VOLCANO NEWS

Updated on July 3rd, 2015 (latest news classified according to countries)

Highlight today : large eruptive activity is still continuing at Sinabung volcano (Indonesia) - (news below)

Due to summer holidays of the Geneva SVE team, this page will not updated until 24th of July - Sorry for the inconvenience.

ECUADOR - Guagua Pichincha volcano


May 4th, 2015

IGEPN reported that seismic activity was detected since end of March 2015. (58 earthquakes during the 31st of March) A second swarm has been reported from 14th to-15th of April probably due to rocks fracturation. As of the 17-18 and 19th of April sulfur odor was detected from the rifugio and according to visual observation the main fumarole close the 1981'crater was more active that the previous days. As of the 20th of April, two phreatic explosions occurred (at 5:06 and 5:58 local time) on the Cristal dome complex active zone. As of the 29th of April, IGEPN recorded a signal tremor type probably in relation with geothermal activity under the volcano. Last previous activity was reported on 2010 : As of the 14 th of September 2010, IG reported that no significative change between 6-12 September period. Seismic network continues to record important number of events related to fracture of rock to the interior of the volcano, nevertheless did not register any type of additional anomaly. As of the 17th of April 2010, IG reported that there no change, both the seismic activity and fumarole emission remained at a low level. Previous significative information : as of the 20th of February 2009, IG reported that the seismic stations Geophysical Institute have registered for days back a slight increase of the internal activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. In previous days 4 phreatic explosions of moderate size have been registered. These explosions happen due to an increase of the internal steam pressure, possibly related to the increase of precipitations observed in the zone of volcano. Therefore the Geophysical Institute recommends that it is not allowed to descend to the interior of the crater since the phreatic explosions could be repeated and the people could take the rock hit, other materials and/or rarefaction waves that are generated by these events. These phreatic explosions they happen generally at times of much rainfall, this is the reason why these explosions not necessarily are indicative of a substantial increase of the activity of volcano Guagua Pichincha. The Geophysical Institute in its preprecautionary eagerness of the security of the people maintains a monitoring permanent of the state of this and other volcanos of the country and will inform opportunely into any change that these can present/display. The activity of the volcano shows a slight increase in its seismic activity with respect to the previous months. 40 volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes have been registered, which are related to the fracturing of rocks to the interior of the complex between the 14th and the 18th of February. These earthquakes are of small magnitude, which is the reason why they have not been perceived by the population. It is possible to indicate that during the 2007, an average of 4.2 VT earthquakes per day was had. Also in this time interval 6 events of long period (LP) per day were registered when the average in the 2008 was of 0.3. LP events are related to resonances of cracks full of flowed inside the volcano. In addition it is important to mention the presence of explosions of moderate magnitude, related to the phreatic activity. The 16th of February the guardian of the refuge of the volcano perceived an increase in the scent to sulphur in the high part of the crater. Guagua Pichincha rises immediately W of Quito, Ecuador's capital city. The broad volcanic massif is cut by a large horseshoe-shaped summit caldera, ~6 km in diameter and 600 m deep, that was breached to the W during a slope failure ~50,000 years ago. - Information : I G Quito

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Cratère du Guagua Pichincha - Aôut 1999 -Viracucha

ECUADOR - Tungurahua volcano

May 7th, 2015

IG reported moderate activity at Tungurahua on 29 April, and low levels during 30 April-5 May. Minor steam plumes were visible most days even though inclement weather often obscured views of the crater area.IG reported moderate-to-high seismic activity at Tungurahua during 22-28 April, characterized by long-period events, tremor, and explosions. Cloud cover often prevented visual observations, and rainfall was recorded almost daily. During 22-23 April gray and red ash fell in Choglontus (13 km WSW), and a landslide in the area of Manto de la Novia was reported in the morning. During 23-24 April gray tephra fell in Bilbao (W), Chontapamba (W), Pillate (8 km W), Banos (8 km N), and Quero (20 km NW). Emissions with minor ash content were visible on 24 April; one emission rose 200 m and drifted NW. Ashfall on 25 April was reported in Chontapamba, Pillate, Romero, and Guambala. During 25-26 April lahars descended the Quero, Bilbao, Chontapamba, Juive (NW), Mapayacu (SW), Pingullo (NW), Pondoa (N), Vazcan (N), Achupashal (NW), La Piramide (NW), and Romero drainages. On 27 April ash fell in Pillate, and a vapor emission rose 2 km and drifted W. On 28 April an emission with a minor ash content rose 3 km and drifted W. Roaring was noted and lahars descended the La Pampa (NW) and Rea drainages. IG reported moderate-to-high activity at Tungurahua during 15-21 April; gas, water vapor, and/or ash plumes were noted daily, although cloud cover often prevented observations. Explosions on 15 April generated ash plumes that rose 3 km above the crater, followed by water vapor-and-ash emissions that rose 2 km and drifted WSW. On 17 April constant gas emissions with minor ash content rose 500-1,000 m and drifted W.IG reported that minor ash emissions from Tungurahua were seen almost daily during 8-14 April, although cloud cover often prevented visual observations. During 7-8 April ash emissions rose 500-800 m above the crater and drifted NW, W, and SW; ashfall was reported in Quero (20 km NW), Guanto, Guazmo, Mirador, Santuario, and in the sectors of El Manzano (8 km SW), Pillate (8 km W), and Choglontus (13 km WSW). Ashfall was reported in Chonglontus on 9 April. Later that day a plume with low ash content drifted W. During 9-10 April seismicity increased to a high level, and "drumbeat" events were detected there for the first time during 16 years of monitoring. Ashfall was reported in El Manzano and Chonglontus. On 11 April an emission with low ash content drifted W. On 13 April a steam-and-ash plume drifted W and SW, causing ashfall in El Manzano. On 14 April an emission with low ash content drifted W; ash fell in Mapayacu. IG reported that, although cloud cover often prevented visual observations of Tungurahua's crater during 1-5 April, minor steam emissions were occasionally seen. On 6 April at 0356 tremor began to be detected and was associated with steam-and-ash emissions which rose 1 km above the crater. Noises were reported at 0730 and ashfall was reported in Cahuaji (8 km SW), Chacauco (NW), Manzano (8 km SW), and Punzupal Alto. Later that day an ash plume drifted W. Emissions in the early afternoon rose no higher than 1 km. On 7 April cloud cover prevented views of the crater most of the day; ashfall was reported in Palitahua (6 km SSW), and a water vapor-and-ash plume rose 1 km and drifted NW. Two explosions were detected by the seismic network.- Tungurahua stratovolcano towers more than 3 km above its northern base. It sits ~140 km S of Quito, Ecuador's capital city, and is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater. They have been accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. The last major eruption took place from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925. The latest eruption began in October 1999 and prompted temporary evacuation of the town of Baños on the N side of the volcano. Tungurahua - Live webcam

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ECUADOR - Reventador volcano

June 18th, 2015

During 10-16 June IG reported moderate seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. On 10 June a steam-and-ash plume rose 1 km above the crater. On 12 June an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted SW. The lava flow on the SW flank was visible in thermal images. A steam-and-ash plume rose 1 km and drifted NW on 14 June, and a vapor-and-ash emission drifted W on 16 June.During 27 May-2 June IG reported moderate seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. On 27 May a steam-and-ash plume rose 1 km and drifted SW. The next day frequent vapor emissions with a slight amounts of ash rose 800 m above the crater and mainly drifted NW. During 29-30 May steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose 1 km and drifted SW and NW. On 2 June an ash plume rose 300 m and drifted NW.During 20-26 May IG reported moderate-to-high seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. A lava flow on the SW flank advanced during 20-21 May. During 24-25 May ash plumes rose 600-800 m and drifted SW, although at 1730 on 25 May a water vapor plume with moderate ash content rose 1.5 km and drifted SW.During 15-21 April IG reported moderate seismic activity including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions at Reventador; cloud cover often prevented visual observations. During 15-16 April steam-and-ash plumes rose 500-1,000 m above the crater and drifted SW. On 18 April an emission of water vapor with minor ash content rose 800 m and drifted SW. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well E of the principal volcanic axis. It is a forested stratovolcano that rises above the remote jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 3-km-wide caldera breached to the E was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1,300 m above the caldera floor. Reventador has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. (GVN/GVP)

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ECUADOR - Cotopaxi volcano

June 15th, 2015

On 11 June IG reported that seismicity at Cotopaxi continued to increase. Tremor began to be detected on 4 June, with periods ranging from 10 to 15 minutes. Amplitudes were highest during 5-6 June. Sulfur dioxide emissions continued to be elevated over baseline levels (which were less than 500 tons/day), detected at values greater than 2,500 tons/day. Low-energy, pulsating gas emissions began on 10 June, and Cotopaxi National Park staff reported an increase of water flow in some streams on the NE flank.IG reported that the seismic network at Cotopaxi had detected increases since mid-April; 628 local earthquakes were detected in April and 3,000 events were detected in May. Very-long-period earthquakes were recorded in May, especially during the last week, located in the N and NE parts of the cone at depths of 3 and 14 km. Sulfur dioxide emissions increased on 20 May, possibly from sporadic emissions becoming more continuous, and were 2,500-3,000 tons/day by the end of May. Baseline values were 500 tons/day. Slight inflation was detected by N and NE inclinometers. Crater fumarolic activity increased, with plumes sometimes visible from Quito (55 km N). Climbers indicated a very intense sulfur dioxide odor on the N part of the cone during 22-23 May. Smmetrical, glacier-clad Cotopaxi stratovolcano is Ecuador's most well-known volcano and one of its most active. The steep-sided cone is capped by nested summit craters, the largest of which is about 550 x 800 m in diameter. Deep valleys scoured by lahars radiate from the summit of the andesitic volcano, and large andesitic lava flows extend as far as the base of Cotopaxi. The modern conical volcano has been constructed since a major edifice collapse sometime prior to about 5000 years ago. Pyroclastic flows (often confused in historical accounts with lava flows) have accompanied many explosive eruptions of Cotopaxi, and lahars have frequently devastated adjacent valleys. The most violent historical eruptions took place in 1744, 1768, and 1877. Pyroclastic flows descended all sides of the volcano in 1877, and lahars traveled more than 100 km into the Pacific Ocean and western Amazon basin. The last significant eruption of Cotopaxi took place in 1904. (GVN/GVP)
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ECUADOR - Sangay volcano

March 5th, 2015

Based on a SIGMET notice of a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 February an ash plume from Sangay rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images only detected an intermittent thermal anomaly. According to the VAAC, on 27 February IG reported a lava flow and a possible diffuse ash plume that rose to an altitude below 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. within 15 km of the summit. On 2 March a local pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. On 3 March an ash plume rose to an estimated altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 13 km W.Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 4 February an ash plume from Sangay rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed a possible ash plume drifting less than 20 km SW. A thermal anomaly was visible in satellite images the next day, as well as a diffuse plume with possible ash drifting W. Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 25 January an ash plume from Sangay rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. Weather clouds prevented satellite image confirmation of the plume, although a thermal anomaly was detected which continued through the next day. Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 18 January an ash plume from Sangay drifted SW at an altitude of 6.4 km (21,000 ft) a.s.l. Weather clouds prevented satellite image views of the plume, although a thermal anomaly was detected. A faint thermal anomaly was detected the next day. The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes, and its most active. The dominantly andesitic volcano has been in frequent eruption for the past several centuries. The steep-sided, 5230-m-high glacier-covered volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex. (GVN/GVP)

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ECUADOR - Wolf volcano ( Galapagos)

June 24th, 2015

As of the 24th of June, according to local news, activity is still continuing within the summit caldera with lava flows running on the floor. Previously, IG reported that the eruption at Wolf that began on 25 May continued through 2 June. Lava flows first reached the sea on 28 May. During an overflight on 29 May scientists observed a gas plume rising 2-3 km above the volcano and drifting NW, and smelled a strong sulfur odor. Active lava flows descended the E and NE flanks; cloud cover prevented views of the other areas but thermal images showed anomalies from lava flows on the SE and S flanks. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 40,600 tons per day based on data collected during the flight. Satellite data collected since the beginning of the eruption indicated very minimal ash present in the plume. In addition, no ashfall was reported in the Galapagos Islands. The report also noted that activity had decreased during the recent few days.According to IG the seismic station located on Fernandina Island recorded several events at Wolf (on Isabela Island) starting at 2350 on 24 May. The most significant signal occurred at 0058 on 25 May, corresponding to an explosion and the start of an eruption. At 0215 the Washington VAAC detected an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km SW. At 0345 one ash plume drifted 250 km ENE at an altitude of 15.2 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l., and another drifted 250 km S at an altitude of 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l. Starting at 0428 the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) reported intense thermal anomalies on Wolf's SE flank based on MODIS satellite data. Galapagos National Park staff reported an arcuate fissure along the upper SSE rim and several lava flows descending the flanks. Later that day the VAAC noted a smaller ash emission that drifted 150 km SW, and a bright thermal anomaly that had persisted. Satellites detecting sulfur dioxide showed that the cloud was sulfur-dioxide rich and ash poor; ~100-200 kt of sulfur dioxide had been emitted during the first 13 hours of the eruption.Several lava flows went down on the flank of the volcano toward Southwest, South and East. The main lava flows extended about 5 km away from the active fissure. About two hours later (2:57 AM),VAAC reported an eruptive plume that raised to 10 km high above the volcano, then 15km high in the morning. As of the 26th of May, eruptive activity decreased and the main lava was not reaching the sea during the first day, but reached the sea the day before. Wolf, the highest volcano of the Galapagos islands, straddles the equator at the north end pf the archipelago's largest island Isabela The 1710-m-high edifice has steeeper slopes than most other Isabela volcano, reaching angle up 35 degrees. A 6x7 km caldera, at 700 m one of the deepest pf the Galapagos Islands, is located at the summit. A prominent bench on the west side of the caldera rises 450 m above the caldera floor, much of which is covered by a lava flow erupted in 1982. Radial fissures concentrated along diffuse rift zones extend down the North, NW and SE flanks, and submarine vents lie beyond the North and NW fissures. Similar unvegetated flows originating from a circumferential chain of spatter and scoria cones on the eastern caldera rim drape the forested flanks to the sea. The proportion of aa lava flows at Wolf volcano exceeds that of other Galapagos volcanoes. An eruption in 1797 was the fisrt documented historical eruption in the Galapagos Islands. Previous eruption occurred in 1982. (GVN/GVP)

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Tungurahua volcano 1999 - H. Gaudru

MONTSERRAT - Soufriere Hills volcano - West-Indies

March 24th, 2015

No significant activity since July 2013 - latest reports dated for the period from 8th of March 2013 to 5th of July 2013 - Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 28th of June to 5h of July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 271 tonnes/day with a maximum of 427 and a minimum of 161 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 21st to 28th of June. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 353 tonnes/day with a maximum of 459 and a minimum of 221 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded four rockfalls and nine volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes the week from 14th to 21st.of June. Six of the VT earthquakes occurred in a brief swarm on 16 July. Sulphur-dioxide measurements were only possible on three days this week and gave an average flux of 289 tonnes/day with a maximum of 332 and a minimum of 247 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded one rockfall and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 7th to 14 th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 281 tonnes/day with a maximum of 428 and a minimum of 185 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded nine rockfalls, five volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event the previous week frm 31st of may to 7th of June.Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 485 tonnes/day with a maximum of 543 and a minimum of 430 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period event this week from 24th to 31st of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 395 tonnes/day with a maximum of 588 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. . The seismic network recorded three rockfalls the week from 17th to 24th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 380 tonnes/day with a maximum of 536 and a minimum of 281 tonnes/day. Many residents of Montserrat felt an earthquake at 7:51 pm on 18 May 2013. This earthquake had a magnitude of 4.9 and was located south-west of Barbuda; about 100 km north of Montserrat. It was not associated with the Soufrière Hills Volcano. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and five volcano-tectonic this week from 10th to 17th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 373 tonnes/day with a maximum of 553 and a minimum of 137 tonnes/day. The seismic network recorded three rockfalls, three volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one long-period earthquake this week from 3rd to 10th of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 313 tonnes/day with a maximum of 435 and a minimum of 160 tonnes/day. Measurements were only possible on three days this week because of adverse wind conditions. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 26th of April to 3rd of May. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 379 tonnes/day with a maximum of 466 and a minimum of 254 tonnes/day. The wind has been mainly towards the north and north-east since the night of 1/2 May. This has blown the volcanic plume over inhabited areas and the smell of volcanic gases has been noticeable at times. The seismic network recorded three volcano-tectonic earthquakes the previous week from 19th to 26th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 366 tonnes/day with a maximum of 535 and a minimum of 181 tonnes/day. There have been no good views of the dome for over a month now. Reports from helicopter pilots suggest that most of the large slab on the eastern side of the dome is now gone; removed by the pyroclastic flow on 28 March 2013. As of the 19th of April, MVO reported that activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low. The seismic network recorded two rockfalls and four volcano-tectonic earthquakes during the week from 12th to 19th of April. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 556 tonnes/day with a maximum of 1155 and a minimum of 271 tonnes/day. Past week 5th to 12th of April, the seismic network recorded no seismic events related to the volcano this week. Sulphur-dioxide measurements gave an average flux of 325 tonnes/day with a maximum of 585 and a minimum of 186 tonnes/day. MVO reported that during 22-29 March activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. A pyroclastic flow traveled down the Tar River Valley (E) at about 0500 on 28 March. The flow was not observed directly, but the deposits indicated that it traveled halfway down the valley, 1-1.5 km from the dome. There were no reports of ashfall; any ash was probably blown over Plymouth and out to sea. The source of the flow was not known due to cloud cover, but was likely from the failure a large slab that had been slowing moving away from the dome. Heavy rainfall during the evening of 28 March generated large lahars in several valleys around the volcano, including in the Belham Valley (NW). These started at about 1900 and lasted for several hours. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Activity at the Soufrière Hills Volcano is still low.The seismic network recorded one rockfall and three volcano-tectonic earthquakes this week from 15th to 22nd of March.Sulphur-dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 359 tonnes/day with a maximum of 540 and a minimum of 258 tonnes/day. There appear to have been no changes in the large slab recently observed to be peeling away from the dome above the Tar River Valley. The slab is now estimated to have dimensions of 80 by 60 by 4-6 metres. If this slab falls as a single block it will produce a large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas. previously , the seismic network recorded one rockfall this week from 8th to 15th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements were possible on only three days this week, giving an average flux of 251 tonnes/day with a maximum of 264 and a minimum of 227 tonnes/day. During a helicopter inspection on 8 March 2013, we observed a large fissure in the cliff on the eastern side of the dome, part of which has existed since 2007. This fissure is the result of slow cooling and erosion of the dome. It is parallel to the cliff face and is estimated to be two metres wide, suggesting that a large slab is slowing peeling away from the dome. If this slab falls as a single block it will probably produce a moderate-to-large pyroclastic flow in the Tar River Valley, safely away from populated areas The seismic network recorded one rockfall, two volcano-tectonic earthquakes and one hybrid event this week from 1st to 8th of March.Sulphur dioxide measurements for the week gave an average flux of 368 tonnes/day with a maximum of 552 and a minimum of 213 tonnes/day. Variable winds blew the volcanic plume over inhabited areas for much of the week, particularly the first half, and the smell of volcanic gases was very noticeable at times. There has been no visible emission of ash from the volcano this week. Montserrat Volcano Observatory - View latest NOAA satellite image of Montserrat ( every 30 mn)
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Soufriere Hills dome on December 6, 2000 (Courtesy Caraibean Helicopter)

