted E and SW. Seismicity consisted of avalanche and pyroclastic-flow signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week, and indicated lava-dome growth. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. Based on information from PVMBG, satellite images, and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25 and 27-28 December ash plume from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-4 km (11,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted 10 km SW on 27 December.Based on information from PVMBG, satellite images, and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-22 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.3 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, SE, and E. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 15 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km W. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km SE. On 7 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. On 1 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.4 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l.Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l.Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-16 November ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW and E. -Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. A pyroclastic flow was visible on 8 November; an ash plume was generated but the altitude was unable to be determined due to a weather cloud in the area. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 30-31 October ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.4-7.6 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted over 35 km W on 31 October. Based on information from PVMBG, and analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 October an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 6.1 (20,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 October an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km SW. On 20 October ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km N. PVMBG reported that during 28 September-7 October inclement weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km E to SE. As many as three pyroclastic flows per day were detected, traveling as far as 3 km ESE. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. .PVMBG reported that during 21-28 September foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 3 km E to SE. As many as five pyroclastic flows per day were detected, traveling as far as 4 km ESE. Ash plumes rose as high as 4.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. -PVMBG reported that during 14-24 September foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km E to SE. As many as eight pyroclastic flows per day were detected, traveling as far as 4 km ESE. Ash plumes rose as high as 4.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, although it had declined compared to the previous week. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-27 September ash plumes rose 1-2.5 km. PVMBG reported that during 8-14 September foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km ESE. As many as six pyroclastic flows per day were detected, traveling as far as 3.5 km ESE and SE. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Seismicity fluctuated, although it had declined compared to the previous week. Deformation measurements showed deflation. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 September an ash plume from a pyroclastic flow rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (11,000 ft) a.s.l. On 21 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Later that day a pilot observed an ash plume drifting 45 km SW at an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. PVMBG reported that during 2-9 September foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km ESE to SSE. The daily number of pyroclastic flows usually ranged from one to seven, although 11 were observed on 4 September; none were detected on 8 September. The pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 3.5 km E to SE and generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2.5 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate. BNPB reported that on 15 September pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 4 km ESE. Ash plumes rose as high as 3 km and drifted E, causing thick ashfall deposits in Berastagi, Kabanjahe, and surrounding areas. The number of displaced people totaled 2,572.Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 2 September an ash plume from Sinabung rose 2 km above the summit. On 3 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km W. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km W. Based on weather models and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29-30 August an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. PVMBG reported that during 31 July-10 August foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung and the growing lava dome in the summit crater. White plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater, and lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km S to SE. The occurrence of pyroclastic flows per day ranged from one to seven, although none were noted on 8 August. The pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 4 km E to SE and generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3 km. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. Based on information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 August a pyroclastic flow generated an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate.Based on weather models and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 August ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 35 km ESE. On 10 August an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. On 4 August BNPB reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued at a very high level. Lava was incandescent as far as 1.5 km SE and E down the flanks, and multiple avalanches were detected. Pyroclastic flows traveled at most 3 km ESE and SE, and ash plumes rose 2 km. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with an exclusion zone of 7 km from the volcano on the SE sector, and 6 km in the E sector. There were 3,152 families (11,114 people) displaced in 10 shelters, and an additional 2,053 families (6,179 people) in temporary shelters.Based on satellite images, webcam views, weather models, and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 23 July an explosion at Sinabung generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km W. An explosion on 26 July generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. PVMBG reported that foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 22-29 June. White plumes rose as high as 500 m above the crater, and lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 3 km S and SE. Multiple pyroclastic flows per day during 22-26 and 28 June traveled 2.5-4 km down the flanks from the SSE to the SE. One pyroclastic flow was observed on 27 June. Ash plumes rose generally 3.5 km on most days, drifting E, SE, and S, although an ash plume rose as high as 5 km on 25 June. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. Deformation data showed a trend of inflation. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate.BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high. On 17 June there were 120 avalanches, four pyroclastic flows that traveled 2-3 km ESE and S, and lava was incandescent as far as 2 km S and SE. On 18 June a pyroclastic flow traveled 2.5 km SE and incandescent lava as far as 1.5 km SE was observed. Based on ground observations, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE during 18-22 June. On 23 June BNPB noted that 10,184 people (3,030 families) were displaced, housed in 10 different shelters. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high. On 13 June six eruptions generated ash plumes that rose 1-2 km high and pyroclastic flows that traveled as far as 3 km SE. At 2140 about 200 people from Sukanalu village were ordered to evacuate. The report noted that 2,053 families (6,179 people) had been living in temporary shelters since June 2014. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). On 5 June BNPB reported that the Alert-Level increase for Sinabung on 2 June prompted 2,727 people (677 families) from the S and SE flanks to evacuate. PVMBG reported that foggy weather often prevented visual observations during 5-10 June, except for a few clearer periods on some days. White plumes rose at most 1 km above the crater, and lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km S and SE. Pyroclastic flows traveled 0.7-1.3 km daily down the S and SE flanks. Ash plumes from pyroclastic flows rose as high as 1 km during 5-6 and 10 June. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported that foggy weather often prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 25 May-2 June, except for a few clearer periods on some days. White plumes rose 200-700 m above the crater, and lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km S and SE. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2-3 km down the S and SE flanks during 26-28 May. An ash plume from a pyroclastic flow on 28 May rose into the fog. Two pyroclastic flows occurred on 2 June but fog prevented visual observations. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. Deformation data showed a trend of inflation. The Alert Level was raised to 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the S to E flanks should evacuate. On 3 June BNPB reported that the lava dome volume had increased to more than 3 million cubic meters and was unstable.PVMBG reported that foggy weather often prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 19-25 May, except for a few clearer periods on some days. White plumes rose as high as 800 m during 19-20 and 22-24 May. Lava from the lava dome was active as far as 1.5 km S during 21-23 May. On 24 May a pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km down the S flank and produced an ash plume that rose 500 m. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions. PVMBG reported that foggy weather prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 4-12 May, except for a few clearer periods on some days. On 4 May dense white-to-gray plumes rose 700 m above the summit. During 7-11 May white plumes rose as high as 700 m. Lava from the dome traveled 1 km S on 10 May. A pyroclastic flow originating from the lava dome traveled 3 km S on 12 May, and produced ash plumes mainly obscured by fog. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; levels declined overall. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.PVMBG reported that during 6-12 April white plumes rose as high as 500 m above Sinabung; misty conditions prevented observations on 13 April. Lava was incandescent as far from the lava dome as 1.5 km S and SE. The main lava flow remained 2.9 km long. After pyroclastic flows descended the flanks on 2 April, a new lava flow from the growing lava dome formed near the crater and traveled 170 m SSE. Recorded seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Overall seismicity decreased compared to 30 March-6 April. Tilt and EDM (Electronic Distance Measurement) data fluctuated but showed overall deflation. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions. According to social media sources, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 April an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and a pyroclastic flow descended the flank. Meteorological cloud cover prevented satellite observations.PVMBG reported that during 6-12 April white plumes rose as high as 500 m above Sinabung; misty conditions prevented observations on 13 April. Lava was incandescent as far from the lava dome as 1.5 km S and SE. The main lava flow remained 2.9 km long. After pyroclastic flows descended the flanks on 2 April, a new lava flow from the growing dome formed near the crater and traveled 170 m SSE. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, local and far tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Overall seismicity decreased compared to 30 March-6 April. Tilt and EDM (Electronic Distance Measurement) data fluctuated but showed overall deflation. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE, and 3 km in other directions Based on PVMBG notices, BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung increased on 1 April. Seismicity increased. Pyroclastic flows traveled 3.5 km S and produced ash plumes that rose 2 km and drifted SW. Avalanches were detected and incandescent lava was observed at night. On 2 April 2015 pyroclastic flows traveled 4 km S and 1 km SE. Avalanches continued. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km on the S and SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.Based on report from PVMBG, new pyroclastic flows episode started at Sinabung on 2nd of April. Several Pyroclatic flows travelled more than 3 4km on the flank of the volcano and generated plume above the volcano Based on reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 March an eruption at Sinabung generated a plume that rose 3 km above the summit. Satellite images detected an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100-230 km WNW and NW. Later that day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km SW. Based on satellite images and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 February an eruption from Sinabung generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted almost 540 km NW, and became detached. A lower-level eruption later that day produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite images and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 30 km SE. Based on satellite images, weather models, and ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 February an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 10-30 km W.Based on satellite images and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 January an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km NW. On 18 January BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high; low-frequency earthquakes and constant tremor were detected. A pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km S and ash plumes rose 700 m. The number of people that remained displaced was 2,443 (795 families). The Alert Level was at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).Based on satellite images, weather models, and ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported an eruption from Sinabung on 10 January with an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas at night on 11 January. During 12-13 January ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. BNPB reported that an eruption at Sinabung occurred during 0833-0919 on 3 January; this event was larger than the events that had been occurring almost daily. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2-4 km down the flanks and ash plumes rose as high as 3 km. Ashfall was reported in Payung (5 km SSW), Tiganderket (7 km W), Selandi (5 km SSW), Juhar (20 km SW), and Laubaleng (35 km WSW). Since the September 2013 onset of activity, 2,443 people (795 families) still remained displaced.Based on satellite images, webcam views, and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Sinabung drifted almost 30 km SW on 24 December. Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The notice stated that the eruption was more significant and higher than the intermittent pyroclastic flows observed during the previous week. Eruptions during 11-16 December produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.3-6.1 km (14,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted at most 30 km N, NW, and W. Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Eruptions during 5-7 December produced ash plumes that drifted 2-20 km in multiple directions. On 4 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2-3 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that duirng 19-20 November eruptions from Sinabung produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Continuous dense white plumes and intermittent pyroclastic flows were also visible. During 22-23 November intermittent pyroclastic flows recorded by the webcam reached the base of the volcano. On 23 November an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. On 14 November BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained elevated; avalanches occurred 79 times, and pyroclastic flows generated by three of the avalanches traveled 4 km S. Ash plumes rose 1 km and the lava flow was active 500 m down from the crater on the S and W flanks. The report stated that 2,986 people from 956 households remained displaced. The Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes drifting W, SW, and S were recorded by a webcam during 12-18 November. Dense white plumes and intermittent pyroclastic flows were visible on 19 November.The Darwin VAAC reported that eruptions from Sinabung were recorded by a webcam during 4-7 and 10-11 November. Based on a report from PVMBG, the VAAC reported that an eruption on 9 November produced an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km NW. Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported localized ash from Sinabung on 2 November, but a meteorological cloud in the area prevented further observations. A pyroclastic flow and an ash plume were recorded by the webcam on 3 November. The ash plume rose to an estimated altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE; the altitude of the ash plume was again uncertain due to meteorological cloud. On 4 November an ash plume observed with the webcam rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Based on webcam views, wind data models, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-27 October ash plumes rose from Sinabung. During 23-24 October ash plumes drifted 15-40 km N and SW. A small eruption observed on the webcam on 25 October produced a minor amount of ash that drifted SW; a later ash plume drifted almost 30 km WNW. The next day another eruption generated an ash plume that drifted E. Ash emissions on 27 October were recorded by the webcam. The VAAC noted that PVMBG reported an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and then dissipated. On 27 October BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high; on 26 October pyroclastic flows traveled 3.5 km S and avalanches occurred multiple times. Hot ash clouds rose 2 km. The report stated that 3,284 people from 1,018 families remained in evacuation shelters. Based on webcam views and wind data models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-20 October daily small eruptions from Sinabung generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted 55 km NW during 15-17 October and ESE on 19 October.The Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption from Sinabung, observed in the webcam at 1248 on 8 October, generated a pyroclastic flow. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. (based on webcam views and wind models) and drifted E. Eruptions recorded at 0636 and 1107 on 9 October generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, based on webcam views and wind models. On 10 October satellite images and the webcam detected an ash plume drifting 55 km NE. An ash plume drifting SW at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. was recorded by the webcam on 11 October. On 14 October an ash plume was again recorded by the webcam and rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.Based on reports from PVMBG, BNPB reported four eruptions from Sinabung on 5 October. The first one occurred at 0146, and produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled 4.5 km S and an ash plume that rose 2 km. The next three events, at 0638, 0736, and 0753, all generated pyroclastic flows that traveled 2.5-4.5 km S. The fourth event also produced an ash plume that rose 3 km. A news article stated that pyroclastic flows from a fifth event at 0900 were smaller, but again traveled 4.5 km after a sixth event at 1200. According to the Darwin VAAC a low-level eruption recorded by the PVMBG webcam generated a pyroclastic flow on 6 October; some of the ash rose higher and drifted E. The Jakarta MWO noted that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 7 October. Cloud cover prevented satellite observations. A news article posted on 8 October noted that eruptions in the previous four days caused some evacuations. According to news articles a pyroclastic flow at Sinabung traveled 2 km SE down the flanks at 1343 on 24 September 2014. The height of a corresponding ash plume could not be determined because it rose into the cloud cover. About 4,700 people remained in evacuation shelters. On 30 September at 1720 an ash plume rose 2 km and a pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km. PVMBG reported that RSAM values from Sinabung were low and stable during 12-20 September. Earthquake signals indicating lava-dome instability were recorded and had increased from 96 to 110 events/day since the 5-11 September period. Seismicity also continued to signify growth of the main lava flow on the flanks; incandescent lava was visible at the top, middle, and front of the lava flow. The length of the lava flow was 2.9 km on 6 September. White and sometimes bluish plumes rose as high as 1 km above the lava dome. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2.5 km SE on 15 September and 2 km S on 18 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Eruptive activity is still continuing. As of the 10th of July, a short pyroclastic flow occurred (about 1000 m long) went down toward the Soutwest flank of the volcano. previously, after more than a month of dome growth and lava flows, PVMBG reported that Sinabung erupted explosively again on 29 June 2014. The eruption plume rose to 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and pyroclastic flows extended 4.5 km SE. Visual observations were impeded by inclement weather. About 14,000 persons remain evacuated since September 2013. The Alert Level remains at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported visual monitoring of Sinabung during 1-17 June 2014 from the Ndokum Siroga village (~8.5 km of the summit). Dome growth continued and was accompanied by a lava flow that was frequently visibly incandescent. The observatory noted that the lava flow (particularly avalanches from the flow front) presented a threat to areas S and SE within a 5 km radius from the summit. During this reporting period, seismicity was dominated by tremor associated with avalanches, and there was minor deformation. Alert Level 3 was maintained (on a scale of 1-4). Based on webcam images, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 April an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km W.PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 23 March-8 April 2014 based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose at most 1.2 km above the lava dome. Lava had traveled 2.5 km down the flanks as of 6 April and was incandescent at various locations. Incandescent material originating from the edges of the lava dome and flow traveled up to 2 km S and 500 m SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome decreased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied but were relatively insignificant. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km on the S and SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.Based on webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 March an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. Meteorological cloud cover prevented satellite views. Gas emissions were noted on 30 March. PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 15-22 March based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose 500 m above the lava dome daily, and as high as 1 km on 21 March. Lava had traveled 2.4 km down the flanks as of 20 March and was incandescent at various areas. Incandescent material originating from the edges of the lava dome and flow traveled up to 1.5 km S and 200 m SE. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3 km S on 17 March. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome decreased slightly. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied between 300 and 598 tons per day, indicating no new magma. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 8-15 March based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose from the lava dome daily, as high as 1 km on most days; plumes rose 2 km on 12 March. Incandescent material originating from various parts of the lava dome traveled up to 2 km S and SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome increased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied between 300 and 598 tons per day. Observations on 13 March showed that lava from the dome had flowed 2.4 km downslope. The report also noted that three people burned during a pyroclastic flow on 1 February later died in the hospital bringing the total number of casualties from that day to 17. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.Based on wind data, satellite images, and webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-7 and 9-11 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4 km (12,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW. Ash plumes drifted 35-165 km SW and W during 6 and 9-11 March.Based on wind data, webcam images, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25 February-1 March and 3-4 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4 km (10,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km E, NE, N, NW, W, and SW. On 19 February 2014 BNPB reported that villagers outside of the 5-km evacuation zone around Sinabung continued to return to their homes. Based on wind data and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19 and 21-22 February ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-35 km NE and SW. Ash plumes were visible in webcam images during 23-25 February; ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. on 25 February and drifted 45 km E. On 24 February BNPB noted that 16,361 people remained in 34 evacuation shelters. Dense white plumes rose 100-300 m above the dome and incandescent material as far as 2 km SE from the dome was observed. previously,b ased on webcam images, Indonesian Met office notices, wind data, and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-13 and 15-18 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-95 km N, NE, and E. On 16 February BNPB reported that villagers outside of the 5-km evacuation zone around Sinabung slowly return to their homes.Based on reports from PVMBG, BNPB reported on 8 and 9 February 2014 that seismicity at Sinabung continued to be dominated by hybrid earthquakes, indicating pressure below the crater and a growing lava dome. Earthquakes associated with avalanches increased. The 9 February report noted that the number of displaced people reached 32,351 (9,991 families) in 42 evacuation centers. Refugees from 17 villages outside the 5-km radius were allowed to return to their homes, starting with four villages during the first phase.PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 24-31 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. On 24 January dense white plumes rose as high as 1 km. During 25-26 and 28-31 January dense grayish-white plumes rose 0.1-1.5 km; on 27 January plumes rose 4 km. Each day pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km SE and S. Incandescent material was observed 0.2-1.5 km SE of the vent. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes continued to decrease. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that between 1200 and 1800 on 23 January pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5 km down Sinabung's S flank. The number of displaced people reached 28,715 (9,045 families) in 42 evacuation centers. Based on webcam views, satellite images, ground reports, and altitude and drift directions derived from wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-23 and 25-27 January ash plumes rose to an altitude 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-185 km N, NE, and E. PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 10-17 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Each day brownish white or gray and white ash plumes rose as high as 5 km, pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km E, SE, and S, and incandescent material was observed on the S and SE flanks as far as 3 km. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes continued to drop, however. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 3-10 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Each day ash plumes rose as high as 5 km, pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km E, SE, and S, and incandescent material was observed as far as 2 km SE and E. Roaring was periodically heard and burned trees on the S flank were noted on 4 January. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes dropped dramatically, however. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 7 km on the SE flank and 5 km elsewhere. Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that the number of hybrid earthquakes decreased on 11 January and volcanic earthquakes increased. Ash plumes rose 1-5 km and drifted W, and pyroclastic flows traveled 1-4.5 km SE and 1 km E. Several villages in the Namanteran district reported ashfall. The 11 January report noted that the number of displaced people reached 25,516 (7,898 families) in 38 evacuation centers.Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that during 30-31 December 2013 Sinabung continued to be very active. Ash plumes rose as high as 7 km above the lava dome, pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 3.5 km SE, and incandescent avalanches traveled 1.5 km SE. On 3 January 2014 the lava dome continued to grow and collapse. Pyroclastic flows occurred 172 times and traveled 2-4 km SE, and ash plumes rose 2-6 km. Two villages located 6.5 km SE, Jerawa and Desa Pintu Besi, were evacuated. On 4 January pyroclastic flows were larger and more frequent. They continued to travel up to 5 km SE as well as 3.5 km SSE. Ash plumes rose 2-4 km. On 5 January the number of hybrid earthquakes increased, indicating a growing lava dome, and pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5-4.5 km SE. During 4-5 January pyroclastic flows were recorded 426 times. On 7 January ash plumes rose 1-6 km and drifted SW, and pyroclastic flows continued to travel 1.5-4.5 km SE. The number of refugees reached 22,145. PVMBG reported that seismicity at Sinabung increased during 21-26 December and indicated rising magma and lava-dome growth. Observers in Ndokum Siroga, about 8.5 km away, noted dense white plumes rising 70-1,200 m above the crater. Roaring was also periodically heard. A lava dome in the North Crater, visible on 24 December, was 56 m high and 210 m wide. During 25-26 December plumes were white and gray, and rose 300-400 m above the crater. On 26 December the lava-dome volume was estimated to be over 1 million cubic meters, with a growth rate of 3.5 cubic meters per second. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km. On 30 December Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that the number of displaced people reached 19,126 (5, 979 families). They also noted that activity at Sinabung had increased. Collapsing parts of the lava dome generated block-and-ash flows as well as pyroclastic flows which traveled as far as 3.5 km down the SE flank. Explosions and pyroclastic flows generated ash plumes that rose at least 6 km above the crater.PVMBG reported that observers in Ndokum Siroga, about 8.5 km away, noted gray plumes rising 1 km above Sinabung on 6 December 2013. Grayish-white plumes rose as high as 400 m on 7 December, and dense white plumes also rose as high as 400 m the next day. Dense grayish-to-white plumes rose 70-200 m on 9 December. White plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater during 10-13 December. Tremor during 6-13 December was recorded continuously, with varying amplitude. The number of low-frequency earthquakes significantly increased on 7 December, and the number of hybrid earthquakes increased the next day. RSAM values had steadily increased since 28 November. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on webcam data, wind data, satellite image analysis, and PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 December 2013 an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Later that day and during 5-6 December ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 10 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW. A few hours later an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km NW. Based on webcam data and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-31 November and 2 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted 150 km W during 30-31 November and 55 km Won 2 December. On 3 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. According to a news report on 2 December, landslides killed nine people in the Gundaling village, 12 km E. As of the 25th of November 2013, CVGHM reported that explosive activity increasing again during the past days. Eight explosions occurred between Saturday and Sunday and many ashfalls occurred on villages around the volcano (0,5 -1 cm) and until the town of Medan (50 km North). CVGHM raised the Alert level to 4(AWAS) and exclusion zone radius to 3.5 km. About 19 villages with 15.000 people should be evacuated. VAAC raised the alert level for Airlines to Red because the ashplume rose to 7000 m high in the area. On 25 November Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that 17,713 people, out of the 20,270 residents living within 5 km, had been evacuated to 31 helters. Previous news :an explosion observed with the webcam on 18 November 2013 produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. About 30 minutes later an ash plume also visible in satellite images rose to an altitude of 11.3 km (37,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km W. Four hours later satellite images showed ash plumes at an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. to the W of Sinabung and at an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. over the crater. On 19 November the webcam recorded an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. over the crater. A news article stated that later that night that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. Based on webcam data and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 150 km NW and W. According to a news article, a pyroclastic flow traveled 1.2 km down the SE flank on 14 November, prompting more evacuations from villages near the base of the volcano. The article noted that more than 7,000 people had been evacuated from 10 villages. Based on information from the Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, webcam data, wind data, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The next day an ash plume rose to the same altitude but was not observed in satellite images due to meteorological cloud cover. According to webcam views an eruption on 8 November produced a low-level ash plume. The Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, the webcam, and satellite data detecting sulfur dioxide indicated two explosions on 10 November. The first one, at 0720, generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. The altitude of the second plume, from an explosion at 1600, was unknown. An ash plume on 11 November rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 20 km SW. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km NW.According to a news article posted on 12 November, more than 5,000 people from seven villages had evacuated their homes in recent days. The article noted that the government had called for an evacuation of people living within a 3-km radius of Sinabung, but people outside of that zone had also been evacuating. The 6th of November 2013 PVMBG(CVGHM) the new eruption occurred at 1423 on 5 November. This event lasted for 20 minutes and generated an ash plume up to 3,000 m above the crater that drifted SW. Rumbling sounds were also noted by staff at the observation post. Pyroclastic flows were observed at 1431; the flows extended 1 km down the SE flank. No casualties were reported due to the event. The evacuated residents remained displaced on 5 november.Previously, PVMBG reported that elevated seismicity, including events of continuous tremor, was ongoing since 29 October. Relatively small ash explosions were also reported prior to the larger events on 3 November. During 29 October-2 November plumes rose to 200-2,000 m above the summit. Gas measurements conducted during 31 October and 1-2 November showed an SO2 flux of 226-426 tons per day; this was a general decrease in emissions. During 31 October ashfall was noted on the SE flank up to 1 km from the summit. An eruption began at 0126 on 3 November that generated ash plumes up to 7 km a.s.l. (~23,000 ft) and triggered evacuations from communities within 3 km of the volcano (approximately 1,681 residents); the ash plume drifted W. Rumbling sounds that lasted up to 10 minutes long were noted by staff at the Sinabung Observation Post (~8.5 km from the volcano). News agencies reported that this was the second largest eruption since the 24 October event that displaced more than 3,300 people. The Alert Level was increased from Level II (Watch) to Level III (Alert) at 0300. A second eruption occurred in the afternoon. PVMBG reported that Sinabung had been erupting more frequently and with increasing energy.PVMBG reported that after 29 September, the day the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4), seismicity at Sinabung declined but continued to fluctuate through 22 October. White plumes were seen rising 100-300 m from the crater. On 22 October plumes were also grayish and rose 250 m. Vents appeared on the N flank and produced dense white plumes that rose 70 m. On 23 October landslides at two locations were observed, and explosions occurred at 1619 and 1651. Plumes rose from the summit crater and from a fracture formed on 15 October near Lau Kawar. Fog prevented observations for a period after the explosions; once the fog cleared dense gray plumes were observed. A third explosion occurred at 2100. On 24 October an explosion at 0550 generated an ash plume that rose 3 km and caused ashfall in areas S. Another explosion was detected at 0612. According to a news article about 3,300 people that evacuated their homes were mostly from two villages within 3 km of Sinabung, in the Karo district. CVGHM reported that seismicity at Sinabung fluctuated in 2012-2013, including during July-September 2013. During 1-14 September dense white plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater, and at 0255 on 14 September incandescence from the crater was observed. According to news articles an eruption at 0245 on 15 September produced an ash plume and ashfall in Sukameriah (50 km NE), Kutarayat, Kutagugung (16 km SW), and Berastagi (14 km E). About 3,000 people evacuated from areas within a 3-km radius of the volcano, and several flights at Medan's airport (55 km NW) were canceled. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). An eruption at 1203 on 17 September ejected tephra and a dense ash plume that rose higher than the plume from 15 September. According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km SE. On 18 September a low-level ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical, 2460-m-high andesitic-to-dacitic volcano is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. An unconfirmed eruption was noted in 1881, and solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks of Sinabung in 1912, although no confirmed historical eruptions were recorded prior to 2010.