 

MEXICO - Popocatepetl volcano

June 5th, 2015

CENAPRED reported that during 27 May-2 June the seismic network at Popocatepetl recorded 60-145 daily emissions consisting of water vapor, gas, and ash; cloud cover sometimes prevented visual observations. Explosions occurred daily, and nighttime crater incandescence was observed. Gas-and-steam plumes drifted in multiple directions. On 29 May at 1600 a series of explosions generated steam-and-ash plumes, and ashfall in multiple municipalities. Another series of explosions was detected from 1600-1918 on 30 May. Slight ashfall was recorded in Amozoc, Puebla (60 km E) on 31 May. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.CENAPRED reported that during 20-26 May the seismic network at Popocatépetl recorded 40-307 daily emissions consisting of water vapor, gas, and sometimes ash; cloud cover often prevented visual observations. Nighttime crater incandescence was noted every night; sometimes the incandescence would become more intense with accompanying emissions. A small explosion at 0023 on 21 May generated a plume with low ash content that rose 800 m and drifted SW. During 22-24 May ash plumes rose 0.5-2.5 km and drifted SW. Ashfall was reported in Ocuituco (24 km SW) on 22 May. From 1702 to 1955 on 25 May a series of explosions accompanied by tremor ejected steam, gas, and ash plumes that drifted SSE. Explosions were detected on 26 May; ashfall was rpeorted in Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW).The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. CENAPRED reported that during 6-12 May the seismic network at Popocatepetl recorded 17-56 daily emissions mostly consisting of water vapor and gas. Nighttime crater incandescence was noted almost every night; sometimes the incandescence would become more intense with accompanying emissions. Explosions were detected at 0949 and 1113 on 7 May. The next day steam-and-gas emissions with low ash content drifted SSW. An explosion was detected at 0411. Ash was visible in water vapor-and-gas emissions during 10-11 May. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. CENAPRED reported that during 8-14 April the seismic network recorded 13-77 gas and steam emissions, with another 204 emissions recorded over 1-2 May. Ash accompanied the emissions during 1-3 May. Gas-and-steam plumes were visible, although cloud cover mostly prevented observations. Nighttime crater incandescence was often noted. A series of explosions during 2218-2301 on 30 April ejected incandescent tephra 200 m onto the NE flank. Sequences of explosions were also detected during 0758-1356 on 1 May and during 0411-0935 on 2 May. Ashfall was reported in San Pedro Benito Juárez (10-12 km SE) in the municipality of Atlixco Puebla on 2 May. Explosions were also detected during 3-5 May. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two. CENAPRED reported that during 22-28 April the seismic network at Popocatepetl recorded 25-91 daily emissions mostly consisting of water vapor and gas. Cloud cover sometimes prevented observations of the crater, although gas plumes and nighttime crater incandescence were noted daily. On 22 April an explosion at 0121 produced diffuse gas and water vapor emissions. Explosions at 1643 and 1758 generated ash plumes. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.CENAPRED reported that during 15-21 April the seismic network at Popocatepetl recorded 19-157 daily emissions. Cloud cover sometimes prevented observations of the crater, although ash plumes and nighttime crater incandescence were often noted. Explosions at 0617 and 0857 on 15 April generated ash plumes that rose 1 km and drifted E. On 17 April an explosion was detected as well as a steam-and-gas emission with low ash content that rose 1-2 km. The next day, on 18 April, six explosions generated steam-and-gas plumes with small amounts of ash that rose as high as 1.5 km and drifted NE. A series of smaller, low-intensity explosions between 1636 and 2330 produced emissions of steam, gas, and small amounts of ash that rose 300 m and drifted NE. Some incandescent tephra fell 100-500 m away onto the N and NE flanks. On 19 April seven explosions generated steam-and-gas plumes with small amounts of ash that rose as high as 1.5 km and drifted NE. At 1052 on 20 April an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 3 km and drifted E. Incandescent tephra was ejected 500 m E. On 21 April three explosions generated plumes with some ash that rose 500 m. CENAPRED reported that after a series of explosions ended at 1200 on 7 April the seismic network at Popocatepetl recorded 78 low-intensity emissions through 1100 on 8 April; gas-and-steam plumes containing small amounts of ash drifted SE. Also during this period 93 explosions occurred, and 12 minutes of harmonic tremor were detected on 8 April. During 8-14 April the seismic network recorded 20-112 gas, steam, and ash emissions, and nighttime crater incandescence was often noted. On 9 and 10 April the network detected 41 and 120 minutes of harmonic tremor, respectively. During an overflight on 10 April scientists confirmed that a lava dome was emplaced in the bottom of the crater between 24 March and 4 April. The lava dome was at least 250 m in diameter and 30 m thick. The surface of the dome had concentric fractures and the central part was collapsed from deflation. Explosions were detected during 13-14 April. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.CENAPRED reported that during 1-7 April the seismic network at Popocatepetl recorded 101-191 daily emissions except during 3-4 and 6-7 April when only 37 and 53 were detected, respectively. Cloud cover often prevented observations of the crater, although ash plumes and nighttime crater incandescence were often noted. On 3 April multiple ash plumes rose 1-3 km above the crater. A period of harmonic tremor, that began at 1039 and ended at 1338, was accompanied by continuous emissions of steam with small amounts of ash. Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, towers to 5,426 m 70 km SE of Mexico City and is North America's second-highest volcano. Frequent historical eruptions have been recorded since the beginning of the Spanish colonial era. A small eruption on 21 December 1994 ended five decades of quiescence. Since 1996 small lava domes have incrementally been constructed within the summit crater and destroyed by explosive eruptions. Intermittent small-to-moderate gas-and-ash eruptions have continued, occasionally producing ashfall in neighboring towns and villages. (GVN/GVP) . - Live cam of Popocatepetl -

MEXICO - Colima volcano

June 26th, 2015

The Washington VAAC reported that an ash-and-gas plume from an explosion at Colima was recorded by the webcam on 24 June; weather clouds prevented views of the volcano.Based on webcam views, the Washington VAAC reported an explosion at Colima on 18 June that ejected lava onto the flanks and possibly produced an ash emission. Ash emissions were visible in the webcam later that day. On 21 June satellite images showed a diffuse ash plume drifting WNW, and Colima Tower reported ash to altitudes of 4.6-6.1 km (15,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l.The Washington VAAC reported that a possible ash plume from Colima was recorded by a webcam on 15 June. Based on satellite images and webcam views, the Washington VAAC reported that on 3 June an ash plume from Colima rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WSW.Based on satellite images and webcam views, the Washington VAAC reported that on 27 May two ash plumes from Colima rose to an altitude of 5.8 km (19,000 ft) a.s.l. Later that day an ash plume drifted 40 km W. Based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 21 May an ash plume rose from Colima to an altitude below 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.Based on satellite images, webcam views, and wind models, the Washington VAAC reported that on 16 May an ash plume rose from Colima to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 95 km ESE before dissipating. A thermal anomaly was also visible. Ash emissions later that day also dissipated within 95 km ESE.Based on satellite images, wind data, webcam views, and the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 7 May ash plumes from Colima rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 80-200 km E. On 10 May ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.2-6.7 km (17,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and ESE. Ash emissions were recorded by the webcam on 11 May.Based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 30 April an ash plume from Colima drifted 30 km E before dissipating. Another ash plume drifted almost 20 km E. On 2 May an ash puff rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 150 km ENE to W. Another ash plume rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Later that day an ash plume drifted almost 85 km E before dissipating.Based on satellite images, and webcam views, Mexico City MWO notices, and wind data, the Washington VAAC reported multiple ash emissions from Colima during 21-26 and 28 April. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.3 km (15,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW to NE. On 25 April ashfall was reported in areas 85 km N. Based on satellite images, and webcam views, information from Colima University, Jalisco Civil Protection notices, Mexico City MWO notices, and wind data, the Washington VAAC reported multiple ash emissions per day from Colima during 15-20 April. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.5-8.5 km (15,000-26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NNE to E. Thermal anomalies were detected on 15 and 17 April. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic centre of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth. Colima's web video camera - Colima data base - new webcam

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GUATEMALA - Fuego volcano

July 2nd, 2015

As of the 1st of July, INSIVUMEH reported that eruptive activity increased during this day. Several pyroclastic flows went down the the South-East flank in the Gully Las Rajas and extended to about 4-5 km long. Ashfalls occured on the Siquinala, Santa Lucia and Cotzumalguapa villages and also to the West part on Xepocapa and Solola. Area of the Reunion, close to the gully Las Rajas has been evacuated. Previously, In a special report from 28 June at 2100, INSIVUMEH reported that activity at Fuego had been changing during the previous few hours, characterized by 4-5 explosions per hour and ash plumes rising 850 m. During 28-30 June ash plumes drifted W, causing ashfall in areas downwind. Shock waves from the explosions vibrated structures in areas including Panimache and Panimache II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofia (12 km SW), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Block avalanches descended the flanks. Rumbling was audible as far as 25 km away. During 29-30 June a 300-m-long lava flow was visible in the Las Lajas drainage on the SE flank. INSIVUMEH reported that at 1830 on 12 June the seismic stations at Fuego detected a lahar. At 1930 a lahar, 25 m wide and 2-3 m deep, traveled S down the Trinidad drainage, carrying abundant volcanic material and blocks 1-2 m in diameter. During 13-16 June explosions generated ash plumes that rose 550-850 m above the crater and drifted 10-12 km WNW, W, SW, and S. Shock waves were detected, and incandescent tephra was ejected 50 m above the crater. Ash fell in areas downwind including La Soledad, Acatenango, and Sacatepequez.INSIVUMEH reported that during 4-5 June Strombolian activity at Fuego ejected incandescent material 300 m above the crater. Gray plumes rose 1.1 km and drifted 14 km S and SW; ashfall was reported in communities within 11 km, including Panimache l and ll, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and areas in Yepocapa. Lava flows traveled 600 and 1,200 m down the Santa Teresa and Trinidad drainages, respectively. Avalanches of material from the lava-flow fronts descended the drainages. In a special report from 6 June, INSIVUMEH noted that after 30 hours the period of Strombolian activity had ended. Three lava flows, 600, 700, and 1,300 m in length, were no longer active. The report noted that this episode was the fourth for the year. Deformation to the crater had occurred, with two cinder cones visible from several areas. During 6-7 June white plumes rose 150 m and drifted 10 km S and SW. Pulses of incandescence rose 100 m. Explosions during 7-8 June produced ash plumes that rose 750 m and drifted W and S. Ashfall was recorded in areas within a distance of 10 km.INSIVUMEH reported that activity at Fuego remained high during 21-26 May. Explosions produced ash plumes that rose 800 m above the crater and drifted 8-10 km W and SW. Ash fell in nearby areas including Panimache I and II, Morelia, and Santa Sofía. Homes within a 10-km radius vibrated from explosions. Incandescent material was ejected 150-200 m above the crater and incandescent block avalanches descended the Cenizas (SSW) and Trinidad (S) ravines. INSIVUMEH reported that during 14-15 May the number and intensity of explosions at Fuego was high. From (INSIVUMEH) - Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3,763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the N, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta volcano continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene, after which growth of the modern Fuego volcano continued the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded at Fuego since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows. The last major explosive eruption from Fuego took place in 1974, producing spectacular pyroclastic flows visible from Antigua.

GUATEMALA - Santa Maria - Santiaguito

May 28th, 2015

INSIVUMEH reported that a moderate explosion at Caliente cone, part of Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, generated an ash plume that rose 600 m and drifted SW; ashfall was reported in La Florida and Monte Claro. During 23-24 May explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted SE and E. Ash fell in the Palajunoj area and Monte Claro. Small explosions and avalanches were detected during 24-26 May.INSIVUMEH reported that during 23-24 and 27-28 April grayish-white ash plumes rose 400-500 m from Santa Maria's Santiaguito lava-dome complex and drifted SW. An explosion at 0450 on 24 April generated a small plume that drifted SW, and explosions at 0517 and 0602 on 28 April generated plumes that rose 500 m and drifted SW. INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-6 March explosions from Caliente cone, part of Santa María's Santiaguito LAVA DOMEcomplex, generated ASHplumes that rose 500 m and caused ashfall in Monte Claro (S). Lava-dome incandescence was observed at night. Explosions during 7-8 March generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted W. During 9-10 March explosions generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted S and SW, causing ashfall in San Marcos (10 km SW), Palajunoj (18 km SSW), Las Marías, and San Felipe Retalhuleu (27 km SSW). Avalanches descended the E flank of Caliente cone. (scientific blog about Santiaguito). The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santa Maria has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars

GUATEMALA - Pacaya volcano

June 25th, 2015

INSIVUMEH reported a gradual increase of tremor amplitude at Pacaya during 17-18 June. Observers noted that small ash ejections from Mackenney cone were dispersed around the crater. Tremor continued to be detected during 20-22 June. Ash emissions continued to be confined to the crater area during 21-22 June, and incandescence from the crater was visible at night.INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-8 June white and blue fumarolic plumes rose above Pacaya's Mackenney cone. Ash emissions were observed about every 3-4 hours, and the seismic network detected signals indicating collapsed within the crater along with ash emissions.INSIVUMEH reported that during 12-13 February a series of weak explosions from Pacaya's Mackenney Crater generated dark gray ash plumes that rose 500-700 m above the crater and, along with fumarolic plumes, drifted 1.5 km S. During 14-15 February weak explosions continued to generate ash plumes; ash and fumarolic plumes drifted 800 m SE. The next day fumarolic and ash plumes drifted S and SW at a low altitude. During 16-17 February fumarolic plumes with small amounts of ash rose 100 m and drifted E. INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-10 February fumarolic plumes from Pacaya's Mackenney Crater drifted 700-800 m S and SW. In a special notice INSIVUMEH reported that on 28 January ash emissions originating from Pacaya's Mackenney Crater drifted 4 km S and SW. During field observations, scientists saw a defined central crater, 40-50 m in diameter, and ash emissions. Gas plumes rose from an area on the S flank. Seismic data was characterized by tremor and low-frequency events. In a report from 1 February, INSIVUMEH stated that low-altitude water vapor plumes with minor amounts of ash drifted W and SW. During 1-2 February fumarolic plumes rose 50 m and drifted 600 m S. In a special notice from 14 January INSIVUMEH reported that seismic data indicated weak ash emissions at Pacaya's Mackenney Crater during recent days. White and blue fumarolic plumes drifted S during 16-20 January, and seismic data continued to indicate small-to-moderate explosions. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. During the past several decades, activity at Pacaya has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of MacKenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the cone.

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COSTA RICA - Arenal volcano

September 16th, 2013

OVSICORI-UNA conducted an overflight of Arenal on 14 September to measure gas emissions, and found low concentrations of carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen sulfide. An infrared camera detected a ring of thermal anomalies along the rim of Crater C.OVSICORI-UNA reported that plumes composed mainly of water vapor rose from the NE and SE edges of Arenal's Crater C on 8 and 9 September. Tremors indicative of hydrothermal and magmatic activity were detected on 8 September. The report noted that seismic and fumarolic activity had been very low in the past three years; however steam plumes associated with heavy rains had been frequent. The 1657-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterised by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. Arenal's most recent eruptive period began with a major explosive eruption in 1968. Continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows has occurred since then from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank. New webcam

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COSTA RICA- Poas Volcano

November 16th, 2014

On 13 November OVSICORI-UNA reported a drastic decrease in temperature and gas flow from vents around the lava dome on the S edge of the hot lake at Poas. In addition incandescence from the dome was no longer visible, activity from fumaroles in the lake had decreased, and the lake water changed from greenish to milky. Phreatic eruptions had not occurred since late October. As of the 13th of October, OVSICORI-UNA reported that a new strong phreatic eruption occurred from the crater lake. The event ejected material over 250 m from the crater lake, causing ashfall on the lookout area and visitor's center. As of the 8th of October OVSICORI-UNA reported that a strong phreatic eruption from the hot lake at Poás was recorded at 1745 on 8 October. The event lasted one minute and ejected material over 250 m above the crater lake's surface. The seismic record indicated that it was the most energetic event so far in 2014.OVSICORI-UNA reported that a phreatic eruption from Poas was recorded at 1008 on 20 June. The explosion generated a plume 200 m above the crater lake. The plume was mainly water vapor with entrained lake sediments (which contained sulfur precipitates and altered rocks). Other gases such as SO2, H2S, HCL, HF, and others were also included. This was the second phreatic explosion to occur in June. There was no visual record of that event, but routine inspections by the National Park staff on 2 June determined that during the night, there had been a large explosion evidenced by significant fall deposits around the crater lake shoreline. A solar panel had also been damaged by falling rocks associated with that explosion. Seismicity suggests indicated explosive signatures at 1954 on 1 June. On 18 June, observatory staff noted that between 1000 and 1343, small phreatic eruptions were occurring within the lake. One of these explosions released a strong sulfur smell and large waves. The water temperature was recorded at 44.6°C with a pH of -0.49. Previously, OVSICORI-UNA reported that a strong phreatic eruption from Poás was recorded at 1532 on 30 March. The explosion ejected water, steam, gases, sediment, and fragments of altered rock 150 m above the crater lake's surface. The report noted several small phreatic eruptions that ejected material less than 50 m high, as well as large gas bubbles and vapor in the middle of the lake, during February and March.OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 0800 on 25 February officials at the Parque Nacional Volcán Poás noted that the gray crater lake had convection cells and weak fumarolic activity at the S edge of the lake around a cryptodome. At 1203 a strong phreatic explosion from Poás was recorded by webcams at the N end of the lake. The explosion ejected water, steam, gas, sediment, and rock fragments over 400 m above the lake's surface. Most of the material fell back into the lake, and onto the W, N, and E parts of the crater walls. Fumarolic activity around the cryptodome and lake convection both increased after the explosion. Previously, two other smallest phreatic explosions already occured on 14th and 21st of February. The lake of Poás currently presents a temperature between 45 and 50°C and a pH around 0, sometimes negative. The temperature of the fumaroles of the dome are around 400°C these days and were above 500°C in May 2013 and above 800°C in 2011. Previously, OVSICORI-UNA reported that during May temperatures of the cryptodome at Poás were high enough to produce nighttime incandescence. Maximum temperatures of 575 and 450 degrees Celsius were recorded on 8 and 30 May, respectively. Activity of the lake was very similar to that reported for May 2012, characterized by sporadic phreatic eruptions and a slow decline in the water level. On 8 May 2013 the water level was 0.5 m below the level measured on 8 May 2012. Phreatic eruptions occurred at 1100 on 1 May, at 1700 on 8 May, and at 1125 and 1510 on 28 May. Fumarolic activity was variable. During the early morning hours on 2 and 3 June, residents reported a gas plume rising 1 km above the crater floor. OVSICORI-UNA noted that recent plumes were high-temperature (450-575 degrees Celsius) and rich in sulfur dioxide, giving the plumes a bluish-white color. Previously past year - OVSICORI-UNA reported that on October 27, 2012 at 5:57 pm a phreatic eruption at Lake Poás ultra-acid of moderate energy was recorded by seismographs OVSICORI-A located at the top of the volcano. This eruption produced the ejection of agua, sulfur-rich sediments and rock fragments out of the lake. Hours earlier, at 11:20 am, there was a small phreatic eruption was also recorded by seismographs. According to a news article, local residents heard a loud rumble at about 0100 on 28 October; a phreatic eruption ejected sediment 500 m above the lake, and produced ashfall several hundreds of meters away. Previously, OVSICORI-UNA reported that phreatic eruptions at Poás occurred on 6, 15, 20 and 26 May. The eruption on 15 May 2012 was preceded by about 6 hours of very-low amplitude harmonic tremor. Administrators of the Poás Volcano National Park witnessed the eruption and reported that sediment, water, rock fragments, and plumes were ejected 500 m above the lake surface. The level of the lake dropped ~0.9 m between 8 and 29 May. Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2,708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7,500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. Web camera from OVSICORI-UNA.

COSTA RICA - Turrialba volcano

May 20th, 2015

OVSICORI-UNA reported that an ash emission from Turrialba occurred at 1520 on 14 May and drifted W. An eruption that started at 1018 on 18 May, and lasted for 23 minutes, generated an ash plume that rose 400 m above the crater and drifted NW. Another ash emission from a 25-minute-long eruption, which began at 1350, rose 500 m and drifted NW. At 1549 a third ash emission drifted NNW at an unknown altitude due to cloudy conditions.OVSICORI-UNA reported that a 4-minute-long ash emission from Turrialba occurred at 1004 on 6 May. The ash plume rose vertically about 600 m above the crater. Another ash emission occurred at 1245 on 11 May, and tremor was detected. No direct observations of ash were possible due to inclement weather.OVSICORI-UNA reported that a 4-minute-long ash emission from Turrialba occurred at 0836 on 1 May. The ash plume rose about 500 m above the crater and drifted SW. Ash emissions that began at 1524 on 4 May lasted 23 minutes, and produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted SW. The eruption ejected ballistics 1 km from the crater. Most of the ashfall occurred around the crater. Reports of minor ashfall and sulfur odors came from San José (Moravia, Coronado, Mata de Plattano, La Uruca, Guadalupe, Tibas, Calle Blancos, San Pedro Montes de Oca, Sabanilla Montes de Oca, Pavas, Zapote, Escaza, S of San José, Paso Ancho, Curridabat, Santa Ana), and a few localities in the eastern region of Heredia. On 5 May intermittent emissions of gas and ash rose 500 m; inclement weather prevented satellite observations Based on webcam views, and observers at the Tobias Bolanos and Juan Santamaria international airports, the Washington VAAC reported that gas emissions with minor ash content rose from Turrialba and drifted W during 23-24 April.The Washington VAAC reported that ash emissions from Turrialba were visible in the webcam on 20 April; weather clouds prevented ash detected in satellite images. Images later that day showed steam plumes with minor ash content. OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1307 on 3 April a small ash eruption occurred at Turrialba, causing ashfall in nearby areas including Silvia and La Central (2 km SW). At 1124 on 5 April an eruption generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and caused ashfall in Curridabat (31 km WSW), Granadilla (29 km WSW), San Pedro, Desamparados (35 km WSW), Aserrí (40 km SW), San Sebastian (37 km WSW), and Escaza (42 km WSW). Gas-and-vapor plumes rose from the crater at 0800 on 6 April.OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 18 March gas, vapor, and ash plumes rose from Turrialba's Crater Oeste and seismicity remained high. Observers in Finca La Central (2 km SW) noted gas-and-steam emissions. On 19 March at 0806 and 1007 gas and water vapor emissions rose from the crater; the emissions at 1007 rose from Crater Central and contained a small amount of ash. At 1400 the webcam recorded strong emissions of gas, vapor, and tephra from Crater Oeste. A national park official heard two booming sounds at 1530. At around 1000 on 23 March a gas, vapor, and ash plume rose from Crater Oeste, causing ashfall in areas E and SE of the crater including Crater Central and el Mirador. In addition a dense and vigorous gas-and-vapor plume caused Parque Nacional Volcan Turrialba authorities to recommend masks for protection against gas inhalation.Based on webcam views, weather models, and OVSICORI-UNA updates, the Washington VAAC reported that on 8 March diffuse ash emissions rose from Turrialba's West Crater and seismicity increased. OVSICORI-UNA reported an ash emission at 0100 on 11 March. Another ash emission occurred at 1050 on 12 March. Almost continuous ash emissions were observed in the afternoon and were punctuated by two noticeable explosions at 1338 and 1450. Ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the crater and drifted NW. Ashfall occurred in the Central Valley and in the capital of San Jose (30 km WSW), and caused the closure of the Juan Santamaria International Airport, 48 km W, which reopened during the evening on 13 March. The local Tobias Bolanos airport (40 km WSW) closed intermittently. On 13 March two short explosions occurred at 1045 and 1100, and then a third occurred at 2100. According to the VAAC, ash plumes that day drifted 45 km NE at an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km W at an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. The massive 3340-m-high Turrialba is exceeded in height only by Irazú, covers an area of 500 sq km, and is one of Costa Rica's most voluminous volcanoes. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity at Turrialba originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred at Turrialba during the past 3500 years. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.INFORMATION from OVSICORI - SVE Volcanic fieldtrip on group request.

COSTA RICA - Rincon de la Vieja volcano

September 24th, 2013

OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 1237 on 17 September a seismic signal indicating a phreatic explosion at Rincon de la Vieja was detected by a station about 5 km S of the volcano. A second phreatic explosion, detected at 2048 and lasting three minutes, was of a larger magnitude and a longer duration that the first explosion. Phreatic explosions were also detected at 1825 on 19 September and at 0304, 0439, and 0634 on 20 September. Residents on the N flank heard the event on 19 September and saw the explosion at 0634 on 20 September. An overflight of the crater lake on 20 September revealed that the temperature of the lake water was about 45 degrees Celsius, an increase from about 30 degrees measured in April. Previously, OVSICORI-UNA received reports at 0530 on 26 February 2013 of pulsing white plumes rising from Rincon de la Vieja's active crater about every four minutes. The seismic records showed no signals associated with a phreatic eruption or sudden gas output. Cloud cover prevented views of the active crater during an overflight later that day, however clear views of the N and S flanks and areas SW showed no changes.Rincon de la Vieja, a composite stratovolcano in Northwestern Costa Rica forms a NW-trending ridge consisting of several eruptive centers that have coalesced through time. Elevations of the individual cones range from 1670 to 1920 meters and nine craters are readily identified by their topographic expression. Numerous phreatic eruptions have occurred since 1851 (as recently as November, 1995), all from the Active Crater. The last major eruption involving juvenile magma occurred at ~3,500 ybp, producing the Rio Blanco tephra deposit. Ash, pumice, and lithics ejected during this eruption were deposited in a highly asymmetrical dispersal pattern WSW of the Active Crater, indicating strong easterly prevailing tradewinds at the time of the eruption. Historical descriptions of the summit crater morphology suggest that conditions there have changed little over the past century.
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NICARAGUA - Telica volcano

June 10th, 2015

On 6 June INETER reported that during the previous day six small gas explosions occurred at Telica, for a total of 806 explosions since an unspecified time of increased activity. A report on 8 June stated that no seismic events had been detected during the previous 72 hours.Based on webcam views and satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 26 May an ash plume from Telica drifted W at an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. Later that day a gas-and-ash plume rose to an altitude below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km W. INETER reported continuing small gas explosions during 28 May-1 June; a total of 798 explosions since an unspecified time of increased activity. Ashfall was reported in Posoltega (16 km SW), Corinto (40 km WSW), Chinandega (30 km W), Chichigalpa (20 km WSW), and El Realejo (35 km WSW). On 8 May INETER reported that activity at Telica had been increasing. Earthquakes SE of the volcano and seven small-intensity explosions had been detected during an unspecified period, although a M 2.4 earthquake had occurred at 1102 on 7 May. During 11-12 May there were 18 explosions, for a total of 64 since the increased activity began. An explosion at 0950 on 12 May was accompanied by small quantities of ash emissions. At 1223 an explosion generated a gas-and-ash plume and ejected hot rocks (pre-existing material) 400 m high and to the W. Minor ashfall was reported in El Realejo, Corinth, Posoltega, and Chichigalpa. Seismicity was at normal levels. By 1200 on 18 May a total of 421 small explosions had been detected (164 in the previous 24 hours); gas emissions were low. During 18-20 May reports noted that 31 small gas explosions had been detected; ash had not been detected since 17 May and activity was decreasing. During 21-22 May 16 small gas explosions occurred, for a total of 540 explosions. Gas explosions continued during 22-24 May. A few of the explosions ejected hot rock fragments and generated ash plumes. Ashfall was reported in Posoltega, Guanacastal, Quezalguaque, Chinandega, El Viejo, Chichigalpa, and El Realejo. As of the 13th of May, INETER, reported that several explosions occurred from the summit crater from the 10th to 12th of May with lava bomb ejection at about 400 m high and ash plume emission. Preliminary analysis shows that is only old magma material. Based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 11 May multiple emissions of gas and ash from Telica rose to an altitude below 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The emissions dissipated within six hours. Telica, one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes, has erupted frequently since the beginning of the Spanish era. This volcano group consists of several interlocking cones and vents with a general NW alignment. Sixteenth-century eruptions were reported at symmetrical Santa Clara volcano at the SW end of the group. However, its eroded and breached crater has been covered by forests throughout historical time, and these eruptions may have originated from Telica, whose upper slopes in contrast are unvegetated. The steep-sided cone of 1061-m-high Telica is truncated by a 700-m-wide double crater; the southern crater, the source of recent eruptions, is 120 m deep. El Liston, immediately SE of Telica, has several nested craters. The fumaroles and boiling mudpots of Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica, form a prominent geothermal area frequented by tourists, and geothermal exploration has occurred nearby.(GVN/GVP)

NICARAGUA - Cerro Negro volcano

June 13th, 2013

INETER reported that the seismic station at the base of Cerro Negro recorded the onset of tremor at 0845 on 4 June. Seismicity fluctuated; Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement (RSAM) values increased to 60
units, from an average value of 14. From 1535 to 1731 the network recorded 49 earthquakes that were too small to be located. Central America's youngest volcano, Cerro Negro, was born in April 1850 and has since been one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua. Cerro Negro is the largest, southernmost, and most recent of a group of four youthful cinder cones constructed along a NNW-SSE-trending line in the central Marrabios Range 5 km NW of Las Pilas volcano. Strombolian-to-subPlinian eruptions at Cerro Negro at intervals of a few years to several decades have constructed a roughly 250-m-high basaltic cone and an associated lava field that is constrained by topography to extend primarily to the NE and SW. Cone and crater morphology have varied significantly during its eruptive history. Although Cerro lies in a relatively unpopulated area, its occasional heavy ashfalls have caused damage to crops and buildings in populated regions of the Nicaraguan depression (GVN/GVP) - INETER

NICARAGUA - San Cristobal volcano

June 16th, 2015

INETER reported that at 0907 on 12 June an explosion at San Cristobal generated a gas-and-ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted SE. An explosion at 1835 produced a gas plume with low ash content; the height of the plume was unable to be determined due to inclement weather. INETER noted that seismicity remained at background levels. Seismic signals detected a lahar between 1850 and 1929; an observer reported that the small lahar descended the W and SW flanks.
INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-8 June 2015 white and blue fumarolic plumes rose above Pacaya's Mackenney cone. Ash emissions were observed about every 3-4 hours, and the seismic network detected signals indicating collapsed
within the crater along with ash emissions. Past year news - Based on analysis of satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 11 April 2014 a gas plume from San Cristobal that possibly contained small amounts of ash drifted 20 km W. A thermal anomaly was present in short-wave infrared satellite images. Periods of elevated seismicity were also detected. INETER reported that a gas emission with small amounts of ash rose from San Cristóbal between 0641 and 0850 on 4 February. Although there was no increase noted, the report stated that seismicity decreased to background levels. By the afternoon sulfur dioxide emission values were 2,000-3,000 tonnes per day, the normal levels, and on 7 February they were 1,000 tonnes per day INETER reported that seismic tremor at San Cristóbal increased at 0340 on 17 January; RSAM values increased from a baseline of 70 to 460 units. Twelve gas emissions were observed between 1259 and 1315, and RSAM climbed to 649 units. A report at 1700 noted that RSAM values decreased to 100 and no additional gas emissions were observed. The next day, 18 January, RSAM values fluctuated between 90 and 190 units.
The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km to the west of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km to the NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the San Cristóbal complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.San Cristobal's last such activity occurred three years ago. GVN/GVP - NOTE : a SVE fieldtrip in Nicaragua is planned for November 2015- registration open here

NICARAGUA - Concepcion volcano

July 2nd, 2015

INETER reported that gas explosions continued to be detected at Concepcion; by 30 June a total of 2,417 explosions, 113 since 23 June, had been detected by the network since activity increased (date not specified).INETER reported that gas explosions continued to be detected at Concepcion; by 23 June a total of 2,304 explosions, 320 since 15 June, had been detected by the network since activity increased (date not specified). INETER reported that gas explosions continued to be detected at Concepcion; by 15 June a total of 1,984 explosions, 309 since 9 June, had been detected by the network since an unspecified date of increased activity.In an 9 June statement, INETER noted that 38 gas explosions had been detected in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number to 1,675 detected by the network since an unspecified date of increased activity INETER noted that 159-177 gas explosions had been detected during 27 May-1 June, bringing the total number to 1,493 detected by the network since an unspecified date of increased activity. INETER reported According to a 6 May news article, activity at Concepcion had increased about three weeks prior and was characterized by fluctuating levels of seismicity and gas explosions. In a 8 May statement, INETER noted that seismic activity and gas explosions at Concepcion had decreased since the day before; 15 gas explosions has been detected in a 24-hour period. By 24 May there had been a total of 987 gas explosions detected by the network since an unspecified date of increased activity. Volcano Concepcion is one of Nicaragua's highest and most active volcanoes. The symmetrical basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano forms the NW half of the dumbbell-shaped island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua and is connected to neighboring Madera volcano by a narrow isthmus. A steep-walled summit crater is 250 m deep and has a higher western rim. N-S-trending fractures on the flanks of the volcano have produced chains of spatter cones, cinder cones, lava domes, and maars located on the NW, NE, SE, and southern sides extending in some cases down to Lake Nicaragua. Concepcion was constructed above a basement of lake sediments, and the modern cone grew above a largely buried caldera, a small remnant of which forms a break in slope about halfway up the north flank. Frequent explosive eruptions during the past half century have increased the height of the summit significantly above that shown on current topographic maps and have kept the upper part of the volcano unvegetated.(GVN/GVP)

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El SALVADOR - San Miguel volcano