Colo volcano (Sulawesi) -PVMBG reported that seismicity at Colo declined during 1 September-25 October; 1-7 shallow-volcanic earthquakes and 1-3 volcanic earthquakes were recorded per day, which were rates similar to those recorded before a seismic increase in June. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 26 October, and residents and tourists were warned not to approach the crater. PVMBG PVMBG reports that seismicity at Colo significantly increased on 8 June 2015, particularly volcanic and shallow-volcanic earthquakes; 12 volcanic earthquakes were recorded on 22 June (previously, 1-5 events per day had been recorded), and there were 11 shallow volcanic earthquakes on 23 June (previously, 1-8 events per day had been recorded). On 24 June the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). However, observers at the Colo Volcano Observation Post in the Wakai village did not see plumes during April-23 June. Residents and tourists were warned not to approach the volcano within a radius of 1.5 km. Colo volcano forms the isolated small island of Una Una in the middle of the Gulf of Tomini in northern Sulawesi. The broad, low volcano contains a 2-km-wide caldera with a small central cone. Only three eruptions have been recorded in historical time, but two of those caused widespread damage over much of the island. The last eruption, in 1983, produced pyroclastic flows that swept over most of the island shortly after all residents had been evacuated. (GVN/GVP)

Makian volcano (Halmahera) - PVMBG reported that during 1 January-15 June 2016 gas plumes from Makian rose no higher than the crater rim. Seismicity fluctuated but decreased overall. On 16 June the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported that seismicity at Makian increased at the beginning of January 2016 and was characterized by deep volcanic earthquakes, low-frequency events, and tremor. Tremor amplitude increased at the beginning of March. Gas emissions did not change; weak solfatara emissions continued to rise from the crater floor. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 7 March. Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. Makian volcano forms a 10-km-wide island near the southern end of a chain of volcanic islands off the west coast of Halmahera and has been the source of infrequent, but violent eruptions that have devastated villages on the island. The large 1.5-km-wide summit crater, containing a small lake on the NE side, gives the peak a flat-topped profile. Two prominent valleys extend to the coast from the summit crater on the north and east sides. Four parasitic cones are found on the western flanks. Eruption have been recorded since about 1550; major eruptions in 1646, 1760-61, 1861-62, 1890, and 1988 caused extensive damage and many fatalities. (GVN/GVP)

Gamkonora (Halmahera) -PVMBG reported that observers at the Gamkonora observation post in Gamsungi (6 km NW), West Halmahera, reported that during 1 January-6 March diffuse
white plumes rose up to 150 m above the crater rim, although weather conditions often obscured views. RSAM values fluctuated; higher values during mid-January through February were due to increased tremor and tornillo-type earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. PVMBG reported that observers at the Gamkonora observation post in Gamsungi (6 km NW), West Halmahera, reported that during 1-15 November diffuse white
plumes rose up to 100 m above the crater rim. RSAM values fluctuated; tremor continued to be elevated. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. PVMBG reported that observers at the Gamkonora observation post in Gamsungi (6 km NW), West Halmahera, reported that during 1 August-3 November diffuse white plumes rose up to 70 m above the crater rim. RSAM values fluctuated; an increase was detected in October coincident with a period of increased tremor. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 1 July. Residents and tourists were asked not to venture near the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. The shifting of eruption centers on Gamkonora, at 1635 m the highest peak of Halmahera, has produced an elongated series of summit craters along a N-S trending rift. Youthful-looking lava flows originate near the cones of Gunung Alon and Popolojo, south of Gamkonora. Since its first recorded eruption in the 16th century, Gamkonora has typically produced small-to-moderate explosive eruptions. Its largest historical eruption, in 1673, was accompanied by tsunamis that inundated villages.

Ibu volcano (Halmahera) -PVMBG reported that during 1 June-22 August white-to-medium-gray plumes rose as high as 800 m above Ibu's summit crater and drifted E, although
inclement weather often prevented visual observations. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating surface or near-surface activity, and the continued growth of the lava dome in the N part of the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side.
PVMBG reported that during 7-22 March gray-to-gray-black plumes rose as high as 700 m above Ibu's summit crater, although inclement weather often prevented visual observations. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating surface or near-surface activity, and the continued growth of the lava dome in the N part of the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side. PVMBG reported that during 1 January-7 March white-to-gray plumes rose as high as 500 m above Ibu's summit crater, although inclement weather often prevented visual observations. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating surface or near-surface activity, and the continued growth of the lava dome in the N part of the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side. Previously, PVMBG reported that during 1-17 November white-to-gray plumes rose as high as 450 m above Ibu's summit crater. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating surface or near-surface activity, and the continued growth of the lava dome. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away on the N side. PVMBG reported that during 1 August-3 November white-to-gray plumes rose as high as 500 m above Ibu's craters. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating surface or near-surface activity, and the continued growth of the lava dome. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater, and 3.5 km away from the N side. The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the W flank. A group of maars is located below the N and W flanks. Only a few eruptions have been recorded in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998.

Dukono (Halmahera) -Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-19 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s;l. and, on some days, drifted as far as 250 km NE, E, ESE, and SE.Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-13 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 115 km NE, E, ESE, and SE. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 31 August-6 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 230 km in multiple directionsBased on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 24-30 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 280 km W, NW, N NE, and E. Based on ground reports from PVMBG, satellite data, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-24 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 130 km NE, E, ESE, and SE. Based on ground reports from PVMBG, satellite data, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-16 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted possibly as far as 270 km E, NE, and N. Based on ground reports from PVMBG, satellite data, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3 and 6-9 August ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.8-3.3 km (6,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, E, and SE. Based on ground reports from PVMBG and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-29 July ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and E. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the N-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

G. Karangetang (Siau Island)-Based on observations conducted at the Karangetang Volcano Observation Post in the village of Salili, PVMBG reported that during 1 February-13 March
the lava dome was incandescent at night. Variable amounts of white and blue emissions rose as high as 150 m above Main Crater. Seismicity was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes; volcanic and mulit-phase earthquakes declined though signals indicated that lava-dome growth continued. Thermal anomalies had not been detected in satellite images since 8 March. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach Karangetang within a 1.5-km radius.Based on observations conducted at the Karangetang Volcano Observation Post in the village of Salili, PVMBG reported that during 17-24 February the lava dome was incandescent at night. Variable amounts of white and blue emissions rose as high as 100 m above Main Crater. RSAM values doubled in January and continued to rise in February due to an increased number of shallow volcanic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach Karangetang within a 4-km radius Based on observations conducted at the Karangetang Volcano Observation Post in the village of Salili, PVMBG reported that during 10-17 February the lava dome was incandescent at night. Variable amounts of white and blue emissions rose as high as 100 m above Main Crater. RSAM values doubled in January and continued to rise in February due to an increased number of shallow volcanic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach Karangetang within a 4-km radius. Based on observations from the Karangetang Volcano Observation Post in the village of Salili, PVMBG reported that during 3-10 February the lava dome was incandescent at night. Variable amounts of white and blue emissions rose as high as 100 m above Main Crater, and roaring was occasionally heard. RSAM values doubled in January and continued to rise in February due to an increase in the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach Karangetang within a 4-km radius. Based on observations conducted at the Karangetang Volcano Observation Post in the village of Salili, PVMBG reported that during 27 Janaury-3 February thelava-dome was incandescent at night. Variable amounts of white and blue emissions rose as high as 100 m above Main Crater RSAM values doubled in January due to an increase in the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach Karangetang within a 4-km radius. Based on observations conducted at the Karangetang Volcano Observation Post in the village of Salili, PVMBG reported that during 6-20 January 2016 the lava dome was incandescent at night. Variable amounts of white and blue emissions rose as high as 100 m above Main Crater. RSAM values had been stable since 27 December 2015. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach Karangetang within a 4-km radius. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 50 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

Anak Krakatau ( Sunda Strait) - PVMBG reported that during 1 June-12 July diffuse white plumes were observed rising 25 m above Anak Krakatau, although foggy weather often prevented observations. Seismicity fluctuated at a high level, and continued to be dominated by shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes. Signals indicating emissions were also recorded. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater. PVMBG reported that during 22 April-25 May diffuse white plumes rose 25 m above Anak Krakatau, although foggy weather often prevented observations. Seismicity was high during May, and continued to be dominated by shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater. PVMBG reported that during 1 March-21 April diffuse white plumes rose 25-50 m above Anak Krakatau, although foggy weather often prevented observations. Seismicity continued to be dominated by shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes, as well as signals indicating emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater. The renowned Krakatau volcano lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 AD, resulted in a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this volcano formed Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. The post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau), constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan, has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927. Live Webcam

Soputan volcano (Sulawesi) -PVMBG reported that during 1-20 April diffuse white plumes from Soputan rose as high as 100 m above the crater and drifted E. The number of volcanic earthquakes and signals indicating avalanches declined. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 21 April; residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km. PVMBG reported that during 4-11 April diffuse white plumes from Soputan rose as high as 100 m above the crater and drifted E. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating avalanches and emissions; avalanche signals became less intense as compared to the previous week. A few volcanic and shallow volcanic earthquakes were detected during 6 and 9-10 April. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km. PVMBG reported that during 21-28 March diffuse white plumes from Soputan rose as high as 100 m above the crater and drifted E. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating avalanches and emissions; shallow volcanic earthquakes were detected on 21 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 6.5 km. PVMBG reported that during 22-29 February diffuse white plumes from Soputan rose as high as 75 m above the crater. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating avalanches and emissions, though shallow volcanic and low-frequency earthquakes were also detected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 6.5 km. PVMBG reported that during 9-15 February diffuse white plumes from Soputan rose as high as 200 m above the crater. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating avalanches and emissions, though volcanic and low-frequency earthquakes were also detected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 6.5 km. BNPB reported that explosions at Soputan were detected at 1300, 1437, and 2008 on 6 February; observers 10 km away saw dense reddish gray ash plumes rising 3 km above the crater. At 0106, 0204, 0311, and 0320 on 7 February strombolian activity ejected tephra as high as 1 km above the crater. A pyrosclastic traveled 2 km down the E flank. Thunderous sounds were reported, and dense ash plumes rose 2.5 km and drifted W. Constant tremor was detected. Ashfall was reported in multiple districts including Pasan (5 km SSE), Tombatu (16 km SSW), Belang (17 km SSE), and Ratatotok (20 km S). The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km, or 6.5 km on the WSW flank.. The small Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano rises to 1784 m and is located SW of Sempu volcano. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924. Last previous eruption occured in 2008. VSI website

Awu volcano (Sangihe Islands) - PVMBG reported that the number of earthquakes at Awu had risen significantly on 11 May and remained elevated through 14 May; a downward trend in seismicity became evident on 21 May. Earthquake hypocenters were located at depths between 1 and 2 km. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 14 June; residents and tourists were advised to stay 4 km away from the crater. PVMBG reported that seismicity at Awu fluctuated during April and the first part of May. On 11 May 2016 the number of earthquakes rose significantly; the number of local tectonic and deep volcanic earthquakes was the highest recorded in the last year, and the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes was the second highest recorded (the highest number was recorded on 24 November 2015, prompting an increase in the Alert Level). Earthquake hypocenters were located at depths between 0.5 and 4 km. On 12 May the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were advised to stay 4 km away from the crater. The massive Gunung Awu stratovolcano occupies the northern end of Great Sangihe Island, the largest of the Sangihe arc. Deep valleys that form passageways for lahars dissect the flanks of the 1320-m-high volcano, which was constructed within a 4.5-km-wide caldera. Awu is one of Indonesia's deadliest volcanoes; powerful explosive eruptions in 1711, 1812, 1856, 1892, and 1966 produced devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused more than 8000 cumulative fatalities. Awu contained a summit crater lake that was 1 km wide and 172 m deep in 1922, but was largely ejected during the 1966 eruption.