April 15th, 2015

SNET reported that at 1515 on 11 April a small explosion at San Miguel generated a gas-and-ash plume that rose 800 m and quickly dissipated to the SW. Minor ashfall (1 mm thick) was reported WSW of the crater, in La Piedra, Moritas, and San Jorge.Previously, SNET reported that at 0643 on 26 January a small explosion at San Miguel generated a plume that rose 300 m and quickly dissipated to the W. Local residents reported hearing rumbling and feeling tremor during the explosion. Minor ashfall was reported SW of the crater.Previously, on 27 August -2 September 2014 SNET reported that seismic activity at San Miguel had decreased significantly from the previous month. Small steam-and-gas plumes did not exceed 200 m above the summit. Views on 29 August were obscured by clouds. On 1 September there was a slight increase in seismicity and gas pulses rose 400 m above the summit. On 20-26 August SNET reported low seismic activity at San Miguel. On most days short pulses of white and whitish gray steam plumes were observed at the summit. On 13-19 August SNET reported low seismic activity at San Miguel. On most days white and whitish gray gas plumes rose 100-300 m above the crater. On 14 August field work was completed that assessed damage to the town of San Jorge affected by debris flows caused by heavy rainfall on 10-11 August. SNET reported low seismic activity and reduced emissions at San Miguel during 6-12 August. A remote camera and infrared visual display showed mild white fumerolic emissions rose less than 200 m above the crater. Heavy rain has contributed to a debris flow recorded by a station 1.7 km from the north flank on 9 August. On 11 August instruments recorded additional mud flows. SNET reported property damage and two people were affected by these flows. SNET reported decreasing seismic activity and reduced emissions at San Miguel during 30 July-5 August. A remote camera and infrared visual display showed minor white fumarolic emissions that rose less than 200 m above the crater. MARN issued a special report on 27 June and related the unstable system at San Miguel as RSAM values decreased then climbed to fluctuate between 118 and 335. Concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) values measured over the past 24 hours have fluctuated between good and unhealthy. According to SNET the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARN) reported that seismicity at San Miguel increased significantly during 11-12 June, and remained very high through 17 June. Webcam images on 17 June showed a small steam plume rising from the summit crater According to SNET in a report from 1 June, the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARN) reported that seismicity at San Miguel remained high. Locals observed more intense gas plumes rising from the crater with occasional minor amounts of ash, especially after rainfall. Rumbling was also reported. According to SNET, the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARN) reported that during 22-23 May heavy rains at San Miguel caused lahars that originated from the upper part of the volcano and were heard by residents. Seismicity and gas output both remained high. Gas plumes rose 300 m and drifted W; the plumes were different colors and suggested that fine material was being carried out of the crater. According to SNET, the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARN) reported on 19 May that activity at San Miguel had increased significantly in the previous few days. The activity was characterized by an increase in the frequency and magnitude of gas emissions, rumbling in the crater, and small explosions followed by juvenile ashfall. On 18 May between 2230 and 2300 less than 1 mm of ash fell to the WNW in San Jorge. On 19 May the webcam recorded periodic pulses of gray gas plumes that rose 300 m and drifted W. On 20 May seismicity remained high and gray emissions rose 300 m. According to SNET, the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARN) reported that on 10 May San Miguel emitted small amounts of ash. Ashfall, less than 1 mm thick, was observed in areas between the Parque de las Placitas and Placitas. Previously, according to SNET, the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARN) reported that on 12 April moderate to strong gas plumes from San Miguel rose from the crater and drifted SW. The most robust plume occurred at 1607 and rose 400 m. Images recorded by a webcam showed that the plumes had dark tones, suggesting small amounts of ash. Previously, as of the 13th of February, SNET reported that a new moderate explosive activity occurred yesterday 12th of February at 4:44 PM. The eruptive phase - duration about 10 mn - produced a volcanic plume that rose to about 500 m high above the volcano. SNET reported that during 15-20 January RSAM values at San Miguel fluctuated between 14 and 97, except for a period starting at 1500 on 19 January where the values were 102-215. Gas emissions were haracterized by light gray plumes that rose 100-250 m above the crater and drifted S and SW.SNET reported that during 8-10 January activity at San Miguel was low. The number of seismic events fluctuated but remained at low levels, sometimes lower than values recorded before the eruption on 29 December 2013. Gas emissions were also low and characterized by light gray plumes that rose 100-150 m above the crater and drifted S. RSAM values and sulfur dioxide emissions increased for a period of time during 11-12 January, but decreased again to low levels.SNET reported that sulfur dioxide gas flux in tonnes per day from San Miguel was high: 2,200 on 31 December 2013, 1,740 on 1 January 2014, and 700 on 2 January. The report noted that the measurement on 2 January was likely low due to changes in wind patterns that day. During 1-2 January RSAM values ranged from 17 to 28 units. On 5 January gas plumes rose as high as 150 m above the crater. The next day light-gray gas plumes rose 200 m and drifted SW. RSAM values during 5-6 January were between 15 and 33 units. According to news articles, an explosive eruption at San Miguel that began at 1030 on 29 December prompted an evacuation of 1,400-2,600 people. A dense ash plume rose from the crater. Based on wind data, the Washington VAAC reported that the ash plume rose to an altitude of 9.7 km (32,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE at higher altitudes and W at lower altitudes. SNET reported that sulfur dioxide flux was 637 tonnes per day on 29 December and 1,244 tonnes per day on 30 December. During 30-31 December seismicity decreased significantly. Through the morning of 31 December emissions had consisted of gas and slight amounts of ash that drifted WSW. . The symmetrical cone of San Miguel volcano, one of the most active in El Salvador, rises from near sea level to form one of the country's most prominent landmarks. A broad, deep crater that has been frequently modified by historical eruptions (recorded since the early 16th century) caps the truncated summit of the towering volcano, which is also known locally as Chaparrastique. Radial fissures on the flanks of the basaltic volcano have fed a series of fresh lava flows, including several erupted during the 17th-19th centuries that reached beyond the base of the volcano on the N, W, and SE sides. The SE-flank lava flows are the largest and form broad sparsely vegetated lava fields. GVN - (SNET)

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COLOMBIA - Chiles- Cerro Negro de Mayasquer

November 6th, 2014

On 4 November Servicio Geologico Colombiano's Observatorio Vulcanologico and Sismologico de Pasto (SGC-OVSP) reported that seismic activity at Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes remained elevated. Since 29 September 2014 about 132,000 earthquakes had been detected, with 3,200 of those events occurring on 4 November. During the previous week hypocenters were located 0.3-6.3 km S and SW of Chiles, at depths of 3-9 km below the summit. Local magnitudes were between 0.7 and 4.6. The Alert Level remained at Orange (level 3 of 4). Previously, based on reports from Observatorio Vulcanologico and Sismológico de Pasto (SGC-OVSP), and the Instituto Geofisico de la Escuela Politecnica Nacional (IGEPN), on 26 October Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC) stated that seismic activity at Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes continued at a high rate. Since 29 September 2014 about 81,000 earthquakes had been detected with 6,300 of those events occurring on 25 October. The epicenter was 2-3.5 km S of Chiles. Interferometry (INSAR) and a high resolution GPS network both showed localized deformation S of Chiles. The Alert Level remained at Orange (level 3 of 4). A news article from 23 October noted that 3,500 families had been evacuated
from the Chiles, Panam, and Mayasquer communities On 20 October Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC) reported that a M 5.8 earthquake, the largest to date, occurred in the vicinity of the Cerro Negro de Mayasquer and Chiles volcanoes at a depth of less than 10 km. The event was felt to the N in Pasto (Colombia) and to the S in Quito (Ecuador). On 21 October SGC raised the Alert Level for the volcanic complex to Orange (level 3 of 4) noting that a seismic swarm characterized by 4,300 earthquakes was detected in an 18-hour period. Hypocenters were located 1-4 km SW of Chiles volcano at depths of 3-5 km and local magnitudes between M 0.2 and 4.5. Inhabitants felt 11 of the events. On 22 October a report noted that the total number of earthquakes recorded on 21 October reached 7,717, which was the largest number of earthquakes recorded on one day since the installation of a local seismic network in November 2013. Several swarms have occurred in the area since February 2013. The Chiles-Cerro Negro volcanic complex includes both the Pleistocene Chiles and the Cerro Negro de Mayasquer stratovolcanoes astride the Colombia-Ecuador border. Cerro Negro has a caldera open to the west, with andesitic and dacitic lava flows of possible Holocene age (Hall 1992, pers. comm.) and solfataras on the shore of a small crater lake. An historical eruption reported in 1936 may have been from Reventador (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World). The higher, glacier-covered summit of Chiles, about 4 km ESE of Cerro Negro, last erupted about 160,000 years ago, but it has hot springs and an active hydrothermal system on its eastern flank.


COLOMBIA - Galeras volcano

April 22nd, 2013

INGEOMINAS reported that during 15-21 May seismicity at Galeras was at a low level; during 19-20 May earthquakes with magnitudes 2.6 or less were concentrated in an area 3 km SW at depths near 4 km. Gas plumes rose 500 m above the crater and contained small amounts of ash during 15-16 and 20-21 May. Sulfur dioxide emissions were low. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). INGEOMINAS reported that during 10-16 April 2913 earthquakes at Galeras were located in various areas as far as 13 km from the crater, at depths no greater than 14 km and with maximum magnitudes of 2. Moderate levels of sulfur dioxide were detected; plumes drifted NW. Cameras recorded ash emissions all week, especially on 9, 11, 12, and 14 April, when pulsating activity produced plumes that drifted W. Plumes rose no more than 1 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").INGEOMINAS reported that during 30 October-6 November 2012 seismicity at Galeras fluctuated but was slightly lower compared to the previous week. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions were low. Cameras around Galeras recorded gas-and-ash plumes rising from the crater on 30 October and 1 November. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. Webcam image

COLOMBIA - Nevado del Ruiz

June 8th, 2015

Based on webcam views and information from the Manizales Observatory, the Washington VAAC reported that on 6 June an ash emission from Nevado del Ruiz rose 800 m above the summit and drifted WNW. Weather clouds prevented
satellite views.The Washington VAAC reported that on 26 May an ash emission from Nevado del Ruiz was visible in the webcam and reported by the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). Weather clouds prevented satellite views.Based on satellite image analyses, the Washington VAAC reported that on 22 April a small puff of gas with minor mounts of ash from Nevado del Ruiz drifted over 40 km W and dissipated.Previously, According to a news article, increased ash emissions at Nevado del Ruiz prompted the closure of the La Nubia airport on 7 January. Previously, Servicio Geologico Colombian's (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanologico and Sismologico de Manizales reported that on 15 December at 0738 seismic signals indicating ash emissions were detected, and then confirmed, by a local webcam and residents. Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC noted that an ash plume drifted almost 20 km S that same day. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").
Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers >200 sq km. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the summit caldera of an older Ruiz volcano. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks of Nevado del Ruiz. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption. (GVN/GVP)

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PERU - Ubinas volcano

July 2nd, 2015

Instituto Geofísico del Peru (IGP) Observatorio Volcanologico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 23-29 June seismic tremor at Ubinas, often associated with emissions, slightly increased compared to the previous week. Ash-and-gas plumes rose as high as 3 km above the crater base, drifting in multiple directions, and four explosions were detected during 24-27 June.Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) Observatorio Volcanologico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 17-22 June the occurrence of long-period earthquakes slightly increased to an average of 110 events/day from 62 events/day the
previous week. Volcano-tectonic events continued to occur at a high rate. Harmonic tremor and hybrid events were also detected. Ash-and-gas emissions rose as high as 2 km above the crater base and drifted in multiple directions; 12 emissions were counted, eight of them on 22 June.Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) Observatorio Volcanologico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 9-16 June the number of long-period earthquakes greatly decreased to 62 events/day from 778 events/day the previous week. Volcano-tectonic events continued to occur at a high rate. Periods of constant ash emissions during 9-11 June rose as high as 1.4 km above the crater base and drifted mainly NE, E, and SE. Sporadic pulses of gas and ash on 12 June rose 800 m. A hybrid event was recorded at 1915 on 13 June; six hours later a thermal anomaly was detected by satellite images. Another thermal anomaly was detected on 16 June.Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) Observatorio Volcanologico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 2-8 June long-period earthquakes continued at a high rate, in occurrence and magnitude. A large number of observed ash emissions were related to periods of tremor and swarms of long-period earthquakes. Ash emissions rose 1.2 km above the crater base and drifted in multiple directions.Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) Observatorio Volcanologico del Sur (OVS) reported that during 19-26 May long-period earthquakes continued at the same rate while volcano-tectonic and hybrid events increased. Overall the dominant signal was spasmodic tremor associated with ash-and-steam emissions. While conducting fieldwork during 19-22 May, OVS staff observed persistent water vapor, gas, and ash emissions that rose 400 m. At 1051 and 1213 on 24 May ash plumes rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted NE and E.Ubinas is the northernmost of three young volcanoes located along a regional structural lineament about 50 km behind the main volcanic front of Peru. The upper slopes of the stratovolcano, composed primarily of Pleistocene andesitic lava flows, steepen to nearly 45 degrees. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide funnel-shaped vent that is 200 m deep. Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread Plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include some of Holocene age. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor explosive eruptions.

PERU - Sabancaya volcano

December 29th, 2014

Based on reports from INGEMMET , the webcam, and satellite images, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 27 December water vapor and gas plumes from Sabancaya possibly contained small amounts of ash.IGP reported that during 21-27 October seismic activity at Sababcaya was low, and sporadic white and blue plumes rose as high as 1.2 km. Although a pilot reported an ash plume drifting E on 23 October, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash was not detected in satellite images. The webcam showed gas-and-steam emissions, likely with diffuse ash, dissipating near the summit. On 25 October a pilot reported ash drifting E, but again satellite images did not detected ash.
IGP and INGEMMET reported that during 24-30 September seismicity at Sabancaya remained elevated; long-period, volcano-tectonic, and hybrid earthquakes were detected. White gas emissions rose as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted SE. The plumes were grayish from ash on 26 and 29 September. IGP reported that on 27 August INGEMMET reported long-period, volcano-tectonic, and hybrid earthquakes at Sabancaya. White to light gray plumes rose 100-300 m above the summit and drifted SE. On 28-29 August the Buenos Aires VAAC reported volcanic ash. IGP reported that on 24-25 August an increase in volcano-tectonic and long-period earthquakes, and during 23-25 August there was a slight increase in white to blueish white fumarolic emissions that rose 500-1500 m above the summit of Sabancaya. On 25 August during the night instruments detected a sequence of explosive events that lasted 82 seconds. Sabancaya, located on the saddle between 6288-m-high Ampato and 6025-m-high Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three volcanoes, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. Both Nevado Ampato and Nevado Sabancaya are only slightly affected by glacial erosion and consist of a series of lava domes aligned along a NW-SW trend. The name of 5967-m-high Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua Indian language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750.
(GVN/GVP)

PERU - Misti volcano

June 5th, 2014

Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP) reported that, during the last 12 months, seismicity at El Misti was dominated by volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. Two seismic swarms (more than 100 events per day) occurred during the last three months, on 19 May and 3 June. An increase in tremor was noted in April, although the total duration did not exceed 10 minutes and was generally low-amplitude. Long-period seismicity was not significant. In the last 15 days, seismicity increased slightly and tremor was recorded daily. Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) reported that seismicity at El Misti increased during January, and a seismic swarm consisting of 119 volcano-tectonic events was detected during 14-15 January. Despite the increase, activity remained at a low level. El Misti, Peru's most well-known volcano, is a symmetrical andesitic stratovolcano with nested summit craters that towers above the city of Arequipa. The modern symmetrical cone, constructed within a small 1.5 x 2 km wide summit caldera that formed between about 13,700 and 11,300 years ago, caps older Pleistocene volcanoes that underwent caldera collapse about 50,000 years ago. A large scoria cone has grown with the 830-m-wide outer summit crater of El Misti. At least 20 tephra-fall deposits and numerous pyroclastic-flow deposits have been documented during the past 50,000 years, including a pyroclastic flow that traveled 12 km to the south about 2000 years ago. El Misti's most recent activity has been dominantly pyroclastic, and strong winds have formed a parabolic dune field of volcanic ash extending up to 20 km downwind. An eruption in the 15th century affected Inca inhabitants living near the volcano. Some reports of historical eruptions may represent in creased fumarolic activity. Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP) and (GVN/GVP)

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CHILE - Villarica volcano

June 10th, 2015

On 8 June, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Villarrica continued the gradual decline observed in recent weeks. The Alert Level was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 3-km radius around the crater and away from drainages.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported no significant changes at Villarrica during 27 May-2 June. Seismicity fluctuated at low-to-moderate levels, and continued to indicate small explosions and degassing from the lava lake. Deformation data suggested minor inflation. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and 200 m away from drainages in the SW and NE quadrants.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported no significant changes at Villarrica during 20-26 May. Seismicity had significantly decreased, although the data continued to indicate small explosions and degassing from the lava lake. Deformation data suggested inflation during 24-26 May. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and away from drainages.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported no significant changes at Villarrica during 6-12 May. Activity was characterized by weak and infrequent Strombolian explosions from the lava lake, diffuse gas emissions with occasional ash, nighttime crater incandescence, and decreasing seismicity. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and away from drainages. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported moderate seismic activity during 29 April-5 May. Nighttime crater incandescence and a thermal anomaly detected daily in satellite images suggested an active lava lake, with mild and periodic Strombolian activity. Gas emissions were visible in the daytime. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and away from drainages. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 15-28 April seismicity at Villarrica fluctuated but remained at moderate levels. Intermittent crater incandescence was observed and diffuse gas plumes mostly consisting of water vapor rose from the crater. Data from monitoring stations and pictures taken during an overflight on 21 April confirmed the presence of a lava lake and Strombolian explosions. During 23-27 April Strombolian explosions ejected material that remained mostly within the crater or no more than 100 m away. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and 200 m away from drainages OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that infrasound data indicated explosions at Villarrica on 8 April. The next day seismicity increased and acoustic signals suggested discontinuous Strombolian activity and an oscillating lava lake in the crater. Gas emissions and nighttime incandescence from the crater were observed; this activity continued through 14 April. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and away from drainages.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 31 March-4 April small Strombolian explosions at Villarrica continued, and seismicity slightly and steadily increased. During 4-5 April pulsating emissions of water vapor and ash rose 700 m above the crater. Strombolian explosions sometimes ejected material outside the crater, onto the flanks, at distances no greater than 200 m. Pulsating gas-and-ash emissions continued at a lower level during 6-7 April. Nighttime incandescence from the crater was occasionally observed, and seismicity decreased. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and away from drainages. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 24-25 March gas-and-ash emissions at Villarrica decreased but the magnitude of the continuous seismic tremor slightly increased. Crater incandescence overnight was observed. By the evening of 25 March Strombolian activity was confined to the crater and a gas plume rose 700 m above the crater rim. Seismicity fluctuated but increase overall. The lava lake had returned and was about 1,000 degrees Celsius. During 26-27 March Strombolian activity ejected tephra out of the crater to distances of about 500 m, and a gas plume rose more than 800 m. During an overflight on 27 March scientists noted that material which measured 1,110 degree Celsius originated from two vents. During 28-31 March a gas-and-ash plume rose from the crater and Strombolian explosions ejected tephra from the crater; several explosions starting at 2200 on 30 March, and continuing the next morning, ejected tephra 300 m above the crater and as far as 500 m from the crater onto the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and away from drainages. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that at night on 17 March explosions at Villarrica ejected tephra onto the flanks and produced nighttime incandescence. Pulsating ash plumes rose 300 m and drifted E. Seismicity increased and was characterized by low-magnitude tremor. The Alert Level was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) and the public was warned to stay outside of a 5-km radius around the crater and away from drainages. During 19-22 March pulsating plumes recorded by the webcam had a greater concentration of ash, and rose 100-500 m and drifted NE. Moderate levels of tremor were detected. Although cloud cover often prevented observations of the crater, incandescence was occasionally seen at night. During 22-24 March continued gas-and-ash emissions rose 400-500 m and drifted SW; the plumes were less dense, shorter, and contained less ash content. Incandescent material continued to be ejected from the crater, but with less frequency, and was deposited near the crater on the NE flank. Based on OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN data, representatives from ONEMI, SERNAGEOMIN, Sistema Nacional de Protección Civil, and others reduced the exclusion zone around Villarrica to 5 km on 5 March. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that the Alert Level for Villarrica was lowered to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) on 6 March, citing that seismicity had declined to below baseline levels and visual observations indicated no active lava lake. During an overflight on 9 March scientists observed subsidence of material in the crater which partially obscured the conduit. Weak degassing was also noted. On 10 March the Alert Level was lowered to Yellow; OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN warned of avalanches of unconsolidated material and maintained an exclusion zone of 3 km. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 28 February a significant increase in seismicity at Villarrica was detected along with Strombolian explosions and tephra ejected 1 km away. Seismicity continued to increase and on 2 March indicated that the lava lake level had risen. Strombolian explosions continued and ejected tephra as far as 600 m onto the flanks. Seismicity again increased significantly at 0230 on 3 March. The Alert Level was raised to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale). Strombolian activity intensified and became continuous, ejecting a large volume of material onto the flanks and producing a 1.5-km-tall lava fountain. Lava flows descended the flanks. The eruptive plume rose 6-8 km above the crater and drifted 400 km ENE. According to ONEMI about 3,600 people were evacuated from a 10-km-radius of the volcano. At 1500 ONEMI reported that seismicity was decreasing, and by 1800 was low. Only weak pulses of ash rose from the crater, and most evacuees had returned home..Previously, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity significantly increased at Villarrica during 1-16 February, characterized by increased seismicity, crater incandescence, and explosions. On 6 February seismicity increased significantly, explosions occurred in the crater, and ash emissions rose above the crater rim. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometry) data showed an average monthly sulfur dioxide emission value of 222 tons per day; a high value during this period of 450 tons per day was recorded on 11 February. The highest number of explosions, five per minute, during the period occurred on 16 February. Explosions ejected incandescent material out of the crater as far as 1 km onto the S flank. During an overflight on 16 February, supported by ONEMI, volcanologists observed the lava lake and recorded temperatures near 800 degrees Celsius, tephra in and around the active crater, and a diffuse layer of ash on the flanks.Projecto Observacion Visual Volcan Villarrica (POVI) reported that at night during 4-5 February faint incandescence was detected with a near-infrared camera. On 5 February Strombolian explosions ejected tephra several hundred meters high. On 6 February tephra was ejected about 65 m above the crater rim and two consecutive ash emissions were observed. OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that the Alert Level for Villarrica was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) due to the increased seismicity, indicating a fluctuating lava lake and small explosions. Scientists noted a rise in the lava-lake level during an overflight. Glacier-clad Villarrica, one of Chile's most active volcanoes, rises above the lake and town of the same name. It is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes that trend perpendicular to the Andean chain. A 6-km wide caldera formed during the late Pleistocene. A 2-km-wide caldera that formed about 3500 years ago is located at the base of the presently active, dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesitic cone at the NW margin of the Pleistocene caldera. More than 30 scoria cones and fissure vents dot Villarrica's flanks. Plinian eruptions and pyroclastic flows that have extended up to 20 km from the volcano have been produced during the Holocene. Lava flows up to 18 km long have issued from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions, documented since 1558, have consisted largely of mild-to-moderate explosive activity with occasional lava effusion. Glaciers cover 40 sq km of the volcano, and lahars have damaged towns on its flanks.

CHILE - Calbuco volcano

June 5th, 2015

On 27 May OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity at Calbuco fluctuated at low levels and continued to decline. According to ONEMI, the 10-km evacuation zone remained in effect, with controlled access to some communities allowed for part of the day; about 500 people remained displaced. On 28 May OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level remained to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale).OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 20-26 May activity at Calbuco fluctuated at low levels and continued to decline. Inclement weather prevented observations of the summit area on most days; white plumes were observed rising 300-400 m and drifting SE during 24-26 May, and incandescence at the crater was observed at night during 25-26 May. According to ONEMI, the number of evacuees within the 20-km evacuation zone remained at 6,685 on 26 May. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale), and the 10-km-radius exclusion zone continued to be in effect.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 13-19 May activity at Calbuco fluctuated at low levels and continued to decline. Inclement weather prevented daily observations of the summit area, although incandescence at the crater was observed during 17-18 May. According to ONEMI, the number of evacuees within the 20-km evacuation zone remained at 6,685 on 18 May. On 19 May the Alert Level was lowered to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale), and the exclusion zone was changed to a 10-km radius.OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 6 May activity at Calbuco fluctuated; a sudden increase of tremor that began at 1304 and lasted two hours was accompanied by increased gas-and-ash emissions. During 7-11 May the gas-and-ash emissions were steady and low (less than 1 km), and drifted E, SE, and S; inclement weather prevented observations during 8-10 and 12 May. Moderate levels of tremor were detected through 9 May, and then decreased to low levels through 12 May. According to ONEMI, the number of evacuees within the 20-km evacuation zone remained at 6,685 on 12 May. In addition 3,221 animals, including sheep, goats, cows, and horses, had been evacuated. The Alert Level remained at Red (the highest level on a four-color scale OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 29 April a weak ash plume rose as high as 1.5 km above Calbuco and seismicity remained stable. An event that began at 1308 on 30 April produced an ash plume that rose 3-5 km and drifted SE. A small lahar in the Blanco River may have been caused by a pyroclastic flow. Tremor amplitude increased and became sustained after the event. On 2 May the number of earthquakes increased. Seismicity significantly increased on 3 May, characterized by a swarm of volcano-tectonic events, and then decreased afterwards. Seismicity was low and stable on 5 May. A plume rose less than 1 km during 1-3 May; cloud cover prevented visual observations of the volcano during 4-5 May. According to ONEMI, the number of evacuees totaled 6,685 on 5 May. The Alert Level remained at Red (the highest level on a four-color scale). Previously, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that an eruption from Calbuco began at 1804 on 22 April, prompting the Alert Level to be raised to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale) and causing a 20-km exclusion zone to be declared. The eruption was preceded by an hour-long period of volcano-tectonic events followed by long-period events; no increases in seismicity had been noted since 2009 when real-time seismic monitoring started. After a large seismic event detected at 1735, a 90 minute eruption generated a sub-Plinian, gray ash plume that rose 15 km above the main crater and drifted mainly ENE, although fine ash drifted N and NW. Column collapses occurred locally and radially, affecting the headwaters of major rivers. Residents within the exclusion zone, in Chamiza, Lago Chapo, and Correntoso sectors, and in the town of Puerto Montt, were ordered to evacuate. Several roads and bridges were impassable due to ashfall. A larger second event on 23 April began at 0100, lasted six hours, and also generated a sub-Plinian ash plume that rose higher than 15 km and drifted N, NE, and E. Incandescent tephra was ejected as far as 5 km; deposits were concentrated to the N and NE, with thicknesses varying from tens of centimeters in the Region de Los Lagos to a few millimeters in the Los Rios and La Araucana areas. Pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum distance of 7 km and lahars traveled 15 km. Pumice fell in Region de Los Lagos, and ash fell in Los Rios and La Araucana. Tephra also fell in Argentine territory, NE of the volcano. Scientists aboard an overflight observed ash emissions from at least six vents on the W, SW, and S sides of the old lava dome. About 5,000 people had been evacuated and ONEMI warned people not to go within 200 m of drainages due to lahar hazards. At around 2330 a third phase of surficial activity was noted; ash plumes rose 2 km and drifted NE and E. On 24 April the ash plume continued to rise 2 km and explosions were detected. News articles noted that international flights in and out of several major cities were delayed or canceled. According to a news article, ash from the eruption reached southern Brazil on 25 April prompting some airlines to cancel flights using airports in Santiago, Buenos Aires, and Montevideo. Some houses in areas near the volcano collapsed from the weight of the ash. The ash plume persisted on 25 April, but rose to a lower height of 400 m, and sporadic explosions were detected. Seismicity declined during 26-27 April; the ash plume rose 1.5 km, and drifted NE and SE. ONEMI noted on 27 April that 246 of 4,514 evacuees were in shelters; the number of displaced people had peaked at 6,514 during 24-26 April. A satellite-based estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions was 0.3-0.4Tg by 28 April, detected as high as 21 km altitude. Although most ash had fallen out of the plume over Chile and Argentina, some may have remained in the stratospheric plume drifting around the globe; the leading edge of the gas plume had reached the Indian Ocean, S of Madagascar.Along with its neighbour Osorno, Calbuco is one of the most active volcanoes of the Southern Chilean Andes. The isolated late-Pleistocene to Holocene andesitic volcano rise to 2003 m South of the lake Llanquihue in the Chilean lake District. The Calbuco is elongated in a SW-NE direction and is capped by a 400-500 m wide summit crater. The compllex evolution of Calbuco included edifice collapse of an intemediate edifice during the late Pleistocene that produced a 3cu km debris avalanche that reached the lake. Calbuco has erupted frequently during the Holocene, and one of the largest historical eruptions in Southern Chile tool place from Calbuco in 1893-1894 and concluded with lava dome emplacement. Subsequent eruptions have enlarged the lava-dome complex in th summit crater.(GVN/GVP) - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)

CHILE - Chaiten volcano

May 21st, 2015

On 17 May, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that seven hybrid earthquakes were detected beneath Chaiten at a depth of 1 km; the highest local magnitude recorded was 3.6. A second report on 19 May noted that seismicity had slightly increased during the previous few months, characterized by an increase in magnitude and occurrence of long-period events, volcano-tectonic events, and hybrid events. Thermal anomalies from the lava dome complex had also been detected although the report did not state when. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow, on a three-color scale. Chaiten is a small, glacier-free caldera with a compound Holocene lava dome located 10 km NE of the town of Chaiten on the Gulf of Corcovado. Early work had identified only a single explosive eruption during the early Holocene prior to the major 2008 eruption, but later work has identified multiple explosive eruptions throughout the Holocene. A rhyolitic, 962-m-high obsidian lava dome occupies much of the caldera floor. Obsidian cobbles from this dome found in the Blanco River are the
source of prehistorical artifacts from archaeological sites along the Pacific coast as far as 400 km away from the volcano to the north and south. The caldera is breached on the SW side by a river that drains to the bay of Chaite, and the high point on its southern rim reaches 1122 m. The first historical eruption of Chaiten volcano beginning in 2008 produced
major rhyolitic explosive activity and growth of a lava dome that filled much of the caldera.

CHILE - Guallatiri volcano

June 4th, 2015

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that at 0004 and 0517 on 31 May volcano-tectonic events at Guallatiri with local magnitudes of 3.5 and 3.7, respectively, were detected by the seismic network. Very minor deformation was also
detected. No other changes were observed in recent momnths; white plumes continued to rise 200 m. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). One of northern Chile's most active volcanoes, Volcán
Guallatiri is a symmetrical ice-clad stratovolcano at the SW end of the Nevados de Quimsachata volcano group. The 6071-m-high Guallatiri lies just west of the border with Bolivia and is capped by a central dacitic dome or lava complex, with the active vent situated at its southern side. Thick lava flows are prominent on the lower northern and western flanks of the
andesitic-to-rhyolitic volcano. Minor explosive eruptions have been reported from Guallatiri since the beginning of the 19th century. Intense fumarolic activity with "jet-like" noises continues, and numerous solfataras extend more than 300 m down the west flank.
(GVN/GVP)
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Volcan Popocatepetl - 19 December 2000 CENAPRED

Japan - Ontake volcano

February 24th, 2015

JMA reported that cloud cover mostly prevented visual observations of Ontakesan during 13-20 February; white plumes rose 50-200 m above the crater rim. Seismicity remained low. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).
JMA reported that cloud cover mostly prevented visual observations of Ontakesan during 10-16 December 2014; white plumes rose 50 m above the crater rim and drifted SW on 10 December. Seismicity remained low. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that cloud cover mostly prevented visual observations of Ontakesan during 3-9 December; white plumes rose 100 m above the crater rim on 7 December. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that cloud cover often prevented visual observations of Ontakesan during 12-18 November; white plumes rose 200 m above the crater rim and drifted E during 16-17 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that cloud cover often prevented visual observations of Ontakesan during 5-11 November; white plumes rose 200-300 m above the crater rim and drifted NE, E, and SE. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that cloud cover often prevented visual observations of Ontakesan during 29 October-4 November; white plumes rose 100-300 m above the crater rim and drifted NE and SE during 29-30 October and 4 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that cloud cover often prevented visual observations of Ontakesan during 22-28 October; white plumes were periodically observed rising 100-300 m above the crater rim and drifting E and SE. Seismicity remained low. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that cloud cover often prevented visual observations of Ontakesan during 15-21 October; white plumes rose 100-200 m above the crater rim and drifted NE and SE during 16-18 October. White plumes rose 600 m on 19 October. A news article from 17 October noted that the search for the seven people still missing from the 27 September eruption was stopped due to wintery conditions; the search was expected to resume in the springtime. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that during 8-9 October ash emissions from Ontakesan continued. The plume turned white on 10 October, but during 10-14 October the emissions may have contained small amounts of ash. Tremor was below detection limits during 8-14 October. A news article from 12 October noted that the number of people killed in the 27 September eruption had reached 56; seven more were still missing. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that ash emissions from Ontakesan likely continued during 1-7 October. The plume height could not be determined due to poor visibility although on 7 October observers noted that the plume rose 300 m above the crater rim and drifted E. Seismic levels fluctuated; tremor continued to be detected. A news article from 8 October noted that the number of people killed in the 27 September eruption had reached 55; nine were still missing. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). Seismicity fluctuated but remained elevated during 28 September-1 October. Ash-and-gas plumes rose 300-400 m above the craters and drifted E and SE. News articles on 1 October noted that 47 people had died, most of them found at the summit area while others were at a slightly lower elevation. Almost 70 more people were injured. Survivors described falling ash and boulders, and being in total darkness for several minutes as they made their way down the flanks. The volcano is popular to climb and nearly 300 people were hiking on the mountain that day. As of the 28th of September, VAAC Tokyo, reported that important degassing is still occurring from the volcano. As of the 27th of September, VAAC Tokyo reported that at around 11:53 AM (Japan Standart Time) a sudden explosive activity, without significant earthquakes, occurred at the Ontake volcano generating and ashplume that rose at about 3-4 km high. According to the Japan Meteorological Agency, this unexpected phreatic eruption at Ontakesan occurred after an 11-minute period of tremor and uplift detected just minutes beforehand. Only previous signal were when earthquakes near the summit had temporarily increased during 10-11 September, and low-frequency signals were detected on 14th of September.The eruption produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled more than 3 km down the S flank and an ash plume that rose 7-10 km and drifted E. Ashfall was extensive in the area and up to 50 cm thick near the craters. The Alert Level was raised to 3. This explosive prheatic activity, trapped and injuried hundreds of people who were hiking on Japan's second tallest volcano. According to press news nore than 30 hikers died during the Ontake eruption. The description of the many of deaths suggest that ash inhalation may have the primary cause of death. This type of volcanic eruption (phreactic) had almost no warning. Explosion produces ash cloud and pyroclastic flows made mostly of the shattered debris of old rocks rather new juvenil magma. Ontake volcano (3067 m) lies at the Southern end of the Northern Japan Alps. it is constructed within a largely buried 4-5 km caldera and occupies the Southern end of the Norikura volcanic zone which extends Northward to Yakedake volcano. The first historical eruption took place in 1979. A non-eruptive landslide in 1984 produced a debris avalanche and lahar that swept down valleys south and east of the volcano. Very minor phreatic activity caused a dusting of ash near the summit in 1991 and 2007.

Japan - Kuchinoerabujima

June 11th, 2015

JMA reported that during 3-8 June white plumes rose 100-400 m above Shindake Crater's rim at Kuchinoerabujima. Volcanic earthquakes had declined on 30 May but continued to periodically occur. The Alert Level was remained at 5 (the highest level on a 1-5 scale). As of the 29th of May, JMA reported JMA reported that at 0959 on 29 May an explosive and phreatomagmatic eruption at Kuchinoerabujima generated an ash plume that rose 9 km above Shindake Crater's rim and drifted ESE. Pyroclastic flows descended the SW flank and reached the coast on the NW flank. Volcanic earthquakes increased after that event, but then decreased around 1300. The Alert Level was raised to 5 (the highest level on a 1-5 scale). According to a news article all residents and visitors (137-141) were safely evacuated by a ferry to neighboring Yakushima Island. Later that day ash plumes rose 200 m and drifted SW. Scientists conducted an overflight and confirmed pyroclastic flow deposits on the NW and NE flanks. Ash plumes continued to be emitted the next day, rising as high as 1.2 km. A field team observed discolored trees on the SE and SW flanks, and fallen trees near the coast on the NW flank. Cloud cover prevented views of the eruption area, but the team was able to confirm continued fumarolic activity from a crack in the W part of the crater as well as incandescence.Previously, JMA reported that no eruptions occurred from Kuchinoerabujima during 18-22 May, although the level of activity remained elevated. White plumes rose 600 m above Shindake Crater, and incandescence from the W part of the crater was observed at night. Volcanic earthquakes were detected; tremor was absent. Fumarolic activity in a crack in W part of the crater was observed during a field survey. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that no eruptions occurred from Kuchinoerabujima during 30 March-3 April, although the level of activity remained elevated. White plumes rose 1 km above Shindake Crater, and incandescence from the crater was observed at night. Volcanic earthquakes were detected; tremor was absent. Fumarolic activity in a crack in W part of the crater was observed during a field survey on 30 March. In addition the temperature of a thermal anomaly in the W part continued to rise. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). J A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyus, 15 km west of Yakushima. Furutake, Shintake, and Noike were erupted from south to north, respectively, to form a composite cone that is parallel to the trend of the Ryukyu Islands. The highest peak, Furutake, reaches only 657 m above sea level. The youngest cone, 640-m-high Shintake, was formed after the NW side of Furutake was breached by an explosion. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shintake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furutake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shintake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions.