Batu Tara volcano (Flores) - Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-26 October ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-65 km SW and W. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-19 October ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-130 km WSW and W. Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-8 and 13 October ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 90-100 km NW and W. Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 September an ash plume from Batu Tara drifted 185 km NW at an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 September ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 185 km NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 May ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 80 km W. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-19 May ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-95 km W and NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-9 May ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-85 km W and WNW.According to the Darwin VAAC a pilot observed an ash plume in the vicinity of Batu Tara on 7 April 2015 . The plume drifted NW at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing basanitic and tephritic rocks. The first historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced explosions and a lava flow. The Current Colour Code for Batu Tara is ORANGE

Paluweh volcano (off of Flores coast) -PVMBG reported that observers at a post located in Kampung Ropa, Keliwumbu Village, noted that during 30 December 2015-13 January 2016 diffuse white plumes rose as high as 150 m above Paluweh. Seismicity remained relatively stable, and was characterized by shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions and avalanches. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the summit within a radius of 1.5 km.
PVMBG reported that observers at a post located in Kampung Ropa, Keliwumbu Village, noted that during 3-17 November diffuse white plumes rose as high as 75 m above Paluweh. Seismicity remained relatively stable, and was characterized by shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions and avalanches. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the summit within a radius of 1.5 km. PVMBG reported that observers at a post located in Kampung Ropa, Keliwumbu Village, noted that during 1 August-2 November diffuse white plumes rose as high as 200 m above Paluweh. Seismicity remained relatively stable. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the summit within a radius of 1.5 km. Paluweh volcano, also known as Rokatenda, forms the 8-km-wide island of Paluweh north of the volcanic arc that cuts across Flores Island. Although the volcano rises about 3000 m above the sea floor, its summit reaches only 875 m above sea level. The broad irregular summit region contains overlapping craters up to 900 m wide and several lava domes. Several flank vents occur along a NW-trending fissure. The largest historical eruption occurred in 1928, when strong explosive activity was accompanied by landslide-induced tsunamis and lava dome emplacement.

Kelimutu (Flores) - CVGHM reported that on 3 June 2013 the water in Kelimutu's Crater II (Tiwu Nua Muri Kooh Tai Crater) turned from blue to a light brown color, “smoke” rose 50 m above the crater, “rustling water sounds” were heard near the wall of Crater I (Tiwu Ata Polo), and a sharp sulfur odor was noted. That evening a weak sulfur odor was reported in Pemo (3 km). Plants within 2 km S and SE appeared to have wilted. Based on seismicity from 20 May-2 June and visual observations on 3 June, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and warned the public not to approach the craters within a radius of 2 km and to avoid river valleys. Kelimutu is a small, but well-known Indonesian volcano in central Flores Island with three summit crater lakes of varying colors. The western lake, Tiwi Ata Mbupu (Lake of Old People) is commonly blue. Tiwu Nua Muri Kooh Tai (Lake of Young Men and Maidens) and Tiwu Ata Polo (Bewitched, or Enchanted Lake), which share a common crater wall, are commonly green- and red-colored, respectively, although lake colors vary periodically. Active upwelling, probably fed by subaqueous fumaroles, occurs at the two eastern lakes. The scenic lakes are a popular tourist destination and have been the source of minor phreatic eruptions in historical time. The summit of the compound 1639-m-high Kelimutu volcano is elongated 2 km in a WNW-ESE direction; the older cones of Kelido and Kelibara are located respectively 3 km to the north and 2 km to the south.

Lewotobi volcano (Flores Island) - PVMBG reported that white plumes were observed rising 15 m above Lewotobi during periods of clear weather from 1 Septmber-6 October. Seismicity
declined significantly during the previous three months and became stable. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 7 October. PVMBG reported that white plumes were observed rising 15 m above Lewotobi during periods of clear weather from 17 July to 25 August. Seismicity decreased significantly during 1-25 August. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).PVMBG reported that white plumes were observed rising 15-20 m above Lewotobi during periods of clear weather from 1 February to 17 March 2015. Seismicity increased significantly on 13 March, especially volcanic earthquakes and shallow volcanic earthquakes; harmonic tremor, Tornillo events, and tectonic events were also detected. On 17 March the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were warned not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius. The Lewotobi "husband and wife" twin volcano (also known as Lewetobi) in eastern Flores Island is composed of the Lewotobi Lakilaki and Lewotobi Perempuan stratovolcanoes. Their summits are less than 2 km apart along a NW-SE line. The conical 1584-m-high Lewotobi Lakilaki has been frequently active during the 19th and 20th centuries, while the taller and broader 1703-m-high Lewotobi Perempuan has erupted only twice in historical time. Small lava domes have grown during the 20th century in the crescentic summit craters of both volcanoes, which are open to the north. A prominent flank cone, Iliwokar, occurs on the E flank of Lewotobi Perampuan. (GVN/GVP)

Marapi volcano (Sumatra) -PVMBG reported that on most days during periods of clear weather from 1 November 2015 to 19 January 2016 white plumes rose above Marapi as high as 250 m above the crater. A phreatic explosion at 2233 on 14 November generated an ash plume, and ashfall was noted in Panyalaian and Aia Angek on the SW flank. Seismicity fluctuated during 1-18 January; earthquakes indicating emissions, tornillo-type events, and shallow volcanic signals slightly increased. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 3 km of the summit. PVMBG reported that during 1 August-16 November diffuse white plumes rose as high as 150 m above Marapi, inclement weather prevented observations during October and periodically during the other months. Seismicity fluctuated; the number of tremor, tornillo-type, and signals indicating emissions increased. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 3 km of the summit. PVMBG reported that during February-25 May diffuse white plumes rose as high as 300 m above Marapi, although inclement weather often prevented observations. Seismicity fluctuated. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 3 km of the summit. According to news articles, an explosion at Marapi on 26 February produced an ash plume that caused ashfall in areas as far as 10 km S. According to PVMBG the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). According to a news article from 5 February 2014 four explosions from Marapi occurred in early February. One of the explosions was followed by ashfall in the Tarab River area and Batu Sangkar (17 km SE). Gunung Marapi, not to be confused with the better known Merapi volcano on Java, is Sumatra's most active volcano. Marapi is a massive complex stratovolcano that rises 2,000 m above the Bukittinggi plain in Sumatra's Padang Highlands. A broad summit contains multiple partially overlapping summit craters constructed within the small 1.4-km-wide Bancah caldera. The summit craters are located along an ENE-WSW line, along which volcanism has migrated to the W. More than 50 eruptions, typically consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been recorded since the end of the 18th century; no historical lava flows outside the summit craters have been reported. (GVN/GVP)

******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

 

RUSSIA - Bezymianny volcano (Kamchatka)

August 2nd, 2016

Based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 30 July 2016 an ash plume from Bezymianny rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted E. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Yellow.
Past News 2014 reports
- KVERT maintained Alert Level Yellow during the week of 12 September 2014 for Bezymianny. Weak seismic activity continued, and according to video data, moderate gas and steam activity occurred, although the volcano was frequently obscured by clouds. Satellite data showed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano during 4-5 and 11 September. Previously,KVERT reported that Bezymianny's activity continued during 25-29 June; shallow earthquakes were registered. Video data captured weak gas-and-steam plumes rising from the volcano. Satellite data showed the volcano was frequently obscured by clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that Bezymianny's activity gradually increased during the week; shallow earthquakes were registered. Video data captured moderate gas-and-steam plumes rising from the volcano. Satellite data showed a thermal anomaly over the lava dome on 12, 16, and 18 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. As of the 18th of June, KVERT reported that reported that seismicity at Bezymianny increased on 17 June, when about 12 shallow events were recorded that were thought to be caused by extrusion of material at the top of the lava dome. A thermal anomaly was also identified using satellite data. The Aviation Color Code was raised from Yellow to Orange. Previously, KVERT reported that during 1-8 February 2013 seismic activity at Bezymianny was obscured by strong seismicity at Tolbachik. A viscous lava flow continued to effuse on the lava-dome flank, accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery on 31 January and 1 February; cloud cover prevented views on the other days. As of the 3rd of September, KVERT reported that Based on seismic data analyses, an explosive eruption occurred from 0716 to 0745 on 2 September. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 10-12 km and drifted more than 1,500 km ENE. A thermal anomaly observed in satellite imagery was very bright before the explosion. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE later that day, then ash emissions ceased. Ash plumes continued to be detected in satellite imagery and drifted 450-600 km ENE and SE. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. On 3 September seismic activity was low. A viscous lava flow effused on the lava-domeflank, and was accompanied by fumarolic activity and hot avalanches. (photos). (webcam) .Prior to its 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3,000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1,000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. That eruption, similar to the 1980 event at Mount St. Helens, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater. KVERT

RUSSIA - Sheveluch volcano ( Kamchatka)

September 20th, 2016

KVERT reported that during 9-16 September lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. TheAviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that during 2-9 September lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at OrangeKVERT reported that during 26 August-2 September lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 19-26 August lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 12-19 August lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 5-12 August lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 29 July-5 August lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 22-29 July lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 15-22 July lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 8-15 July lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 1-8 July lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the dome. On 4 July re-suspended ash from the vicinity of Sheveluch drifted 65 km SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 24 June-1 July lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 cu km volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures..The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Sheveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. Strong culmination explosive eruption of the lava dome of Sheveluch volcano occurred in 1993, 2001, 2004 and two in 2005. Live cam link

RUSSIA - Zhupanovsky volcano (Kamchatka)

June 20th, 2016

KVERT reported that no activity was observed at Zhupanovsky after an explosion on 24 March, and the last thermal anomaly detection in a satellite image was on 1 April. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green on 16 June. KVERT reported that at Zhupanovsky no activity was observed after an explosion on 24 March. A very weak thermal anomaly was detected over the volcano in satellite images on 1 and 10 April. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow won 13 April. KVERT reported that moderate activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 25 March-1 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that moderate activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 18-25 March. According to KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC noted that an explosion generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. at 0120 on 25 March. An 8 x 10 km ash cloud observed in satellite images drifted about 135 km NW at altitudes of 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. that same day. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that moderate gas-and-steam activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 11-18 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that moderate gas-and-steam activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 4-11 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that moderate gas-and-steam activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 26 February-4 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that moderate gas-and-steam activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 19-26 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that moderate activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 12-19 February. On 12 February explosions generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. During 12-13 February satellite images detected a thermal anomaly and ash plumes that drifted 600 km E and NE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that moderate steam-and-gas activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 5-12 February. Explosions on 5, 7, and 9 February generated ash plumes detected in satellite images that drifted over 545 km E and N. A thermal anomaly was detected during 5 and 9-11 February. An explosion at 0929 on 13 February was recorded by a video camera and generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A larger explosion visually observed a minute later generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 50 km SE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. In a report issued at 1134, KVERT noted that only moderate amounts of gas and steam rose from the volcano; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Ash from the earlier explosions drifted E over Kronotsky Bay and NW. A few hours later an ash plume was detected in satellite images rising 1 km above the volcano and drifting 288 km E. The Zhupanovsky volcanic massif ( 2598 m) consists of four overlapping stratovolcanoes along a WNW-trending ridge. The elongated volcanic complex was constructed within a Pliocene-early Pleistocene caldera whose rim is exposed only on the eastern side. Three of the stratovolcanoes were built during the Pleistocene, the fourth is Holocene in age and was the source of all of Zhupanovsky's historical eruptions. An early Holocene stage of frequent moderate and weak eruptions from 7000 to 5000 years before present (BP) was succeeded by a period of infrequent larger eruptions that produced pyroclastic flows. The last major eruption of Zhupanovsky took place about 800-900 years BP. Historical eruptions have consisted of relatively minor explosions from the third cone.(GVN/GVP)

RUSSIA - Karymsky volcano (Kamchatka)

September 16th, 2016

KVERT reported that Karymsky was quiet during March-August, noting that the last moderate explosion occurred in February and the last thermal anomaly over the volcano was detected in May. On 2 September the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale). Previously, on 28 April KVERT reported that satellite images over Karymsky showed either cloud cover or quiet conditions at the volcano during March-April. Moderate gas-and-steam emissions continued. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. KVERT reported that moderate activity at Karymsky continued during 15-21 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that moderate activity at Karymsky continued during 8-15 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that moderate activity at Karymsky continued during 1-8 April. Satellite images showed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano on 1 and 6 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that moderate activity at Karymsky continued during 25 March-1 April. Fresh ash deposits from the previous week were noted near the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that moderate activity at Karymsky continued during 18-25 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that moderate activity at Karymsky continued during 11-18 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that moderate activity at Karymsky continued during 4-11 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that moderate explosive activity at Karymsky continued during 26 February-4 March. Daily satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano and fresh ash deposits. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

RUSSIA - Kliuchevskoy volcano (Kamchatka)