Japan - Hakone volcano (Honshu)

July 2nd, 2015

JMA reported that on 29 June scientists visiting Hakoneyama observed new fumaroles in a landslide-prone area, appearing after a possible landslide had occurred. Fresh sediment deposits within 2 km were possibly caused by the formation of the fumaroles. Seismicity began increasing at 1930, and a 5-minute-period of volcanic tremor began at 1932. At 1230 on 30 June a small-scale eruption occurred. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that during 14-17 May seismicity at Hakoneyama remained high. Inclinometer data showed variations related to seismicity, and vigorous steaming from the hot springs was observed. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale). According to a news article, the ground level in the Owakudani hot spring area had risen 12 cm during 17 April-15 May; the deformation occurred in an area 200 m in diameter. The article also noted that 471 earthquakes were recorded on 15 May, the highest number ever recorded there in one day.On 6 May JMA raised the Alert Level for Hakoneyama from 1 to 2 (on a 5-level scale). Seismicity had increased on 26 April, and on 5 May three events occurred that were Intensity I. Inclinometer data showed variations related to seismicity, and vigorous steaming from the hot springs was observed. Seismicity remained elevated at least through 10 May. Hakoneyama volcano is truncated by two overlapping calderas, the largest of which is 10 x 11 km wide. The calderas were formed as a result of two major explosive eruptions about 180,000 and 49,000-60,000 years ago. Scenic Lake Ashi lies between the SW caldera wall and a half dozen post-caldera lava domes that were constructed along a SW-NE trend cutting through the center of the calderas. Dome growth occurred progressively to the south, and the largest and youngest of these, Kamiyama, forms the high point of Hakoneyama. The calderas are breached to the east by the Hayakawa canyon. A phreatic explosion about 3000 years ago was followed by collapse of the NW side of Kamiyama, damming the Hayakawa valley and creating Lake Ashi. The latest magmatic eruptive activity about 2900 years ago produced a pyroclastic flow and a lava dome in the explosion crater, although phreatic eruptions took place as recently as the 12-13th centuries CE. Seismic swarms have occurred during the 20th century. Lake Ashi, along with major thermal areas in the caldera, forms a popular resort area SW of Tokyo. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Asosan volcano (Kyushu)

May 5th, 2015

JMA reported that, based on seismic data, the eruption from Asosan's Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November 2014 continued during 27 April-1 May. Ashfall was reported in areas to the SE and NE on 27 April. Field surveys were conducted on 27 April and 1 May; observers noted an off-white plume rising from the vent. A plume rose as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim on 29 April. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that, based on seismic data, the eruption from Asosan's Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November 2014 continued during 20-24 April. A plume rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and incandescence from the vent was observed at night. Field surveys confirmed that ash emissions from the active vent rose as high as 200 m above the crater rim. High-amplitude tremor continued. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).JMA reported that, based on seismic data, the eruption from Asosan's Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November 2014 continued during 30 March-3 April. A plume rose 900 m above the crater rim and incandescence from the vent was observed at night. Field surveys confirmed that rumbling originated from the active vent. High-amplitude tremor continued. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that, based on seismic data, the eruption from Asosan's Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November 2014 continued during 13-16 March. High-amplitude tremor continued, although it had decreased on 9 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that, based on seismicity and infrasound data, the eruption from Asosan's Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November 2014 continued during 2-6 March. Incandescent material was sometimes ejected onto the crater rim and plumes rose 1 km above the crater. High-amplitude tremor continued to be detected and infrasound data sometimes indicated eruptions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that, based on seismicity and infrasound data, the eruption from Asosan's Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November 2014 continued during 16-20 February. Plumes rose 900 m above the crater and high-amplitude tremor continued to be detected. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that, based on seismicity and infrasound data, the eruption from Asosan's Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November 2014 continued intermittently during 9-13 February. Incandescent material was sometimes ejected onto the crater rim, and plumes rose 600 m above the crater. High-amplitude tremor continued. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that, based on seismicity and infrasound data, the eruption from Asosan's Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November 2014 continued intermittently during 2-6 February. Incandescent material was sometimes ejected onto the crater rim, and plumes rose 1 km above the crater. High-amplitude tremor continued. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that, based on seismicity and infrasound data, the eruption from Asosan's Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November 2014 continued intermittently during 26-30 January. Incandescent material was sometimes ejected onto the crater rim, and plumes rose 800 m above the crater. High-amplitude tremor continued. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that, based on seismicity and infrasound data, the eruption from Asosan's Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November continued intermittently during 19-26 January. Incandescent material was sometimes ejected onto the crater rim. Plumes rose 1 km on 20 January and 600 m each day during 23-26 January. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that, based on seismicity and infrasound data, the eruption from Asosan's Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November continued intermittently during 5-9 January. On 5 and 7 January incandescent material was sometimes ejected onto the crater rim. On 7 January plumes rose 1 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). JMA reported that, based on seismicity and infrasound data, the eruption from Asosan's Nakadake Crater that began on 25 November continued intermittently during 22-26 December. Plumes rose 1 km above the crater and incandescent material was sometimes ejected onto the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). The 24-km-wide Aso caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 80,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Naka-dake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 AD. The Naka-dake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 AD. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic Strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. The summit crater of Naka-dake is accessible by toll road and cable car, and is one of Kyushu's most popular tourist destinations. (GVN/GVP)

JAPAN - Nishinoshima island ( Izu-Bonin islands)

June 25th, 2015

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image of Nishinoshima acquired on 21 June showed a sulfur dioxide-and-steam plume rising from the 2.45-square-kilometer island and drifting NE. Hot spots from lava that had emerged from lava tubes were visible on a lava delta at the SE part of the island.According to news articles, the eruption at Nishinoshima continued at least through 27 February 2015. The Japan Coast Guard noted that the island had grown to about 2.46 square kilometers and the active cone was about 100 m tall. Explosions occurred several times per minute and ash-and-gas plumes rose 1.2 km. Steam plumes rose from areas where lava flows contacted sea water Previously, The Tokyo VAAC reported an ash plume from Nishinoshima that rose to an altitude of about 3,000 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 16 September 2014. The University of Hawaii reported that satellite data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) resulted in frequent MODVOLC alerts for Nishinoshima, as recently as 11 September. Previously, Photographs and video taken from a Japanese Coast Guard helicopter on 11 and 13 June revealed continuing eruptive activity at Nishinoshima. Steaming along the shoreline indicated at least two locations with active, or recently active, lava ocean entries, possibly tube-fed since no surface incandescence was visible. Night video clearly showed an active lava flow and ocean entry being supplied from lava fountaining out of a cinder cone. A significant steam plume was rising from the center of the lava shield from hot tephra deposits over a broad area rather than a crater. However, pulsating tephra ejections and distinctly brown ash plumes were rising from two smaller craters. An incandescent lava lake was visible in one of the small craters on both days. Similar Coast Guard photos taken on 21 May showed a large ash-bearing plume and Strombolian in the center of the island. Minor steaming from two central cinder cones was photographed on 15 April, and incandescent lava could be seen in the crater of one.Based on satellite images, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 18 April a possible eruption from Nishinoshima produced a plume that rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Previously, photo and video posted by the Japan Coast Guard showed that on 20 January the Niijima portion of Nishinoshima was larger than the original island; the two islands had merged on 24 December 2013. White and brown plumes rose from Niijima and the water to the SW was discolored. According to a news article, since mid-December lava flows from the newly formed Niijima island expanded NE towards Nishino-shima, and on 24 December the two islands joined. The Niijima area was about 500 m long and 450 m wide. As of the 12th of December, JMA reported that strombolian explosions ended and only degassing generating a small plume above the crater was visible during the past days. However, it seems that a lava flow is still active on the flank of the volcano. As of the 28th of November. JMA reported that strombolian activity is still continuing. During a japanese overflight on 24th of November, a lava flow was visible on the cone of the volcano. Thislava flows from the crater extended to the coastline of the island, and bombs continued to be ejected. As of the 23rd of November, JMA reported that the eruptive activity is still continuing. During the past hours eruptive activity shifted from Surtseyan to Strombolian style. Explosions occurs with intervalle 2-3 mn ejecting incandescent material to some hundred meters hight. Since the beginning of the eruption the volcanic island enlarged from about 200 m to 400 m in diameter and developed a crater 150m wide. As of the 21st of November, JMA reported that a powerful eruption has created a new small island close to the uninhabited volcanic island called Nishinoshima. The eruptive activity started on Wednesday 20th of November and the same day at 10:20 AM japanese overflight noted smoke and ash billowing above the eruptive site with surtseyan explosive activity. Some hours after, at about 4 PM, a new island of 200 m in diameter was clearly visible at the sea surface. The Nishisnoshima volcanic island (38 m high) lies to 1000 km South from Tokyo in the Izu-Bonin volcanic chain also know as Ogasawara chain. This volcanic chain is made up of over 30 volcanic islands. Present Nishino-shima island was in enlarged in 1974 after fresh eruptions created a new section of the island. Previous to 1974, Nishino Shima formed a small, green island which had no eruptions in the past 10,000 years. The volcano takes the form of a caldera. The volcano has many large, submarine, satellite cones to the south, west and northeast. The southern cone rises to within 214 m of the surface, around 9 km SSE of Nishino-shima.

JAPAN - Asama volcano

June 18th, 2015

B On 16 June JMA reported that a small-scale eruption from Asama's summit crater generated ashfall to the NE within 4 km of the crater. Scientists aboard an overflight later that day observed gas venting of blue and white plumes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5). Asamayama, Honshu's most active volcano, overlooks the resort town of Karuizawa, 140 km NW of Tokyo. The volcano is located at the junction of the Izu-Marianas and NE Japan volcanic arcs. The modern Maekake cone forms the summit and is situated east of the horseshoe-shaped remnant of an older andesitic volcano, Kurofuyama, which was destroyed by a late-Pleistocene landslide about 20,000 years before present (BP). Growth of a dacitic shield volcano was accompanied by pumiceous pyroclastic flows, the largest of which occurred about 14,000-11,000 BP, and by growth of the Ko-Asama-yama lava dome on the east flank. Maekake, capped by the Kamayama pyroclastic cone that forms the present summit, is probably only a few thousand years old and has an historical record dating back at least to the 11th century CE. Maekake has had several major plinian eruptions, the last
two of which occurred in 1108 (Asamayama's largest Holocene eruption) and 1783 CE.

JAPAN - Sakurajima volcano

July 2nd, 2015

JMA reported 26 explosions during 22-29 June from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano, some that ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m, and incandescence from the crater that was visible during 22-23 and 27 June. A small-scale eruption occurred from Minami-Dake Crater on 22 June. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
JMA reported 15 explosions during 15-22 June from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano, some that ejected tephra as far as 800 m, and incandescence from the crater that was occasionally visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported that incandescence from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano was visible at night on 13 June. An explosion occurred at 1007 on 15 June but inclement weather prevented visual observations. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported 14 explosions during 1-5 June from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano, some that ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m, and incandescence from the crater that was occasionally visible at night. Explosive eruptions on 4 June generated small-scale pyroclastic flows that descended the E flank of Showa Crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported 18 explosions during 25-29 May and 24 during 29 May-1 June from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano, some that ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m, and incandescence from the crater was occasionally visible at night. On 29 May and 1 June explosions generated large ash plumes that rose 3.3 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).JMA reported 19 explosions during 18-25 May from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano, some that ejected tephra as far as 1,300 m, and incandescence from the crater was occasionally visible at night. During 21-22 May explosions generated ash plumes that rose 3-4.3 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale). JMA reported 31 explosions during 11-18 May from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera's Sakurajima volcano, some that ejected tephra as far as 1,800 m. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night on 11 May. The next day a very small explosion at Minami-Dake Crater generated a 200-m-high plume. Three larger explosions from Showa Crater, at 2104 and 2200 on 13 May, and 0416 on 14 May, generated ash plumes that rose as high as 3.5 km. Tephra, about 2 cm in diameter, and ashfall reported in Kagoshima Kurokami was attributed to the explosion at 2104 on 13 May. During 15-18 May ash plumes rose as high as 3 km twice, except from an explosion at 1732 on 17 May, an event that produced a 3.8-km-high ash plume. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
The Sakura-Jima, one of Japan's most active volcanoes, is a post-caldera cone of the Aira caldera at the northern half of Kagoshima Bay. Eruption of the voluminous pyroclastic flow was associated with the formation of the 17 x 23-km-wide Aira caldera about 22,000 years ago. The construction of Sakura-Jima began about 13,000 years ago and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kita-dake summit cone ended about 4,850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minami-dake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76. Sakurajima webcam

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USA - Kilauea volcano ( Hawaian islands)

July 2nd, 2015

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit and upper East Rift Zone was at background levels during 24-30 June. The lava lake continued to be active in the deep pit within the Overlook vent, exhibiting vigorous spattering. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 17-23 June. The lava lake continued to be active in the deep pit within the Overlook vent, exhibiting vigorous spattering. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o. A small-scale lava flow spilled onto the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor from a vent on the N side of the floor at 0130 on 19 June.HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 10-16 June. The lava lake continued to be active in the deep pit within the Overlook vent, vigorously spattering. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o. HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 3-9 June. The lava lake continued to be active in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater
(now called the Overlook vent); the lake level was about 62 m below the crater floor on 9 June. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 27 May-2 June. The lava lake continued to be active in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater; the lake level was about 44 m below the crater floor on 29 May and 73 m below the floor on 31 May. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 7.9 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 20-26 May. The summit tiltmeter network recorded fluctuating inflationary and deflationary tilt from the typical Halema'uma'u source. Nighttime incandescence suggested an active lava pond in an isolated vent W of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with surface flows within 8.6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o.HVO reported that the circulating lava lake in the pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater started to drop on 9 May and as of 15 May was about 50 m lower than the raised vent rim. The lake-level drop was accompanied by a change from inflation of the summit area to deflation centered near Halema'uma'u Crater. In addition, on 13 May, the focus of deformation changed to the S part of Kilauea's summit caldera and upper Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ), where rapid and localized inflationary tilt was recorded. Seismicity shifted from Kilauea's summit and the upper East Rift Zone (ERZ) to the S part of the summit; seismicity at the upper SWRZ continued. The number of earthquakes increased on 15 May. The data suggest that magma had moved into a shallow area beneath the S part of the caldera and upper SWRZ. During 16-18 May rates of tilting slowed, and seismicity at the summit and SWRZ remained above background levels but had decreased. By 19 May seismicity rates at the summit were normal and tilit had decreased slightly. The lava lake remained about 45-50 m below the crater floor. Nighttime incandescence suggested an active lava pond in an isolated vent W of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to have active surface flows within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o. During 6-12 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Lava overflowed the rim multiple times almost daily, and since the first overflow on 28 April, had built up a rim that by 8 May was 10 m higher than the Halema'uma'u crater floor. Contemporaneously with deflation detected during 10-12 May, the lake receded, and by 12 May was barely visible from the Jaggar Museum. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, lava erupted from several vents multiple times onto the crater floor. An overflight on 8 May revealed an active lava pond in an isolated vent W of the main crater. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with three areas of breakouts within and along the flow-field margins, within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o. Most of the surface flows were fed from the 21 February breakout and located less than 3 km from the NE rim of Pu'u 'O'o. Forest burned about 8 km NE of the crater. In a special statement on 29 April, HVO reported that beginning at 2140 the night before the lava lake in Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater overflowed it's rim multiple times, sending lobate sheets of pahoehoe as far as 130 m across the crater floor. The report also noted that a few explosions in the lake triggered by falling wall rock had occurred; one at 1020 on 28 April ejected boulders of molten spatter (2 m in diameter) onto the rim of Halema'uma'u Crater, in the vicinity of the closed visitor overlook fence. Spatter also blanketed an area 100 m along the rim and 50 m back. This area had been closed to the public since 2007. The accumulating lava had built up a rim around the lake that was a few meters above the crater floor. On 30 April the lava-lake surface was about 4 m below the new rim. During 1-2 May the lake level was near or at the rim, and overflowed onto the floor several times. During 2-3 May the lake surface was 3-5 m above the original, pre-flow crater floor. A collapse of a portion of the crater wall at 1320 on 3 May impacted the lake and triggered a small explosion, ejecting fist-sized clasts onto the crater rim. Lava overflowed the rim several times during 4-5 May.During 29 April-5 May Kilauea's 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with three areas of breakouts within and along the flow-field margins, within 8 km of Pu'u 'O'o. The three main areas of breakouts were the 21 February breakout on the flank of Pu'u 'O'o, the 9 March breakout near the forested cone of Kahauale'a, and a relatively small forked breakout 5-6 km farther NE of Pu'u 'O'o. Forest burned about 8 km NE of the crater.
January 2015 marked the 32nd anniversary of Kilauea's East Rift Zone eruption, which began on January 3, 1983, and continues today. The Webcam images, which are updated every five minutes, can be accessed at : http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/cams/NCcam/ . From HVO - Near real-time web cam Pu'u'O'o. Halemaumau webcam

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U.S.A. - Axial seamount (Juan de Fuca Ridge)

May 4th, 2015

Geologists reported that starting at 2230 on 23 April thousands of small earthquakes were detected at the Axial Seamount, and then the seafloor dropped by 2.4 m over a three-day period. It was unclear if the earthquakes and deflation meant an eruption or a large intrusion of magma that did not reach the surface. Axial Seamount rises 700 m above the mean level of the central Juan de Fuca Ridge crest about 480 km west of Cannon Beach, Oregon to within about 1400 m of the sea surface. The volcano is the most magmatically robust and seismically active site on the Juan de Fuca Ridge
between the Blanco Fracture Zone and the Cobb offset. The summit is marked by an unusual rectangular-shaped caldera (3 x 8 km) that lies between two rift zones and is estimated to have formed about 31,000 years ago. The caldera is breached to the SE and is defined on three sides by boundary faults of up to 150 m relief. Hydrothermal vents colonized with biological communities are located near the caldera fault or along the rift zones. Following the discovery of hydrothermal venting north of the caldera in 1983. Detailed mapping and sampling efforts have identified more than 50
lava flows since about 410 AD (Clague et al., 2013). Eruptions producing fissure-fed lava flows that buried previously installed seafloor instrumentation were detected seismically and geodetically in 1998 and 2011 and confirmed shortly after each eruption during submersible dives. (GVN/GVP)

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U.S.A. - Semisopochnoi volcano (Aleutian Islands)

April 10th, 2015

On 25 March 2015 AVO reported that seismicity at Semisopochnoi that had begun in January continued and had increased over the previous few days. Brief periods of tremor were also detected. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory. The elevated seismicity, characterized by discrete fairly small earthquakes beneath the center of the island, continued to be detected through 7 April. Previously, AVO reported that an earthquake swarm at Semisopochnoi started at 1000 on 9 June 2014 and escalated at 1200 on 12 June. The continuation of the anomalous activity prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level to Advisory on 13 June. The earthquake swarm was continuing as of 17 June. Five of the six seismic stations on the volcano were operational. Semisopochnoi, the largest subaerial volcano of the western Aleutians, is 20 km wide at sea level and contains an 8-km-wide caldera. It formed as a result of collapse of a low-angle, dominantly basaltic volcano following the eruption of a large volume of dacitic pumice. The high point of the island is 1221-m-high Anvil Peak, a double-peaked late-Pleistocene cone that forms much of the island's northern part. The three-peaked 774-m-high Mount Cerberus volcano was constructed during the Holocene within the caldera. Each of the peaks contains a summit crater; lava flows on the northern flank of Cerberus appear younger than those on the southern side. Other post-caldera volcanoes include the symmetrical 855-m-high Sugarloaf Peak SSE of the caldera and Lakeshore Cone, a small cinder cone at the edge of Fenner Lake in the NE part of the caldera. Most documented historical eruptions have originated from Cerberus, although Coats (1950) considered that both Sugarloaf and Lakeshore Cone within the caldera could have been active during historical time. (GVN/GVP)

USA - Cleveland volcano (Alaska)

July 2nd, 2015

AVO reported that no significant activity was detected at Cleveland in seismic or infrasound data during 24-30 June. Elevated surface temperatures were detected during 28-30 June, and webcam images from 29 June showed fresh ash deposits at the summit. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.
On 19 June AVO reported renewed unrest at Cleveland the previous week, characterized by elevated surface temperatures detected in satellite images and a dusting of ash near the summit visible on 14 June. Minor steaming was visible in the webcam during the week. The consistently elevated temperatures suggested possible renewed growth of the small lava dome in the summit crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. AVO reported earlier in June that an explosion from Cleveland on the evening of 5 June was detected on the Dillingham acoustic infrasound array and at seismic stations at Korovin volcano. The brief event was similar to previous explosions at Cleveland, and generated a small detached plume with a weak ash signal observed in satellite imagery. The cloud was at an altitude of about 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. , had moved about 140 km SW, and rapidly dissipated. The last previous explosion at was 6 March, seen by residents of Nikolski who reported small ash puffs.AVO reported that small explosions from Cleveland were detected by infrasound and lightning alarms at 1917 on 24 February and 0135 on 25 February. Small ash clouds from the explosions were detected in satellite images several hours after the events drifting at an altitude of about 5 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Advisory and the Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. AVO reported that no further activity at Cleveland had been detected after three brief explosions on 28 and 30 December, and 2 January; satellite images suggested no new lava effusion. On 10 January AVO lowered the Volcanic Alert Level to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code to Yellow. AVO reported that at 1229 on 28 December 2013 an explosion at Cleveland was detected on distant seismic and infrasound instruments. Although satellite images did not detect ash it was possible the explosion generated minor ash emissions. Elevated surface temperatures following the explosion were detected. Another similar explosion was detected at 1906 on 30 December, and a third brief explosion was detected at 1900 on 1 January 2014. Following the second and third explosions, satellite images detected distinct ash plumes, detached from the summit, drifting 75-100 km N at unknown altitudes. The 1730-m-high Mt. Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name for Mt. Cleveland, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks of the volcano. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions from Mt. Cleveland have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.