September 20th, 2016

KVERT reported that a strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 9-16 September. Volcanic bombs that were ejected above the summit crater and the cinder cone landed in the Apakhonchich drainage on the E flank. A lava flow traveled down the Apakhonchich drainage and also down the SW flank. Satellite images showed a large and bright daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. On 10, 13, and 15 Septemberash plumes rose as high as 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 50 km NE and SE. The Aviation color code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 2-9 September. Volcanic bombs that were ejected above the summit crater and the cinder cone landed in the Apakhonchich drainage on the E flank. A lava flow traveled down the Apakhonchich drainage and also down the SW flank. Satellite images showed a large and bright daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. At 0943 and 1443 on 7 September explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6.5-7.5 km (21,300-24,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 75 km SSW and ESE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale), and then lowered back to Orange within a few hours. Explosions at 1804 on 7 September produced ash plumes that rose as high as 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km NE. At 0034, 0758, 1341, and 1850 on 8 September explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 7-7.5 km (23,000-24,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 145 km NE, NW, W, and SW. Ash plumes from explosions on 9 September did not go as high, rising to altitudes of 3-5 km (10,000-16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 315-535 km SW. Minor ash deposits at Koryaksky and Avachinsky volcanoes were detected during 2100-2140; ash plumes continued to drift and dissipate over the Avachinsky bay. KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 26 August-2 September. Volcanic bombs that were ejected above the summit crater and the cinder cone landed in the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. A lava flow traveled down the Apakhonchich drainage and also down the SW flank. Satellite images showed a large and bright daily thermal anomaly at the volcano, and ash plumes drifting 230 km NE, SE, S, and SW. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 19-26 August. Volcanic bombs that were ejected above the summit crater and the cinder cone landed in the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. A lava flow traveled down the Apakhonchich drainage. Satellite images showed a large and bright daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 12-19 August. Volcanic bombs that were ejected above the summit crater and the cinder cone landed in the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. A lava flow traveled down the Apakhonchich drainage. Satellite images showed a large daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 5-12 August. Volcanic bombs that were ejected above the summit crater and the cinder cone landed in the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. A lava flow traveled down the Apakhonchich drainage. Satellite images showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly at the volcano, and ash plumes drifting about 370 km SE and W during 9 and 11 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 29 July-5 August. Volcanic bombs that were ejected 200-300 m above the summit crater and 50 m above a cinder cone landed in the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. A lava flow traveled down the Apakhonchich drainage. Satellite images showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly at the volcano, and ash plumes drifting about 200 km NE, E, and NW during 31 July, 1 August, and 3-4 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 22-29 July. Volcanic bombs that were ejected 200-300 m above the summit crater and 50 m above a cinder cone landed in the Apakhonchich drainage on the SE flank. A lava flow traveled down the Apakhonchich drainage. Satellite images showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly at the volcano, and ash plumes drifting over 140 km E during 22-23 and 26 July. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. Kliuchevskoi flanks Kamen volcano to the SW and Ushkovsky volcano to the NW. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years . Live cam link

RUSSIA - Gorely volcano

January 26th, 2014

KVERT reported that activity at Gorely decreased significantly in December 2013; volcanic tremor ceased being detected on 12 December, and the temperature of the thermal anomaly decreased during 12-15 December. No thermal anomaly was detected in January 2014, but weak seismicity continued along with gas-and-steam emissions. On 23 January the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green (on a four-color scale). Gorely volcano, one of the most active in southern Kamchatka, consists of five small overlapping stratovolcanoes constructed along a WNW-ESE line within a large 9 x 13.5 km late-Pleistocene caldera. The massive Gorely complex contains 11 summit and 30 flank craters. During the early Holocene, activity was characterized by frequent mild eruptions with occasional larger explosions and lava flows that filled in the caldera. Quiescent periods became longer between 6,000 and 2,000 years ago, after which the activity was mainly explosive. About 600-650 years ago intermittent strong explosions and lava flow effusion accompanied frequent mild eruptions. Historical eruptions have consisted of vulcanian and phreatic explosions of moderate volume. (GVN/GVP)


RUSSIA - Kizimen volcano

December 8th, 2013

KVERT reported that weak seismic activity at Kizimen continued during 29 November-6 December. Video showed gas-and-steam activity, and satellite images detected a daily weak thermal anomaly. On 9 December the Alert Level was lowered to Green. Previously, KVERT reported that during 6-13 September moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 8-11 September; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. On 13 September KVERT noted that activity had been decreasing; both video and satellite data indicated less incandescence from the crater over the past few weeks, and seismicity had decreased significantly at the end of August. Lava possibly continued to extrude from the crater at a low rate. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. KVERT reported that during 30 August-6 September moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 2 and 5 September; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 23-30 August moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. A thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. The 2376-m-high Kizimen was formed during four eruptive cycles beginning about 12,000 years ago and lasting 2000-3500 years. The largest eruptions took place about 10,000 and 8300-8400 years ago, and three periods of long-term lava dome growth have occurred. The latest eruptive cycle began about 3000 years ago with a large explosion and was followed by lava dome growth lasting intermittently about 1000 years. An explosive eruption about 1100 years ago produced a lateral blast and created a 1.0 x 0.7 km wide crater breached to the NE, inside which a small lava dome (the fourth at Kizimen) has grown. A single explosive eruption, during 1927-28, has been recorded in historical time. GVN/GVP.

RUSSIA - Alaid volcano - Kurile islands

August 15th, 2016

KVERT reported that moderate activity at Alaid's summit crater was detected during 5-12 August. Satellite images showed a weak thermal anomaly at the volcano during 6-7 and 11 August. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that moderate activity at Alaid's summit crater was detected during 29 July-5 August. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly at the volcano during 2-3 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at a new cinder cone in Alaid's summit crater was detected during 22-29 July, with lava flowing down the SW flank. On 26 July satellite images showed a thermal anomaly at the volcano, and a gas-and-steam plume that drifted 155 km NE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at a new cinder cone in Alaid's summit crater was detected during 15-22 July, with lava flowing down the SW flank. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly at the volcano during 19-21 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at a new cinder cone in Alaid's summit crater was detected during 8-15 July, with lava flowing down the SW flank. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly at the volcano during 7 and 11-13 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at a new cinder cone in Alaid's summit crater was detected during 1-8 July, and lava flowed down the SW flank. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly at the volcano, and ash plumes drifting 150 km SW during 3-4 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that moderate activity at Alaid continued during 24 June-1 July. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly at the volcano during 28-30 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that moderate activity at Alaid continued during 17-24 June. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 18, 20, and 22-23 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that moderate activity at Alaid continued during 10-17 June. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 9, 11, and 13-14 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that moderate activity at Alaid continued during 3-10 June. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 7-9 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that moderate activity at Alaid continued during 27 May-3 June. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 29 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). The highest and northernmost volcano of the Kuril Islands, 2285-m-high Alaid is a symmetrical stratovolcano when viewed from the north, but has a 1.5-km-wide summit crater that is breached widely to the south. Alaid is the northernmost of a chain of volcanoes constructed west of the main Kuril archipelago and rises 3000 m from the floor of the Sea of Okhotsk. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the lower flanks of basaltic to basaltic-andesite Alaid volcano, particularly on the NW and SE sides, including an offshore cone formed during the 1933-34 eruption. Strong explosive eruptions have occurred from the summit crater beginning in the 18th century. Reports of eruptions in 1770, 1789, 1821, 1829, 1843, 1848, and 1858 were considered incorrect by Gorshkov (1970). Explosive eruptions in 1790 and 1981 were among the largest in the Kuril Islands during historical time. (GVN/GVP)

RUSSIA - Chirinkotan volcano- Kurile islands

December 9h, 2015

On 7 December SVERT reported that the Aviation Color Code for Chirinkotan had been lowered to Green. Previously, SVERT reported that on 17 November gas-and-steam emissions from Chirinkotan were detected in satellite images. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano during 18-23 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. According to SVERT observers reported a weak eruption at Chirinkotan on 10 August, characterized by block flows and pyroclastic flows that reached the coast. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. Based on satellite image observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible eruption at Chirinkotan on 26 July may have produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. A subsequent notice the next day stated that ash was observed in images and then dissipated. SVERT reported that on 10 May a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was detected in satellite images. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 4-11 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that on 30 April a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was detected in satellite images. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 27 April-4 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that during 17-18 April a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was detected in satellite images. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 13-20 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that on 6 April a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was detected in satellite images. Weak gas-and-steam emissions were noted on 8 April. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 7-13 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow SVERT reported that on 5 April a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was detected in satellite images. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 31 March-6 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. The small, mostly unvegetated 3-km-wide island of Chirinkotan occupies the far end of an E-W-trending volcanic chain that extends nearly 50 km west of the central part of the main Kuril Islands arc. Chirinkotan is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises 3000 m from the floor of the Kuril Basin. A small 1-km-wide caldera about 300-400 m deep is open to the SE. Lava flows from a cone within the breached crater reached the north shore of the island. Historical eruptions have been recorded at Chirinkotan since the 18th century. Fresh lava flows also descended the SE flank of Chirinkotan during an eruption in the 1880s that was observed by the English fur trader Captain Snow. (gvn/gvp) article about Kurils Islands

RUSSIA - Chirpoi volcano (Kurile islands)

August 15th, 2016

SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images on 10 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images during 6-7 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images during 27-28 and 31 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images during 18 and 20-24 July. Steam-and-gas emissions were visible drifting SW on 16 July and may have contained minor amounts of ash. Steam-and-gas emissions during 22-24 July drifted as far as 90 km N. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images on 13 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images during 5-7 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly at Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images during 29-30 June and on 1 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images during 20 and 22-23 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images on 19 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at YellowSVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images during 7-8 and 12 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images during 23-25 and 28 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images during 9-11 and 14 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at YellowSVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images on 2 and 5 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.SVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images on 20 April; gas-and-steam plumes were visible in images on 20 and 23 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, during 4-5 and 7 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, during 29-30 March and 1 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, during 21-25 and 27 March. Steam-and-gas emissions were observed on 24 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, on 14, 17, and 19 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. Based on satellite images, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 6 March a possible eruption at Chirpoi may have produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A subsequent image the next day showed that any ash had dissipated. Chirpoi, a small island lying between the larger islands of Simushir and Urup, contains a half dozen volcanic edifices constructed within an 8-9 km wide, partially submerged caldera. The southern rim of the caldera is exposed on nearby Brat Chirpoev Island. Two volcanoes on Chirpoi Island have been historically active. The symmetrical Cherny volcano, which forms the 691 m high point of the island, erupted twice during the 18th and 19th centuries. The youngest volcano, Snow, originated between 1770 and 1810. It is composed almost entirely of lava flows, many of which have reached the sea on the southern coast. No historical eruptions are known from 742-m-high Brat Chirpoev, but its youthful morphology suggests recent strombolian activity. (GVN/GVP)

RUSSIA - Chikurachki volcano (Kurile lslands)

September 1st, 2016

Based on satellite observations, KVERT reported that on 30 August a gas-and-ash plume from Chikurachki rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35 km SE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that strong gas-and-steam emissions from Chikurachki were visible during 1132-1700 on 18 August. Ash was visible in the plume beginning at 1720, prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). The ash plume rose over 2.7 km above the crater and drifted 280 km NE. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island). Ash was no longer detected in the plume starting at 2330 on 19 August; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale), and then to Green on 21 August. KVERT reported that no activity was observed after an eruption at Chikurachki during 27-28 July; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 31 July and then to Green (the lowest level) on 4 August. KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Chikurachki was observed during 27-28 July. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4-5 km (13,100-16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Minor ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) on 27 July. After the heightened activity conditions remained quiet through 4 August. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Chikurachki''s summit crater continued during 22-29 July. Satellite images showed an ash plume drifting 176 km NE on 27 July. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Based on satellite data, KVERT reported that an eruption at Chikurachki began on 27 July. An ash plume, first identified at 1748, rose to altitudes of 4-5 km (13,100-16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 100 km NE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. Previously, KVERT reported that a strong explosive eruption at Chikurachki during 29-31 March generated ash plumes that rose to a maximum altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 570 km NE, S, and SW. The volcano was quiet afterwards; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow on 2 April, and then to Green on 5 April. KVERT reported that at 1259 on 29 March an ash plume from Chikurachki was observed in satellite images rising to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting about 50 km NE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. By 0852 on 30 March the ash plume was drifting 87 km S. Chikurachki is not monitored with seismic instruments but is observed using ground-based methods and satellite images. Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidized basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red color. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1781-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centers is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki, and the Lomonosov cinder cone group, the source of an early Holocene lava flow that reached the saddle between it and Fuss Peak to the west, lies at the southern end of the N-S-trending Chikurachki-Tatarinov complex. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959. (GVN/GVP).

*******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

NEW ZEALAND - Okataina volcanic centre

June 24th, 2016

On GeoNet reported that the Mud Rift feature at Okataina's Waimangu Geothermal area erupted during 17-20 May, the first time since 1989. The Mud Rift geothermal vent formed in 1906 in the Raupo Pond Crater (one of multiple craters which formed in June 1886) and is 36 m long, 5-6 m wide, and 15 m deep. The steam-driven events mostly ejected fine sand and mud, and there was abundant evidence of fluids flooding into the rift, especially at the W end. Nearby vegetation was brown, and there was some evidence of collapse around the edges of the vents.
The massive, dominantly rhyolitic Okataina Volcanic Centre is surrounded by extensive ignimbrite and pyroclastic sheets produced during multiple caldera-forming eruptions. Numerous lava domes and craters erupted from two subparallel NE-SW-trending vent lineations form the Haroharo and Tarawera volcanic complexes. Lava domes of the Haroharo complex, at the northern end of the Okataina Volcanic Centre, occupy part of the 16 x 26 km Pleistocene Haroharo caldera, which formed incrementally between 300,000 and 50,000 years before present (BP). The oldest exposed rocks on the caldera floor are about 22,000 years old. The Tarawera complex at the southern end of Okataina consists of 11 rhyolitic lava domes and associated lava flows. The oldest domes were formed as late as about 15,000 years BP, and the youngest were formed in the Kaharoa eruption about 800 years BP. The NE-SW Tarawera vent lineation extends from the two dacitic cones of Maungaongaonga and Mangakakaramea on the SW to Mount Edgecumbe on the NE. Construction of the Haroharo and Tarawera complexes impounded lakes
Rotoiti, Totoehu, Okataina, and Tarawera against the outer margins of the Okataina ring structure. A major hydrothermal area is located at Waimangu; the world-renowned Pink and White terrace siliceous sinter deposits were destroyed during the major basaltic explosive eruption of 1886. (IGNS)
- (GVN/GVP)

NEW ZEALAND - White island volcano

September 20th, 2016

Based on field observations of White Island on 14 September, GeoNet reported that the eruption which had occurred the day before had ceased. An analysis of collected ash deposits revealed no juvenile components. Seismic and acoustic activity remained low, and gas flux had not changed since before the eruption. On 15 September the Volcanic Alert level was lowered to 2 and the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow. Observations during 17-18 September suggested no new sustained ash emissions (web camera images indicated that very minor amounts of ash may have been present in the steam plumes); the Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 1.GeoNet reported that on 6 September scientists visited White Island for routine monitoring and maintenance of the monitoring network. Observations during the visit confirmed that Crater Lake was growing though at a lower level (28.4 m below the overflow level) since the 27 April eruption removed 13-15 m of lake floor sediments. Thermal IR images of a rocky lava mound in
the back of the 1978/90 Crater (in the same area a lava dome grew in 2012) revealed two areas of hot gas output; temperatures in one area had decreased since August while temperatures in the second area had remained at similar levels. On 13 September minor and passive ash emissions rose from the vent on the 2012 lava dome. The Volcanic Alert Level was raised from 1 to 3 (Minor Volcanic Eruption) and the Aviation Colour Code was raised from Green to Orange. Based on ground observations and satellite data the ash plume drifted E. Seismic activity and gas flux remained low, and there were no measureable acoustic signals. Minor ash emissions continued the next day.
The uninhabited 2 x 2.4 km White Island, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is the emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The 321-m-high island consists of two overlapping stratovolcanoes; the summit crater appears to be breached to the SE because the shoreline corresponds to the level of several notches in the SE crater wall. Throughout the short historical period beginning in 1826 the volcano has had long periods of continuous hydrothermal activity and steam release, punctuated by small-to-medium eruptions. Its activity also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. The most recent eruptive episode, which began on 7 March 2000, included the largest eruption at White Island in the past 20 years on 27 July. Live cam link - other webcam

NEW ZEALAND - Ruapehu volcano

September 16th, 2016

On 7 September GeoNet reported that the temperature of Ruapehu's summit Crater Lake had been declining, cooling to 12 ºC on 15 August which was the lowest temperature since the 1995/1996 eruptions, but had recently started to rapidly heat. The temperature began to slowly and variably rise in late August; however, by 2 September a rising trend was apparent. On 4 September tremor levels also increased, and remained elevated. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (minor volcanic unrest) and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Green.
GeoNet reported that the temperature of Ruapehu's summit Crater Lake had been declining since May. During an overflight on 10 August scientists recorded gas emissions at typical low background levels. The next day the lake water temperature was 12.6ºC, one of the lowest temperatures since the 1995/1996 eruptions. The lake was a dark green, overflowing, and sulfur slicks outlined areas of upwelling. A strong sulfur odor was noted near the lake. The level of volcanic tremor which was at moderate levels during May-June had declined to typical background levels. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 1 (minor volcanic unrest) and the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Green.
On 5 July GeoNet reported that the elevated activity at Ruapehu had declined; gas emissions returned to baseline levels, volcanic tremor decreased to levels detected in the second half of 2015, and the temperature of the summit Crater Lake had declined from a high of 46 to 23 ºC. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 1 (minor volcanic unrest) and the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Green. Previously, on 17 May GeoNet reported that the lake temperature of Ruapehu's summit Crater Lake had decreased from a high of 46 degrees Celsius to 39 degrees, with some of the decrease attributed to rain and snowfall. Moderate levels of volcanic tremor continued, and analysis of water samples collected the previous week showed no changes in the lake chemistry. During recent visits, scientists measured a larger output of volcanic gases. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 (moderate to heightened unrest) and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow. GeoNet reported that a volcanic earthquake swarm beneath Ruapehu's summit Crater Lake was detected during 25-26 April. This type of swarm has been uncommon at the volcano in recent years, when volcanic tremor has dominated the seismicity. In addition, the crater lake water temperature had been rising since late 2015, from 25 degrees Celsius to 40 degrees in the last half of April. Similar temperature increases were detected in March 2011, April 2014, and February 2015. In a 3 May notice GeoNet stated that the size and number of events in the swarm had decreased; a period of moderate volcanic tremor began at 1310 on 2 May and lasted about an hour. The lake temperature had peaked at 42 degrees, equal to the highest recorded temperature since 2011. At around 1400 on 7 May tourists on an overflight of the area observed vigorous steaming at the lake surface and upwelling bubbles. The lake temperature rose further, to 44 degrees, establishing a new high since temperatures started to be recorded in 2000. The earthquake swarm had stopped, though the seismic network continued to record volcanic tremor. On 11 May GeoNet stated that recent visits to the lake confirmed increased gas emissions from the crater lake. The lake temperature increased to 46 degrees and moderate levels of volcanic tremor continued. The Volcanic Alert Level was raised to 2 (moderate to heightened unrest) and the Aviation Colour Code was raised to Yellow. Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least 4 cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 cu km dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and is surrounded by another 100 cu km ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place at Ruapehu between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent at Ruapehu. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys. Ruapehu Live cam *******************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

PAPUA - NEW GUINEA - Manam volcano

July 16th, 2016

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 July an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km W.
Based on observations of satellite imagery and pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 March an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km SE. Previously, Based on observations of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 October 2015 ash plumes from Manam rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km NW. Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 October ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 50 km NW. Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 September ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW.Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 26-27 and 31 August ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-75 km NW, N, and NE Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 August minor ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 10-75 km NW and ESE. Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6 and 8-9 August ash plumes from Manam rose to altitudes of 2.7-6.4 km (9,000-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 650 km NW, SW, and SE.RVO reported that an eruption at Manam's Southern Crater began at about 1130 on 31 July with low roaring noises. Soon after, variously-sized scoria were ejected; fist-sized scoria fell in Warisi village on the E side of the island, and clasts 10-20 cm in diameter fell on the N side of the island in Baliau. Two people were knocked unconscious after being hit with scoria. According to a news article residents started evacuating around midday. Residents in Bogia (25-30 km SSW of Manam on the N coast of the mainland) reported ashfall at around 1245, and by 1300 the sky was darker. Ashfall was also reported in Potsdam (on the coast, NW of Bogia). RVO stated that at around 1330, immediately after scoria fall ceased, dark gray ash emissions rose from the crater. Based on satellite images and ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that the ash plume rose to an altitude of 19.8 km (65,000 ft) a.s.l., spread out in multiple directions, and then drifted 370 km SW. By 1740 RVO noted that activity had declined and emission turned to light gray, and by the next morning only dense white emission were observed. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded at Manam since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas. (GVN/GVP)



PAPUA-NEW GUINEA - Rabaul volcano

September 24th, 2014

RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was mostly quiet during 13-19 September. Variable amounts of white vapor and small amounts of diffuse blue vapor rose from the summit crater. A small explosion at 1242 on 18 September produced a light gray ash plume that rose a few hundred meters above the crater and drifted NW. Previously, as of the 29 th of August, RVO reported that an important explosive activity started at 3 AM (local time) from the Tavurvur cone. Lava fountaining and high ashplume rose above the volcano (18 km-high). Large ashfall occurred on Kokopo (South from Tavurvur. Previously, RVO reported that explosions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone were detected during 1-11 March, notably during 1 and 6-11 March, and generated ash plumes that rose 1 km and drifted E and SE. Mild ash emissions on other days during 1-15 March also drifted E and SE. Gases from Tavurvur caused browning vegetation on Turangunan (South Daughter) since early January. Previously, RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was quiet during 26 January-11 February. A pale gray/brown plume rose 50-100 m above the vent and dispersed on 12 February.RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was quiet during 16-31 December. White and occasionally blue vapor plumes rose from the crater. An explosion at 0732 on 22 December generated an ash-poor plume. Weak fluctuating glow was visible at night on 31 December. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the E, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay. Two major Holocene caldera-forming eruptions at Rabaul took place as recently as 3,500 and 1,400 years ago. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city. (GVN/GVP)

PAPUA - NEW GUINEA - Bagana volcano (Bougainville island)

September 16th, 2016

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 September ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km NW and W. On 9 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-160 km SW.
Previously, based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29-30 August ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WNW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 August ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-75 km E. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-8 August ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, WSW, W, and NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 July-1 August ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, and NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-23 July ash plumes from Bagana rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 22-55 km SW, W, and NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-18 July ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km W and NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-10 July ash plumes from Bagana rose to altitude of 2.1-2.7 km (7,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 120 km SE, SW, W, and NW. Bagana is a massive symmetrical lava cone largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire lava cone could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity at Bagana is characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides. (GVN/GVP)

Papua-New Guinea - Langila volcano (New britain)

May 15th, 2016

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-13 May ash plumes from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-85 km NNW, NW, and W. Based on analyses of satellite imagery andRVO ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 9-10 May ash plumes from Langila rose to altitudes of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km N, NW, and W. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 April ash plumes from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-110 km N. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-7 April ash plumes from Langila rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NE and E. RVO Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2-3 April ash plumes from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-65 km N NE, and E. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the north and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m. (GVN/GVP)


**************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

Salomon islands - Kavachi volcano

February 1st, 2014

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January showed a plume of discolored water E of Kavachi, likely from lava fragments and dissolved gases. A bright area above the submerged peak suggested churning water. There was no sign that the volcano had breached the sea surface. Kavachi, one of the most active submarine volcanoes in the SW Pacific, occupies an isolated position in the Solomon Islands far from major aircraft and shipping lanes. Kavachi, sometimes referred to as Rejo te Kvachi ("Kavachi's Oven"), is located south of Vangunu Island only about 30 km north of the site of subduction of the Indo-Australian plate beneath the Pacific plate. The shallow submarine basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has produced ephemeral islands up to 1 km long many times since its first recorded eruption during 1939. Residents of the nearby islands of Vanguna and Nggatokae (Gatokae) reported "fire on the water" prior to 1939, a possible reference to earlier submarine eruptions. The roughly conical volcano rises from water depths of 1.1-1.2 km on the north and greater depths to the south. Frequent shallow submarine and occasional subaerial eruptions produce phreatomagmatic explosions that eject steam, ash, and incandescent bombs above the sea surface. On a number of occasions lava flows were observed on the surface of ephemeral islands. Last known eruption occureed in 2007. (GVN/GVP)

************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

Tonga - Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apa

January 29th, 2015

According to a news article from 26 January, the newly-formed island at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai was about 120 m high, 1.5 km wide (N-S), and 2 km long (W-E). The island was an estimated 1 km in diameter with a crater that was 400-500 m in diameter. It had joined Hunga Ha'apai to the W and was 150-200 m short of joining Hunga Tonga to the N. The article noted that the eruption had decreased during the previous week; there were no longer emissions rising from the vent.Based on a news article some international and domestic flights in Tonga had been canceled during 12-13 January, affecting about 600 passengers, due to the ash cloud produced from the on-going eruption at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai. The article noted that ash plumes were rising to an altitude of 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. from a larger explosion and that water around the eruption was colored blood-red. In a video of the eruption, posted on 18 January, volcanologists observe and describe the explosions occurring from a vent on a new rapidly-growing island.Based on a pilot observation, the Wellington VAAC reported that a dark ash plume from Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. on 12 January.Based on a pilot observation, the Wellington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 6 January. According to a news article, fisherman had reported an eruption at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai on 19 December. A photographer in Tongatapu captured a photo of a steam plume rising from the area on 30 December and noted that steam plumes had been visible since 24 December; dense clouds on the horizon prevented views before then. Terra MODIS imagery from 29 December also showed white plumes and areas of discolored water near the islands. The small islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai cap a large seamount located about 30 km SSE of Falcon Island. The two linear andesitic islands are about 2 km long and represent the western and northern remnants of the rim of a largely submarine caldera lying east and south of the islands. Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai reach an elevation of only 149 m and 128 m above sea level, respectively, and display inward-facing sea cliffs with lava and tephra layers dipping gently away from the submarine caldera. A rocky shoal 3.2 km SE of Hunga Ha'apai and 3 km south of Hunga Tonga marks the most prominent historically active vent. Several submarine eruptions have occurred at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai since the first historical eruption in 1912. (GVN/GVP).