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USA - Shishaldin volcano (Alaska)

July 2nd, 2015

AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels 24-30 June, indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. Elevated surface temperatures were periodically detected in satellite images. Webcam images showed ash deposits around the summit crater rim on 29 and 30 June. The
Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels 17-23 June, indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. Elevated surface temperatures were periodically detected in satellite images, and minor steaming was recorded by the webcam. On 18 June pilot and satellite observations indicated a weak ash plume rising around 100 m above the summit crater, resulting in ash deposits on the upper flanks. Weak ash emissions were also visible with the webcam the next day. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels 10-16 June indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. Elevated surface temperatures were periodically detected in satellite images, and minor steaming was recorded by the webcam. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels during 3-9 June, indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. Elevated surface temperatures were periodically detected in satellite images, and minor steaming was recorded by the webcam. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels 27 May-2 June, indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. Elevated surface temperatures were periodically detected in satellite images, and minor steaming was recorded by the webcam during 27-28 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels 20-26 May indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. Elevated surface temperatures were periodically detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels 13-19 May, indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. On 15 May a low-level vigorous gas-and-steam plume possibly containing ash was recorded by the webcam. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels 6-12 May indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. Periodically, elevated temperatures in the crater were detected and steaming was recorded by the webcam, although cloud cover sometimes prevented views of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch. The beautifully symmetrical volcano of Shishaldin is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes of the Aleutian Islands. The 2,857-m-high, glacier-covered volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an E-W line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. Constructed atop an older glacially dissected volcano, Shishaldin is Holocene in age and largely basaltic in composition. Remnants of an older ancestral volcano are exposed on the W and NE sides at 1,500-1,800 m elevation. Shishaldin contains over two dozen pyroclastic cones on its NW flank, which is blanketed by massive aa lava flows. Frequent explosive activity, primarily consisting of Strombolian ash eruptions from the small summit crater, sometimes producing lava flows, have been recorded since the 18th century.

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Pu'u' O'o cone ( Kilauea ) - HVO -

ITALY - Etna volcano ( Sicily)

May 18th, 2015

INGV reported that the new episode at Etnaâ's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) that began on 12 May continued the next day. At 0410 on 13 May a series of small collapses accompanied the opening of three vents, along a fracture
oriented E-W, below the E rim of NSEC, one of which effused a small lava flow. At 0800 a fracture at the vent propagated 200 m from the rim down the cone within 10 minutes. This event was accompanied by collapses, along with reddish ash ejection onto the summit area and the high S flank. Strombolian activity increased that night and was characterized by almost continuous Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by ash emissions. This activity continued during 14-15 May. Ash plumes rose a few hundred meters and dispersed with the wind; minor ashfall was reported in areas from the S to the NE. A single lava flow traveled NE towards Mt. Rittman, and then E towards Mt. Simone where it formed two branches. One branch approached the base of the N wall of the Valle del Bove while the other traveled W to a distance 5 km from NSEC. Activity decreased on 15 May and ceased on 16 May..Previously, INGV reported that on 12 April two explosions from the W part of Etna's Bocca Nuova Crater were recorded within a 3-minute period beginning at 1505. Resulting ash puffs rose a few hundred meters above the crater and dispersed. Previously, INGV reported that a new eruptive episode at Etna began on 31 December and lasted through the morning of 2 February. Poor meteorological conditions prevented views of the summit area during the first 36 hours of the eruption. During improved viewing conditions on the evening of 1 February, volcanologists observed Strombolian activity from a single vent in the saddle between the cones of the Southeast Crater (SEC). Explosions occurred every few seconds and ejected incandescent bombs 200 m high. At the same time a vent at the base of the southern SEC cone issued a lava flow that traveled 2 km S, dividing into two branches. At dawn on 2 February the Strombolian activity produced a dense ash cloud that drifted E. At about 0550 emissions stopped and volcanic tremor suddenly decreased.INGV reported that in the evening 14 January weak Strombolian activity was recorded at Etna's Voragine Crater and Northeast Crater. The next day occasionally pulsating ash emissions rose from Northeast Crater and drifted SE. Ash emissions continued through 17 January; cloud cover prevented observations of the summit area on 18 January. INGV reported that at night during 6-7 January the frequency of Strombolian explosions at Etna's Voragine Crater decreased; however, some of the explosions ejected incandescent pyroclastic material outside of the crater and onto the W and SW flanks. On 7 January many of the small explosions generated brown ash plumes that rose a few hundred meters above Etna's summit and quickly dissipated. Strombolian activity increased on 8 January, possibly from two vents within the crater. Pyroclastic material continued to be ejected out of the crater. Early on 9 January Strombolian activity again decreased and gave way to ash emissions that rose several hundred meters. Ash emissions continued the next morning, decreased, and had almost completely ceased by late morning. Ash emissions resumed in the afternoon and were sometimes accompanied by Strombolian explosions. Ash emissions on 13 January were continuous in the morning but then decreased in frequency by the afternoon. INGV reported that on 29 December, a day after a short but intense eruption, cameras viewing Etna recorded small ash emissions from New Southeast Crater (NSEC) and persistent glow from the saddle between the old and new SEC cones at dusk. During the night on 1 and 2 January cameras recorded intermittent flashes from Voragine Crater (one of four summit craters), indicating Strombolian activity there for the first time in nearly two years. At 0530 on 2 January explosions at NSEC generated ash plumes that drifted SW. On the evening of 3 January explosions ejected incandescent material 150 m above the crater rim. INGV reported that starting at 1750 on 28 December Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) produced a short but intense eruption characterized by lava fountains, lava flows, and an ash plume that drifted E and caused ash and lapilli fall in Milo, Fornazzo, South Alfio, and Giarre. Inclement weather prevented observations of the summit area so the erupting crater was not identifiable. Two lava flows traveled E and NE, towards the Valle del Bove. Tremor began to decrease at 1930, and indicated that the eruption was over at 2100.INGV reported that from the afternoon of 7 October through 16 October Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) produced weak and intermittent explosive activity; small ash puffs were rapidly dispersed by the wind. During some nights small Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent material a few tens of meters above the crater rim.
(webcam). . www.ct.ingv.it . Live cam Etna - Etna monitoring page

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ITALY - Stromboli volcano (Eolian Islands)

October 28th, 2014

As of the 28th of october, INGV reported that the efussive activity ended from the small eruptive fissure opened at 650 m elevation. Only degassing avtivity is still occurring at the summit. On 16 October INGV reported that during the previous two months effusive activity continued at Stromboli from a vent at 650 m elevation. Lava flows traveled as far as the lower part of the Sciara del Fuoco. During the previous few weeks there were sporadic ash emissions from summit vents that were sometimes accompanied by ejected incandescent pyroclastic material.Based on SIGMET notices, the Toulouse VAAC reported that ash from Stromboli was detected below an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. during 8-10 October however ash was not detected in good satellite views.Previously on 13 August INGV reported that at Stromboli lava continued to flow along the E edge of the Sciara del Fuoco with a consistent effusion rate and reached the coast in the early morning. INGV reported that during 6-10 August, a new lava overflow occurred from the crater terrace of Stromboli in the central part of the Sciara del Fuoco. This new lava flow began on 6 August accompanied by large landslides of hot material that reached tens of meters onto the ocean surface. On 7-9 August, a second lava overflow occurred from the north of the crater terrace that covered a plateau at 600 m elevation and six arms of the flow reached the sea. Within short time, it established a sustained lava flow reaching the sea for the first time since 2007. Explosions from lava/sea interactions produced jets of steam, ash and blocks the rose tens of meters into the air that continued 10 August. As of the 12th of July, INGV reported that according to webcam images a new avalanche occurred on 11th of July at about 3:30 PM close to the N2 cone generating blocks avalanches on the Sciara del Fuoco and few later a new lava flow was emitted during a short time .As of the 11th of July INGV reported that following the shortime effusive episode that occured on 9th of July, a new lava flow went down to the Sciara del Fuoco at about 2:00 TU on 10th of July. INGV reported that during 29-30 June Stromboli erupted a small intracrater lava flow, a lava flow from the crater mouth on the N, and a lava flow on the Sciara del Fuoco on the S. The flows were accompanied by intense spattering and a high frequency of explosions on 29 June. INGV reported two episodes of effusive activity at Stromboli, one on 17 June and another on 22 June 2014. Activity on 17 June occurred in the morning within the central part of the crater terrace (Bocca S2) and included explosive spattering. This activity lasted for a few hours and produced a small lava flow directed toward Pizzo Sopra la Fossa. A sharp increase in Strombolian activity began from all of the craters on 22 June, depositing voluminous material along the Sciara del Fuoco. A lava flow ~200 m long extended from the mouth of N2 (within the N part of the crater terrace). During the evening this flow slowed, and then stalled the following day when Strombolian activity decreased. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at Stromboli volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean."Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout historical time. The small, 926-m-high island of Stromboli is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a horseshoe-shaped scarp formed as a result of slope failure that extends to below sea level and funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded at Stromboli since Roman times.www.ct.ingv.it

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ICELAND - Bardarbunga volcano

April 28th, 2015

On 26 April the Icelandic Met Office (IMO) lowered the Aviation Color Code for Bardarbunga to Green (the lowest on a four-color scale). No further signs of unrest had been noted since the end of the eruption on 27 February; seismicity within the caldera and the associated dyke intrusion continued to decline.Previously, the Icelandic Met Office reported that the eruption at Bárdarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, which began on 31 August 2014, had ended on 27 February; the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow. During an overflight scientists did not see any incandescence from the vents, although gas emissions persisted. Radar measurements showed that no increase in the extent of the lava field had been detected since mid-February.During 17-19 February, Icelandic Met Office reported continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, though the overall intensity of the eruption continued to decrease. Only one active vent was present in the crater, and the lava level in that crater continued to sink. The eruption plume rose no more than 1 km above the ground and drifted NE, and the lava channel was crusted over beyond the uppermost 200-300 m. The lava tube continued to feed the N and NE parts of Holuhraun, inflating the lava field. The reduced effusion rate was no longer able to sustain active breakouts in an area 17-18 km ENE from the vent. A 24 February report noted that the rate of subsidence was less than 2 cm per day and lava flows decreased substantially. Seismic activity continued to decrease although it was still considered to be strong. During 11-17 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; the overall activity was persistent, but lower compared to recent weeks and months. Seismicity remained strong. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted and GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 85 square kilometers on 14 February; measurements from 4 and 12 February showed almost no changes in the extent of the field. During 4-10 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. A 6 February statement noted that although there was a visible reduction in activity during the previous two weeks, seismicity remained strong. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted and GPS easurements showed that subsidence continued.During 27 January-3 February, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure, with a lava-flow rate of about 100 cubic meters per second. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. On 27 January the plume rose an estimated 1.3 km. A map made on 21 January showed that the lava field was thickening and not expanding significantly; the erupted volume was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers (15% uncertainty). During 21-27 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Ba¡rdarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded along the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Very high values of sulfur dioxide, about 84,000 mµg/m3, were recorded at the eruption site on 21 January; this value was the highest recorded at ground level since the eruption started. Total subsidence of the Bárdarbunga surface since mid-August was 61 m, and the volume of erupted lava was an estimated 1.4 cubic kilometers. The lava field covered 84.7 square kilometers on 22 January. A report issued on 27 January stated that the average rate of lava emission during the previous three weeks was just less than 100 cubic meters per second, herefore the intensity of the eruption was slowly decreasing.During 14-20 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.3 square kilometers on 15 January. During 7-13 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava field expanded the N and NE margins. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. GPS measurements showed that subsidence continued. The lava field covered 84.1 square kilometers on 10 January. During 31 December-6 January, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Subsidence continued at a rate of 25 cm/day. The lava field covered 83.4 square kilometers on 6 January. Preliminary analysis of radar measurements taken during an overflight on 30 December showed that the lava is on average 10 m thick in the E part, 12 m thick at the center, and about 14 m in the W part. The maximum thickness, near the craters, was about 40 m at the E margin of the lava lake. A preliminary estimate for the volume of the lava was 1.1 cubic kilometers. Total subsidence of the Ba¡rdarbunga surface since mid-August was 59 m. During 24-30 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The lava was flowing through a closed channel to the E edge of the lava field, about 15 km from the crater. Lava was also flowing N. Seismicity remained strong and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. The lava field covered 82.8 square kilometers as of 29 December.During 10-16 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. A decreased rate of subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued. The lava field covered just over 78.6 square kilometers on 15 December.During 3-9 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. The Scientific Advisory Board of the Icelandic Civil Protection reviewed data from the beginning of the eruption on 31 August to 3 December and found a decreased rate of subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera from up to 80 cm/day to 25 cm/day, with most of the subsidence concentrated at the center of the caldera. Data also showed a decline in the intensity of the eruption at Holuhraun, although seismic activity remained strong. After 100 eruptive days the lava field covered just over 76 square kilometers on 9 December, making it the largest lava field in Iceland since the Laki eruption (1783-1784). Additionally, the gas emissions have had an impact all over Iceland for the first time in 150 years.During 26 November-2 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Based on a field report from 25 or 26 November the activity was characterized as pulsating; lava surged from the vent for 2-3 minutes, every 5-10 minutes, causing bulges in the upper parts of the lava channel. Measurements obtained during an overflight on 26 November indicated that the total amount of subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera was about 50 m, with an estimated volume of 1.4 cubic kilometers. The rate of subsidence in the center of the caldera had decreased slowly compared to the first month of the eruption. Observers in Dyngjusandur, NE of the vent, photographed the plume at 1441 on 27 November and indicated that the top of the plume was 3.1 km above Dyngjusandur, and the base of the aerosol-laden lower part of the plume was about 1.4 km above the sand plain. A thermal image from 1 December showed several changes to the lava field: in just over 24 hours a new lava extrusion at the NE margin traveled 450 m; a new flow traveled N, just W of the lava lake; and a new flow was forming S of the lava lake, and then to the E of that flow. The lava field covered just over 75 square kilometers on 1 December. During 18-25 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; FLIR thermal images of the craters on 18 November showed that the most intense area of thermal convection was at the northern part of the eruption site, called Heimasjta. Lava flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. On 20 November observers characterized the eruption as pulsating explosions in the crater every 10-15 minutes, followed by a gush of lava down the main channel with splashing on either side During 12-18 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure; lava from the lava lake in the main vent, Baugur Crater, flowed ESE. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued and local air pollution from gas emissions persisted. Seismicity remained strong, although a report on 14 November noted that the number of earthquakes over M 5 seemed to be decreasing. The lava field covered 71.9 square kilometers on 14 November.During 5-11 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued, and seismicity remained strong. The lava field was 60 square kilometers on 9 November. Local air pollution from gas emissions persisted.During 29 October-4 November, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued; by 31 October the depression was about 42 m. The lava field was 65.7 square kilometers on 31 October. As of the 28th of october, effusive activity is still continuing. Lava is still issuing and is covering about 0.79km2/day. caldera subsidence continued at a rate 50cm per day. During 15-21 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga Caldera continued at a rate of 30-40 cm per day, concentrated in the NE part of the caldera, and on 15 October was an estimated 0.75 cubic kilometers. On 18 October a M 5.4 earthquake was detected at 0940 in N Bardarbunga making it one of the biggest earthquakes since the start of the eruption. The lava field continued to grow and the lava production continued at the same rate; the lava field was 60.7 square kilometers on 19 October. From 15th to 16th of October seismic activity increased. About 130 earthquakes were recorded. Lava flows are still running to the North ans to the East. During 8-14 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera continued. The lava field continued to grow, with lava production unchanged. Seismic activity was low in the N part of the dyke and around the eruption site.During 1-7 October, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Bardarbunga caldera continued. Seismic activity at the N part of the dyke and around the vents declined, although the lava field continued to grow and lava production continued at the same output. Lava field measured more than 50 km2. On 5 October a new lava front at the S edge of the main lava flow advanced E. During 23-30 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Subsidence of the Ba¡rdarbunga caldera continued and had reached 27-28 m by 24 September. On 29 September the subsidence rate slowed slightly and was about 40 cm per 24 hours. Lava production continued at the same rate; the lava field was 46 square kilometers on 30 September. During 17-23 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Chemical analysis and geophysical modeling indicated that the source of the magma was at a depth of more than 10 km. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bardarbunga caldera and crustal movements signified that the volume of magma in the dyke slightly increased. On 21 September the lava field measured 37 square kilometers. Field scientists estimated that about 90% of the sulfur dioxide gas from the eruption originated at the active craters and the rest rose from the lava field. Dead birds were also found around the eruption site. A report on 22 September noted that the total volume of the erupted lava was 0.4-0.6 cubic kilometers and the flow rate was 250-350 cubic meters per second. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bárdarbunga caldera; the volume of the depression was an estimated 0.6 cubic kilometers on 23 September During 10-16 September, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bardarbunga's Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Lava flows continued to advance at a consistent rate toward the E and W, and by 13 September, the lava field measured 24.5 km2. The main flow had entered the river bed of Jokkuls Follum and continued to follow its course; steam rose from the river where the lava was in contact but no explosive activity occurred. Persistent subsidence was detected from the Bardarbunga caldera; approximately 23 m of total subsidence was measured during a survey on 14 September. Seismicity persisted mainly around the caldera and the Dyngjujokull glacier. The largest earthquakes, M 5.5, M 5.3, and M 5.0, were detected on 10, 11, and 15 September respectively. IMO reported continued elevated SO2 emissions during 10-16 September and issued warnings to the public in the municipality of Fjarjarbyggen on 13 September. As of the 4th of September in the afternoon IMO reported that eruptive activity was continuing. Lava fountaining slightly increased during previous hours et lava emissions continued. (total covered surface is now about 10.8 km2. Lava tongue strench about 4km distance to the Northeast. During the past hour a graben formed below the Dynjujokull icecap. The seismicity remained at a high level. As of the 3rd of September, IMO reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing and characterized by small lava fountaining above the central part of the fissure and lava flows emissions around. In the morning the lava rate emisssions was 150 m3/s. The surface covered from the beginning of the eruptive phase is 6,5 km2 and the total volume between 30-40 millions/m3 (about 1/10 of the estimated dyke volume). Seismic activity remained important and a strong eartquakes mag 5.5. occurred in the morning located close the caldera. During 27 August-2 September the Icelandic Met Office reported ongoing seismic activity at Bárdarbunga volcano. On 27 August an overflight showed a 4-6-km-long row of cauldrons 10-15 m in diameter S of Bárdarbunga. The Aviation Color Code remains at Orange. As of the 1st of September in the morning , IMO reported that the eruptive activity was still continuing, characterized by lava fountaining and lava flows emission along the fissure. As of the 31st of August IMO reported that a new eruptive phase (second one) started probably on Sunday early morning. At 5:49 AM webcam showed an eruptive activity at the same place of the previous activity along the fissure. Eruptive activity was characterized by lava fountaining and lava flows emissions. Seismic activity remained important, mainly concentrated along a - 15 km line strenching from from Dynjujokull icecap to the area of the 29th of August eruption. As of the 30th of August, IMO reported that the first fissural eruptive phase ended. The new bulletin reported that the eruptive activity culminated between 00:40 AM - 1:00 AM, then dropped. At about 4:00 AM the short lava flows were not longer supplied. Alert level lowered from red to orange. Previously, as of the 29th of August, IMO reported that an 100 m -long eruptive fissure opened at midnight at about 10 km North Vatnajokull. Webcam images showed red glowing and small lava fountaining above the basaltic fissure. Later bulletin reported that the fissure strenched 400 m to 1 km long. The activity dropped at 2:40 AM . On the morning webcam showed only a small gas plume issued from the fissure. On 26 August the location of the seismicity was located primarily along the 10 km long tip of the dike that extended 5 km beyond the glacier margin. During 22-26 August several earthquakes in the 4.7-5.7 magnitude range had been detected at or near the volcano. On 23 August seismic tremor indicated a small lava-eruption 150-400 m beneath the Dyngjuj0kull glacier, prompting a change in the Aviation Color Code to Red. On 24 August observations from an overflight indicated there was no eruption and the Aviation Color Code was changed to Orange. However the seismic activity remains important with 700 eathquakes from Sunday 00 AM to 2:30 pm (two with more than 5 in magnitude). As of the 23rd of August, RUV reported that a possible mall sub-glacial volcanic eruption has started near Bardarbunga volcano, under the icecap of Dyngjujökull glacier in the northern part of Vatnajökull Glacier, according to the Icelandic Met Office. All air traffic is now prohibited in a large radius around the volcano. The National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police has raised the alert phase to emergency phase accordingly. Furthermore, the Met Office has raised the aviation color code from orange to red resulting in the air space above the eruption site being closed. The eruption is considered a minor event at this point. Because of a pressure from the glacier cap it is uncertain whether the eruption will stay sub-glacial or not. The Coast Guards aircraft, TF-Sif, is currently monitoring the area and there are no visible signs of a plume at this moment. Nothing indicates floods because of the eruption. At this stage measurements taken are based on a small event. The Jökulsárgljúfur canyon has been closed and evacuation of tourists in that area and around Dettifoss waterfall has started. The situation at this stage does not call for evacuation of habitants in Kelduhverfi, Öxarfjördur and Núpasveit. People in those areas are encouraged to watch news closely and have their mobiles switched on at all times.This story, by the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV), was updated on 23 August 2014, at 15.13 GMT - Previously, during 13-19 August the Icelandic Met Office reported increased seismic activity at Bardarbunga volcano. On 16 August more than 200 earthquakes were reported under the NW Vatnajokull ice cap, and GPS stations have shown an increasing signal upward and away from the volcano since early June 2014. On 16 August the Aviation Color code was increased to Yellow. On 18 August the Icelandic Met Office reported an earthquake swarm to the E and another to the N of Bardarbunga. A M4 earthquake was recorded that was the strongest in the region since 1996. By 18 August there had been 2,600 earthquakes detected at the volcano; earthquake locations from N and E swarms had been migrating NE, but in the evening activity of the N swarm had decreased significantly. That same day the Aviation Color code was raised to Orange. The large central volcano of Bárdarbunga lies beneath the NW part of the Vatnajokull icecap, NW of Grimsvotn volcano, and contains a subglacial 700-m-deep caldera. Related fissure systems include the Veidivotn and Trollagigar fissures, which extend about 100 km SW to near Torfajokull volcano and 50 km NE to near Askja volcano, respectively. Voluminous fissure eruptions, including one at Thjorsarhraun, which produced the largest known Holocene lava flow on Earth with a volume of more than 21 cu km, have occurred throughout the Holocene into historical time from the Veidivotn fissure system. The last major eruption of Veidivotn, in 1477, also produced a large tephra deposit. The subglacial Loki-Fogrufjoll volcanic system located SW of Bárdarbunga volcano is also part of the Bárdarbunga volcanic system and contains two subglacial ridges extending from the largely subglacial Hamarinn central volcano; the Loki ridge trends to the NE and the Fogrufjoll ridge to the SW. Jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods) from eruptions at Bardarbunga potentially affect drainages in all directions. ( Icelandic Met Office) - Webcam and seismic recording