*****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

Mariannes islands - Pagan volcano

February 2nd, 2016

Satellite data and ground-based observations from a field crew and local residents near Pagan indicated that steam-and-gas emissions have significantly decreased since March 2015. The Aviation Color Code and Volcano Alert Level were lowered to Unassigned on 30 January 2016. Previously news 2014 - Low-level unrest continued at Pagan during the week of 20 June; seismicity remained above background levels. A steam-and-gas plume was visible in web camera and clear satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. Previously, information rported that low-level unrest continued at Pagan during 27 December 2013-2 January 2014; seismicity remained above background levels. A robust steam-and-gas plume was occasionally visible in web camera images during the reporting period. A small explosion was detected at about 0145 on 28 December. It may have produced a diffuse ash emission, but the webcam was not in operation at the time to verify. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. Previously, the seismic network at Pagan recorded tremor and small discrete earthquakes during 9-16 August, indicating low-level unrest. A steam-and-gas plume was visible in satellite images during periods of clear weather and from web-camera images. A small explosion with a relatively high amplitude seismic component and small infrasound component occurred at 0010 on 12 August. The data suggested that degassing increased about 30 sec after the event. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.The 570-m-high Mount Pagan at the NE end of the island rises above the flat floor of the northern caldera, which probably formed during the early Holocene. South Pagan is a 548-m-high stratovolcano with an elongated summit containing four distinct craters. Almost all of the historical eruptions of Pagan, which date back to the 17th century, have originated from North Pagan volcano. The largest eruption of Pagan during historical time took place in 1981 and prompted the evacuation of the sparsely populated island. Last know eruption occured in 2006.

Mariannes islands - Ahyi volcano

May 25th, 2014

On 23 May the USGS reported that during the previous week one explosion signal from the source at or near Ahyi seamount was detected. Seismic activity had been low since 8 May continuing to indicate that the eruption had possibly paused or ended. On 16 May the USGS reported that during the previous week seismic signals from the source at or near Ahyi seamount had greatly diminished, indicating that the eruption had possibly paused or ended. Scientists aboard the research ship Hi'ialakai conducted water column tests in the vicinity of Ahyi on 15 May and reported no sign of activity, suggesting that the eruption occurred from a nearby volcanic vent and not the summit. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory A helicorder plot from a station on Pagan showed that seismic signals from a source at or near the Ahyi seamount stopped at 1610 on 8 May. An additional isolated event was reported at 1810.Seismic stations on Pagan, Sarigan, Anatahan, and Saipan started recording signals on 24 April that continued at least through 2 May. The source had not been confirmed, but is thought to be at or near the Ahyi seamount. During 4-5 May a helicorder plot from a station on Pagan showed explosive signals at a rate of 20 per hour.Seismic stations on Pagan, Sarigan, Anatahan, and Saipan began recording signals starting at 0635 on 24 April believed to be from an undersea volcanic source. Hydroacoustic sensors on Wake Island suggested that the source is at or near Ahyi seamount, although it was possible that the vent is located at one of the other volcanic seamounts in the area. While conducting coral reef research at Farallon de Pajaros, NOAA divers reported hearing loud explosions and feeling the shock waves. One of the more powerful explosions was felt by the crew as it reverberated through the hull of the ship. On 27 April the Color Code was raised from Unassigned to Yellow. A report issued at 0536 on 30 April noted that seismic activity remained high. Ahyi seamount is a large conical submarine volcano that rises to within 137 m of the sea surface about 18 km SE of the island of Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas) in the northern Marianas. Water discoloration has been observed over the submarine volcano, and in 1979 the crew of a fishing boat felt shocks over the summit area of the seamount followed by upwelling of sulfur-bearing water. On April 24-25, 2001 an explosive submarine eruption was detected seismically from a seismic station on Rangiroa Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago. The event was well constrained (+/- 15 km) at a location near the southern base of Ahyi; the summit of the seamount lies within the location uncertainty. (GVN/GVP)

****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

INDIAN OCEAN SOUTH - Heard island volcano

February 2nd, 2016

Scientists and crew aboard CSIRO’s (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) Marine National Facility research vessel Investigator circled Heard Island and observed a plume rising from Mawson Peak’s crater and lava flows traveling down the NW flanks during 30-31 January 2016 . Visual observations of Heard are very rare due to its remote location. A MODVOLC thermal alert had been issued for 28 January. - Previous news dated 2013 According to NASA Earth Observatory (EO) an image acquired on 7 April 2013 from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed that Mawson's Peak crater on Heard Island had filled and a lava flow had traveled down the SW flank. The lava flow was visible in an image acquired on 20 April and had slightly widened just below the summit. Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic structures. The large glacier-covered composite basaltic-to-trachytic cone of Big Ben comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon volcano lies at the NW tip of the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of Big Ben volcano because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active Mawson Peak forms the island's 2745-m high point and lies within a 5-6 km wide caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones are mostly located on the northern coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been reported in historical time at this isolated volcano, but observations are infrequent and additional activity may have occurred.(Smithsonian Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin).

KERGUELEN PLATEAU - McDonald island

February 2nd, 2016

Scientists and crew aboard CSIRO’s (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) Marine National Facility research vessel Investigator observed a plume rising from McDonald Island (the largest island) during the last week of January 2016. Visual observations of the McDonald Islands are very rare due to its remote location. Historical eruptions have greatly modified the morphology of the McDonald Islands, located on the Kerguelen Plateau about 75 km west of Heard Island. The largest island, McDonald, is composed of a layered phonolitic tuff plateau cut by phonolitic dikes and lava domes. A possible nearby active submarine center was inferred from phonolitic pumice that washed up on Heard Island in 1992. Volcanic plumes were observed in December 1996 and January 1997 from McDonald Island. During March of 1997 the crew of a vessel that sailed near the island noted vigorous steaming from a vent at the northern side of the island along with possible pyroclastic deposits and lava flows. A satellite image taken in November 2001 showed the island to have more than doubled in area since previous reported observations in November 2000. The high point of the island group had shifted to the northern end of McDonald Island, which had merged with Flat Island.

SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS - Bristol island (Sourabaya volcano)

JuLy 20th, 2016

The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 19 July a diffuse ash plume from Bristol Island's Mt. Sourabaya was visible in satellite images drifting 30 km NE. A persistent thermal anomaly was also identified in satellite data. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 16 June a diffuse ash plume from Bristol Island's Mt. Sourabaya was visible in satellite images rising to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting SE. The report noted low confidence in the plume altitude due to weather clouds in the area. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that weather clouds mostly prevented satellite observations of Bristol Island's Mt. Sourabaya during 1-6 June, though a thermal anomaly was detected during 1-2 and 5-6 June. According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite image of Bristol Island acquired on 28 May showed an ash plume from Mt. Sourabaya drifting NE. Based on satellite image analysis, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 29-31 May gas plumes with possible minor ash content drifted as far as 185 km N, NNE, and SE at an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. The Based on analysis of satellite images, an eruption at Bristol Island likely began on 24 April, the first eruption since 1956. Landsat images detected a plume and a thermal anomaly in the main crater at the top of Mt. Sourabaya. By 1 May the anomaly was elongated to the W, suggesting that lava had breached the crater rim. The 9 x 10 km Bristol Island near the southern end of the South Sandwich arc lies across Fortser's Passage from the Southern Thule Islands and forms one of the largest islands of the chain. Largely glacier-covered, it contains a horseshoe-shaped ridge at the interior extending northward from the highest peak, 1100-m-high Mount Darnley. A steep-sided flank cone or lava dome, Havfruen Peak, is located on the east side, and a young crater and fissure are on the west flank. Three large sea stacks lying off Turmoil Point at the western tip of the island may be remnants of an older now-eroded volcanic center. Both summit and flank vents have been active during historical time. The latest eruption, during 1956, originated from the west-flank crater, and deposited cinder over the icecap. The extensive icecap and the difficulty of landing make it the least explored of the South Sandwich Islands.

SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS - Zavodovski volcano

May 30th, 2016

On 30 March an eruption at Zavodovski was reported and photographed by observers on a fishing vessel, as well as captured by a satellite image. A small ash plume drifted E, producing ashfall on 1/3 to 1/2 of the island. A photo showed bombs being ejected from the crater. One of the world's largest (if not the largest) penguin colonies resides on the E side of the
island and is home to 690,000 breeding pairs. The eruption occurred during molting season in March, when penguins stay ashore. A satellite image captured in May showed an eruption plume coming through the clouds. The 5-km-wide Zavodovski Island, the northernmost of the South Sandwich Islands, consists of a single basaltic stratovolcano with two parasitic cones on the east side. Mount Curry, the island's summit, lies west of the center of the island, which is more eroded on that side. Two fissures extend NE from the summit towards the east-flank craters, and a lava platform is located along the eastern coast. Zavodovski is the most frequently visited of the South Sandwich Islands. It was erupting when first seen in 1819 by the explorer Bellingshausen, and the volcano has been reported to be smoking during subsequent visits.


ANTARCTICA - Erebus Volcano

March 1st, 2014

As of the 1st of March 2014, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reported that Antarctica's Mt. Erebus continues with a molten lava lake and vapour emissions. It may be covered with glaciers, but they do little to cool the volcano's molten core. Previous special news : as of the 1st of August 2007, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) was reported that Mt. Erebus has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features are: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activityAccording to the Mt. Erebus activity log, several "small- to medium-sized" eruptions occurred during 12-18 October 2005, with a "very large" eruption occurring on 14 October. The eruption sizes were based on comparisons of seismic data for known Erebus eruptions. Mt. Erebus, the southern most volcano in the world, still continues to be the most active volcano in Antarctica. Mt. Erebus (3794 meters above sea level) is classified as a polygenetic stratovolcano. The composition of the current eruptive activity on Mt. Erebus is anorthoclase-phyric tephriphonolite and phonolite, which constitute the bulk of exposed lava flow on the volcano. The oldest eruptive products from Mt. Erebus consist of relatively undifferentiated and non-viscous basanitic lavas that form the low, broad platform shield of the Erebus edifice. Slightly younger basanites and phonotephrite lavas crop out on Fang Ridge, an eroded remnant of an early Erebus volcano and at other isolated locations on the flanks of the Mt. Erebus edifice. Lava flows of more viscous phonotephrite, tephriphonolite and trachyte are erupted after the basanites. The upper slopes of Mt. Erebus are dominated by steeply dipping (~30°) tephriphonolite lava flows with large scale flow levees. A conspicuous break in slope at approximately 3200 meters is a summit plateau representing a caldera. The summit caldera itself is filled with small volume tephriphonolite and phonolite lava flows. In the center of the of the summit caldera is a small, steep-sided cone composed primarily of decomposed lava bombs and a lag deposit of anorthoclase crystals. It is within this summit cone that the active lava lake continuously degasses and periodically erupts. Mt. Erebus located on Ross Island, Antarctica is the world’s southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970’s had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment. Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Information from : MEVO - Live cam link

****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

VANUATU - Suretamatai volcano

June 6th, 2016

According to observations by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department, , Geohazards reported that On 27 May the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level
for Suretamatai was increased to 1 (on a scale of 0-4) because of a change in activity. VGO reminded residents and tourists that areas around the volcano and along the Sulfur River (E flank) were high-risk zones due to potential impacts from volcanic gas emissions. Suretamatai volcano forms much of Vanua Lava Island, one of the largest of Vanuatu's Banks Islands. The younger lavas of 921-m-high Suretamatai (also known as Soritimeat) volcano overlie a number of small older stratovolcanoes that form the island. In contrast to other large volcanoes of Vanuatu, the dominantly basaltic-to-andesitic Suretamatai does not contain a youthful summit caldera. A chain of small stratovolcanoes, oriented along a NNE-SSW line, gives the low-angle volcano an irregular profile. The youngest cone, near the northern end of the chain, is the largest and contains a lake of variable depth within its 900-m-wide, 100-m-deep summit crater. Historical activity, beginning during the 19th century, has been restricted to moderate explosive eruptions.

VANUATU - Aoba volcano

August 24th, 2016

On 21 August the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Aoba was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-4) signifying increased unrest. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the Manaro lakes. Aoba, also known as Ambae, is a massive 2500 cu km basaltic shield volcano that is the most voluminous volcano of the New Hebrides archipelago. A pronounced NE-SW-trending rift zone dotted with scoria cones gives the 16 x 38 km island an elongated form. A broad pyroclastic cone containing three crater lakes is located at the summit of the Hawaiian-style shield volcano within the youngest of at least two nested calderas, the largest of which is 6 km in diameter. Post-caldera explosive eruptions formed the summit craters of Lake Voui (also spelled Vui) and Lake Manaro Ngoru about 360 years ago. A tuff cone was constructed within Lake Voui about 60 years later. The latest known flank eruption, about 300 years ago, destroyed the population of the Nduindui area near the western coast. GVN/GVP

VANUATU - Ambrym volcano

June 6th, 2016

On 27 May the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory issued a statement reminding residents and visitors that Ambrym remained active; the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). Areas deemed hazardous were near and around the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu and Mbwelesu), and in downwind areas prone to ashfall. Previously On 21 August 2015 the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory issued a statement reminding residents and visitors that Ambrym remained active; the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). Areas deemed hazardous were near and around the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu and Mbwelesu), and in downwind areas prone to ashfall. Previously, On 22 July the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory issued a statement reminding residents and visitors that Ambrym remained active; the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). Areas deemed hazardous were near and around the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu, and Mbwelesu), and in downwind areas prone to ashfall. Previously, On 18 May the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory issued a statement reminding residents and visitors that Ambrym remained active. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). Areas deemed hazardous were near and around the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu and Mbwelesu), and in downwind areas prone to ashfall. Previously, On 7 April the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory issued a statement reminding residents and visitors that Ambrym remained active. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a new scale of 0-5). Areas deemed hazardous were near and around the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu and Mbwelesu), and in downwind areas prone to ashfall. On 2 March the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity at Ambrym had slightly decreased but remained elevated. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a new scale of 0-5). Areas deemed hazardous were near and around the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu and Mbwelesu), and in downwind areas prone to ashfall. On 21 February the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory issued a notice reminding the public that a minor eruption was occurring at Ambrym from a new vent inside the caldera. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a new scale of 0-5). Hazardous areas were identified as being near and around the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu and Mbwelesu), and in downwind areas prone to ashfall. Previously, on 8 December 2014 the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that observations and analyses of Ambrym conducted during November and early December showed that activity levels had slightly decreased. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 0-4). VGO warned that the area in close proximity to the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu, and Mbwelesu) remained dangerous.On 10 November the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity at Ambrym remained elevated. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). On 1 October 2014 the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported a slight increase in activity from Ambrym. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). Ambrym, a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, is one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides arc. A thick, almost exclusively pyroclastic sequence, initially dacitic, then basaltic, overlies lava flows of a pre-caldera shield volcano. The caldera was formed during a major Plinian eruption with dacitic pyroclastic flows about 1900 years ago. Post-caldera eruptions, primarily from Marum and Benbow cones, have partially filled the caldera floor and produced lava flows that ponded on the caldera floor or overflowed through gaps in the caldera rim. Post-caldera eruptions have also formed a series of scoria cones and maars along a fissure system oriented ENE-WSW. Eruptions have apparently occurred almost yearly during historical time from cones within the caldera or from flank vents. However, from 1850 to 1950, reporting was mostly limited to extra-caldera eruptions that would have affected local populations.

Bezymianny volcano - H. Gaudru 1992

VANUATU - Yasur volcano ( Tanna island)

September 16th, 2016

On 9 September the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions continued to be intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 600-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas
impacted by trade winds. On 2 August the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions continued to be intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 600-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 28 June the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions continued to be intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 27 May the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions continued to be intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 31 March, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions were intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. Previously, On 14 January, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions had become more intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 15 December, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions had become more intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 13 November 2015, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that activity at Yasur had increased with more intense explosions. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-4). VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds. On 27 April 2015, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that Yasur continued in a state of unrest; the Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4). VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were in proximity to and around the volcanic crater, and in volcanic ash and gas prone areas exposed to trade winds. Previous News 2013 -On 19 November 2013, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that a new phase of ash emissions from Yasur began on 3 November. The intensity of the explosive activity remained low; therefore the Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4). Previously, on 28 May, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity at Yasur continued to increase slightly, and bombs fell around the summit area, the tourist walk, and the parking area. Ash venting and dense white plumes from the crater were observed. Photos included in the report showed ash emissions and ashfall on 5 and 8 May, and dense white plumes on 23 and 24 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). According to observations by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards department, started from 02nd April 2013, the explosive activity level of Yasur volcano has slightly increased. Explosions have become slightly stronger and more frequent. The fresh volcanic bombs from active vents have been falling around the summit area, the tourist walk and the parking area. Yasur volcano exhibited ash venting beginning on 02nd April 2013 and believed to continue. With this situation, villages and communities located far away and close to the volcano, especially those in the prevailing trade winds direction will expect ash falls (See Fig.2a/b). The Volcanic Alert Level of Yasur volcano increase at Level 2, the risk remains near the volcano crater for volcanic projections, and in part of the Red Zone for volcanic ash falls. This level of alert could evolve in the coming days. Moderate ash venting occurred at Yasur volcano at 15:15 pm (02 April), at 09:30 am (4 April) and at 07:00am (5 April). Satellite image (OMI) on 01st April 2013 shows the light degassing from Yasur volcano Previously, past year, following an assessment during 7-12 July 2012, the Geohazards Observatory team concluded that explosive activity at Yasur had slightly increased, becoming stronger and more frequent, and shifting from Strombolian to sub-Plinian. Bombs ejected from the vents fell in the crater, around the summit area, and on the tourist walk and parking area. The explosions were heard, felt, and observed from nearby villages and schools. Activity at all three volcanic vents was characterized by degassing, ash emissions, and ejection of bombs. On 13 July the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 0-4). Previously, On 13 June 2011, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity from Yasur decreased during the previous week after a brief period of high activity with significant explosions and ashfall. Even though Strombolian activity occasionally ejected bombs that fell around the crater, explosions had become slightly weaker and less frequent. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 0-4).Following the assessment done by the Geohazards team on the 31 th May and 01 st   June, Yasur volcano has maintained its high activity with the strong explosions and ashes/bombs emissions from all the three active vents. The increasing activity of the Yasur volcano since May 2011 led us to upgrade the hazard rating of this volcano at Alert Level 3 starting from June 01, 2011.On 12 May 2011, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that, based on information collected by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department, satellite imagery showed strong degassing from Yasur during the previous week. Residents living close to the volcano reported persistent strong explosions that were heard and felt on 12 May. The Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL) remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). Update past year : 10th of June 2010 - Observations and assessments on the Yasur volcano during the past week week have indicated that Yasur's volcanic activity has decreased after a brief period of high activity with significant explosions and ash falls at the end of May 2010. Explosions have become less frequent yet constant strombolian activity with occasional ejections of lava bombs still occur around the volcano. Therefore with these indications the Alert Level of Yasur volcano is now decreased to Level 2 on the Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL) . Visitors to the volcano are still advised to observe the volcano from safe distance away from the vent. It is advisable that visitors and tourist agencies must carefully consider this information given, to avoid the risks and dangers of the volcano. As of the 27th of May, Geohazard Vanuatu reported the increasing activity of the Yasur volcano since January 2010 led us to upgrade the hazard rating of this volcano at Alert Level 3 starting from May 27, 2010 .  Therefore the access to the volcano is now closed and its 500 m surrounding zone is strictly prohibited. Yasur volcano is currently undergoing moderate to large eruption with strong explosions ejecting volcanic bombs reaching the view points for visitors and the parking area with the significant ash fall in the villages nearby. High risk of volcanic projections remains in the red color Zone and threats of ash fall in parts of the yellow color zone that are exposed to trade winds that Following the assessment done by the Geohazards team on the 26th and 27th April, Yasur volcano has maintained its high activity with the strong degassing and ash emissions from all the three active vents and falling on most parts of the island from the east to the west. Fresh volcanic bombs have fallen around the crater rim; few of them have even reached the ash plain and the parking area. Explosions could be heard and viewed from the villages. Around 5 volcanic bombs have already fallen on the observation point B since beginning of April. Tour operators and local population have confirmed that the activity remains very important since the beginning of April. OMI pictures and the seismic data collected from the monitoring station confirmed this important activity with the strong degassing and very explosive activity to date Following the observations of the Geo-hazards team on in March 8th 2010 and the analysis of the volcano-seismic data recorded by the monitoring network of this volcano, it is confirmed that the activity of this volcano is increasing since January 2010, as indicated in the satellite images. This is also proven by the activity of all the three active vents and the recent volcanic bombs that fell on visitors' observation path. Under these circumstances, the Alert Level for Yasur volcano is raised to LEVEL 2 according to the Vanuatu Volcanoes Alert Levels (VVAL) . This means that eruptions are moderate and danger close to the volcano, within parts of Red Zone of the Hazard map. Thus approaching the volcano could be dangerous; it would be safer to view the yasur volcano from the parking area to avoid the volcano impact. Visitors and tourism agencies are advised to consider this information until the next alert is released. Previously, as of the 12th of August 2009, John Seach reported that eruptive activity continues at Yasur volcano in Vanuatu. During a visit to the volcano from 1-3 August, John Seach observed Strombolian explosions ejecting lava to a height of 300 m above the vent. Ash emissions were lower than normal, which allowed good views into the crater. One vent was active in the northern crater, and two vents active in the southern crater. As of the 1st of March 2009, Yasur volcano continues to erupt many times per hour as it has done so for at least 800 years. Previously, as of the 1st of October, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, reports that Yasur is still currently erupting. Strombolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions continue at Yasur volcano. Three main active vents are visible inside the summit crater. Incandescent lava explosions reached 250 m above the crater, accompanied by loud explosions. Projectiles were observed falling on the crater rim, 170 m from the vents. As of the 9th of April 2008, mainly from reports of John Seach , reported that a major earthquake (magnitude 7.6) hit southern Vanuatu today at 2346hrs local time. The earthquake was located east of the South New Hebrides Trench and 97 km SW of Yasur volcano. The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre said there was no tsunami threat. The main earthquake was preceded by a large and two medium sized earthquakes; magnitude 6.5, 5.9, and 4.9. Yasur is the closest active volcano to the earthquake epicentre and is currently erupting. As of the 1st of April, activity has been almost continuous at the Yasur volcano in Vanuatu. As of the 26th of March, the Darvin Volcanic Ash Advisory (DVAAC) has reported that Strombolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions continue at Yasur volcano. Three main active vents are visible inside the summit crater. Incandescent lava explosions reached 250 m above the crater, accompanied by loud explosions. On 7-8th March, ash emissions increased at Yasur producing ashfall over villages within 4 km of the crater. Projectiles were observed falling on the crater rim, 170 m from the vents. Previous information from IRD reported that a new cycle of important activity has began at the end of June 2004. Its the fifth cycles of strong activity since the beginning of the permanent monitoring in 1993. This activity produced important ashfalls ( several millimeters as far 4 km distance of the volcano). Main eruptive activity occurred from the Crater A with strombolian explosions. Height has been estimated estimated to some 300 m high above the crater rim. Sulphur dioxide measurements (SO2) made between 11-17 of July 2004 with mini Doas spectrometer reaches average values of 1000 tonnes per day (500 tonnes per day in April 2004). Information from Michel Lardy (IRD Noumea) and DGMWR (Vanuatu) Yasur is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Previous informations from IRD reported that a new cycle of important activity has began at the end of June 2004. Its the fifth cycles of strong activity since the beginning of the permanent monitoring in 1993. This activity produced important ashfalls ( several millimeters as far 4 km distance of the volcano). Main eruptive activity occured from the Crater A with strombolian explosions. Height has been estimated estimated to some 300 m high above the crater rim. Sulphur dioxyde measurements (SO2) made between 11-17 of July 2004 with mini Doas spectrometer reaches average values of 1000 tons per day (500 tons per day in April 2004). Information from Michel Lardy (IRD Noumea) and DGMWR (Vanuatu)Previous significative information (September 2002) reported an increasing level of activity at Yasur since October 2001 and the volcanic quake of August 29, 2002 (about 3:00 pm local time), led local volcanologist to upgrade the hazard rating to Alarm Level 3. Access to the volcano was closed.The August 29 quake, magnitude 6 was strongly felt by the inhabitants of the whole district around the volcano (White Sands, Port Resolution, …). This was the first time since the seismic station was installed in October 1992 that a shock of such magnitude was recorded (see graphs below). Elders of the Yasur district confirm that such a quake had not been experienced within living memory.Two new seismological monitoring stations are about to be installed, to complement the existing alarm system installed 2 km from Yasur and the Isangel station. At this time, evacuation of the roughly 6000 inhabitants of the district has not been considered. Information bulletins will be broadcast by Radio Vanuatu to keep the population concerned informed of new developments. Yasur's activity follows a long volcanic history in the southeastern part of the island , whose main phases, over approximately the last 10,000 years, have produced: 1/ lava flows; 2/ extensive glowing ash flows that covered the entire region from Kwamera to Waisisi, and 3/ the construction of another small volcanic cone, the Ombus. Yasur volcano lies over a large and shallow (less than 10 km from the surface) magmatic chamber whose center is located between Port-Resolution and Sulfur Bay; thus, the possibility of a major eruption within a century or a millennium cannot be ignored. Such an eruption, however, would be preceded by numerous earthquakes. Should this happen, evacuation of the local population toward the west coast, the central districts and the north of the island would have to be carried out rapidly. Informations from :M.Lardy (IRD Noumea)

Yasur volcano (31December 2002) S.Wallez- DGMWR

 

Main welcome page