ICELAND - Grimsvotn volcano

June 20th, 2015

According to the Icelandic Meteorological Office, the water level of the Skafta river at Sveinstindur and electrical conductivity both rose during 16-17 June, indicating a glacial outburst flood (jokulhlaup), originating from Grimsvotn's western Skafta ice cauldron. The jokulhlaup was unconfirmed without visual observations, however. The report warned that
hydrogen sulfide released from the floodwater as it drains is particularly potent at the river outlet at the ice margin, where concentrations may reach poisonous levels. The cauldrons drain an average every two years, producing floods of up to 1,500 cubic meters per second.Previously, IMO According to the Icelandic Meteorological Office, a small glacial outburst flood (jokulhlaup) from Grimsvotn's subglacial lake was occurring on 6 May, increasing the water level in the Gogjukvosl River. Electrical conductivity measurements indicated a considerable increase of a geothermal contribution to the river water. Based on information from the Institute of Earth Sciences, the water available for drainage was 0.2-0.3 cubic kilometers, therefore the maximum discharge of the flood was expected to be less than 700 cubic meters per second, occurring towards the middle of the week. Seismic tremor had increased due to the flood and not volcanic activity. The report warned that hydrogen sulfide released from the floodwater as it drains is particularly potent at the river outlet at the ice margin, where concentrations may reach poisonous levels. Grimsvotn, Iceland's most frequently active volcano in historical time, lies largely beneath the vast Vatnajokull icecap. The caldera lake is covered by a 200-m-thick ice shelf, and only the southern rim of the 6 x 8 km caldera is exposed. The geothermal area in the caldera causes frequent jokulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) when melting raises the water level high enough to lift its ice dam. Long NE-SW-trending fissure systems extend from the central volcano. The most prominent of these is the noted Laki (Skaftar) fissure, which extends to the SW and produced the world's largest known historical lava flow during an eruption in 1783. The 15-cu-km basaltic Laki lavas were erupted over a 7-month period from a 27-km-long fissure system. Extensive crop damage and livestock losses caused a severe famine that resulted in the loss of one-fifth of the population of Iceland.
(GVN/GVP)
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CAPE VERDE - Fogo volcano island

February 12th, 2015

The Observatorio Vulcanologico de Cabo Verde (OVCV) reported that on 8 February the eruption at Fogo had ended; sulfur dioxide emissions were almost undetectable on 8 February and continued to remain so at least through 11 February. During that period, pahoehoe flows remained stagnant and only minor fumarolic activity was present at the edge of the new crater. In addition, since 7 February, temperatures of the fumaroles and of an area at the base of the cone had decreased significantly. As of the 23rd of January OVCV reported that slightly increasing of the sporadic explosive activity occurred on Wednesday 21st of January. As of the 8th of january, ,The Observatorio Vulcanologico de Cabo Verde (OVCV) reported that on 8 January the eruption at Fogo decreased in intensity; a small light-colored gas plume rose at most 100 m from the craters. Some explosions, following banging noises, were felt in areas 1 km away. Periodic explosions continued the next day and at 1530 a dark gas-and-ash plume rose 1.2 km and drifted SE. On 10 January light-colored, dense plumes rose at 800-1,200 m. Explosions on 11 January produced light-colored gas plumes that rose as high as1.5 km. On 12 January gas-and-ash plumes rose 800-1,000 m. In the afternoon a strong explosion was followed by smaller explosions and accompanying crashing noises that lasted for 2 hours. A very dense and dark-gray ash plume rose 2 km and drifted E, and was observed by people in S Philip and other parts of the island. At 1900 tephra was ejected 50 m above the crater. The lava-flow fronts to the N and S of Ilheu de Losna were stagnant, while a few outbreaks were observed in Portela and Bangaeira.Based on gas-monitoring efforts of the Instituto Vulcanol0gico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) and data from the Toulouse VAAC, the Observatorio Vulcanologico de Cabo Verde (OVCV) reported that sulfur dioxide emission rates at Fogo were 1,201-1,368 tons per day during 30-31 December and 1-2 January. A gas plume rose 700-900 m above the cone during 30-31 December and drifted N; on 31 December tephra was ejected 30-40 m away and ash was present on the plume. A lava front near S Ilheu de Losna had been stagnant for a few days while one near the N part of the town advanced at a reduced speed, overtaking a road and parts of some housing. Temperatures of the lava fronts continued to gradually decrease. During 1-2 January a gas plume rose 400-600 m above the cone and tephra was occasionally ejected 20-25 m away. As of the 19th of december, the eruption continued to cause dommage in Cha das Calreira. The lava flow turned toward islet Losna, inhabited area by few families and where is located a wine cellar. The lava front has advanced in a valley with a certain intensity and moving at about 30 meters per hour. As of the 17th od December, the eruptive activity remained characterized with a low emission of lava, with sporadic explosions and low emission of gas and ash. The lava has been moving by tunnels under the crust formed by cooling lava accumulated during the eruption. Ther were two lava front, the first directed to Cova Tina invaded agricultural land and the second one caused a revival, consuming what was left of Bangaeira town.. As of the 12th of December lava-flow moved slowed at about 600 m North of the last house of Bangeira. As of the 11th of December SO2 measurements emission was calculated at about 10.000 tons/day. According to news articles the eruption from Fogo's Pico cone inside the Cha Caldera continued during 3-9 December. The eruption became more intense on 6 December with lava flows traveling at a rate of 30 meters per hour. By that afternoon 20 houses in the N half of Portela had been destroyed, and authorities ordered a complete evacuation of the area. The third access road that allowed for residents to retrieve property was being covered by lava. Later that day lava reached the town of Bangaeira. More than half of Bangaeira was inundated by the very fluid lava and by the evening only a few houses remained. Flights from the island to a few other locations were cancelled due to ash emissions. By 8 December about 90% of Bangaeira and 95% of Portela were overtaken by the flows which, and as noted by the article, destroyed 100 years of town history. After moving through the towns the lava-flow front was about 300 m wide. By 8 December the almost 1,500 residents of the caldera had been evacuated, with 848 of them in shelters. Lava-flow advancement slowed on 9 December. PREVIOUSLY - As of the 3rd of December, eruptive activity seemed slightly decreased. The lava flow close to Portela stopped for the moment but moderate eruptive was contuining at the active vent. According to news articles the eruption from Fogo's Pico cone inside the Cha Caldera continued during 26 November-2 December. In the morning of 30 November the eruption intensified; lava travelled at a rate of 20 m/hour and caused the closure of the only alternative route between the national park and Portela, the main town in the caldera. Authorities warned all residents in the caldera to evacuate. Lava destroyed almost 25 homes, a large area of agricultural land, the Parque Natural do Fogo museum, and other infrastructure. By 2 December there were two lava fronts. After about 24 hours of minimal advancement, the rate of advancement increased; lava overtook several more houses, a school, and a hotel. As of the 27th of November the Fofo eruption was still conitnuing. About 15 houses in Portela have already been destructed by lava flows. Eruptive activity occurs from an eruptive fissure with lava fountaining activity. During the past hours activity was mainly concentrated at two main vent. Previous information -: Following increasing of the seismic activity during previous day, an eruptive activity started on 23th of November at about 10 PM local time. This new eruption was characterized by strombolian and fountaining activity and lava flow emission inside Cha Caldeira. This activity occurred from a ventlocated on the Southwest flank of the central Pico cone and caldera walls close to the 1995 cone and then rose from multiple vents located on eruptive fissure. Officials in the Cape Verde Islands has announced evacuations of 700 people living in Cha das Caldeiras on the slopes of the volcano. The eruption has formed a small steam-and-ash plume above the eruptive cone.This eruptive activity seems similar with 1951 and 1995 eruption (VEI2). Eruptive activity was continuing in the morning of the 24th of November. During the afternoon on 24 November workers removed items from the national park headquarters and by the evening lava had overtaken the building. Lava flows had crossed a main road and taken down communication poles. The Toulouse VAAC noted that a cloud observed in satellite images composed mainly of sulfur dioxide drifted over 220 km NW at an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash in the cloud was detected at lower altitudes. By 25 November the lava flow was 4 km long. The island of Fogo consists of a single massive stratovolcano that is the most prominent of the Cape Verde Islands. The rougly circular 25-km wide island is truncated by a large 9-km-wide caldera breached to the East and has a headwall 1000 m high. The caldera is located asymmetrically NE of the center of the island and was formed as a result of massive lateral collapse of the ancestral Monte Amarelo edifice. A very youthful steep-sided central cone, Pico, rises more than 1 km above the caldera floor to about 100 m above the caldera rim, forming the 2829 m high point of the island. Pico, which is capped by a 500-m-wide, 150 m-deep-summit crater, was apparently in almost continuous activity from the time od Portuguese settlement in 1500 until 1760. Later histotical lave flows, some from vents on the caldera floor reached the eastern coast below the breached caldera. Latest eruptions occured in 1951 and 1995. (GVN/GVP)

 

FRANCE - Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion island)

May 30th, 2015

As of the 30th of May, OVPDLF reported that following slow tremor decreasing since 27th of May, the eruption stopped at about 8:50 PM on 30th of May.During the 13 days of eruptive activity about 8 millions/m3 were emitted. OVPDLF reported that the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise that began on 17 May continued through 26 May. After a peak on 17 May, sulfur dioxide emissions fluctuated but had gradually decreased overall. Lava-flow rates estimated by satellite data had also fluctuated but showed an overall decrease from 24.2 cubic meters per second on 17 May to 2.5 cubic meters per second on 21 May. During 21-22 May observers reported large variations in activity, including increasing heights of the lava fountain (over 50 m high), collapsing parts of the newly formed cinder cone, and a new very fluid lava flow adjacent to the main flow. During an overflight on 23 May scientists observed a large blue sulfur dioxide plume above the vent, lower lava fountains, a smaller vent in the cone, and the presence of a lava tube about 200 m downstream of the vent. During 24-25 May activity remained unchanged; low lava fountains and low-level lava flows persisted. As of the 22nd of May, eruptive activity was still continuing from main active vent. Activity remained stable during the past days.Lava front flows was at about 1000 m elevation and 3.5 km from the road. Seimic activity remained elevated. On 18 May only one fissure was active and the SSW-drifting gas plume was much smaller. Hydrogen sulfide emissions continued to be high, and carbon dioxide emissions increased. Lava fountains from a single vent along the second fissure, further E, rose 40-50 m. The lava flow had traveled 4 km, reaching an elevation of 1.1 km. Three field observations occurred on 19 May; scientists observed lava fountains 20-30 m high, and the advancing lava flow which had traveled 750 m in the previous day, reaching 1 km elevation.Previously, OVPDLF reported that during 4-16 May the number and magnitude of earthquakes at Piton de la Fournaise increased, and inflation was detected at the base of the summit cone. Gas emissions intensified; specifically hydrogen sulfide emissions increased on 5 May after a peak of sulfur dioxide values on 3 May. A seismic crisis was detected on 17 May. Between 1100 and 1230 the network detected 200 volcano-tectonic events, and then at 1250 a more intense seismic crisis began. Significant deformation at the crater rim was detected and a few minutes later, at 1345, an eruption started outside and SE of Dolomieu crater in the Castle crater area. Visual confirmation occurred 15 minutes later as clouds moved away. Volcanologists observed the area and noted lava fountains from three fissures, and two lava flows. A very large gas plume emitted during the first few hours of the eruption rose 3.6-4 km altitude and drifted NW. The fissure furthest W stopped issuing lava fountains before midnight. Previous eruption ended when tremor began to decrease at 1700 on 15 February 2015, intensely fluctuated, and then disappeared around 2230. Incandescence visible with a webcam likely indicated draining lava tubes. Eruptive episode seemed ended on 16th of February. OVPDLF reported that during 11-13 February visibility of the eruption at Piton de la Fournaise that began on 4 February from vents located 100 m outside and to the W of Bory Crater was hampered by poor weather conditions; tremor remained elevated. As of the 10th of February, OVPLF reported that 9 February a vent was still weakly active with small explosions and small splashes of lava. Tremor remained stable and low on 10 February. Previously, OVPDLF reported that 180 earthquakes at Piton de la Fournaise were recorded from 0400 to 0900 on 4 February, including five events greater than M 2. A seismic crisis began at 0910, tremor was recorded at 1050, and an eruption began at 1100. Observers noted that a fissure had opened on the S flank, triggering an Alert Level 2-2 (ongoing eruption) and the restriction of access by the public to the summit area. The fissure was 500 m long, starting from an area located 100 m outside and to the W of Bory Crater. Activity was concentrated on the southernmost part of the fissure. Lava was ejected from the vent about 10 m high and rapidly flowed SSW towards the Rivals Crater, branched, and spread in an area S and SE of the crater. By the late afternoon the farthest-reaching branch had traveled past Cornu Crater. Tremor levels decreased through the day and were relatively low by 1800; on 6 February tremor levels were very low. Small cones had formed over the vents and produced low gas plumes. Inclement weather reduced visibility of the eruption site, although on 8 February observers noted that lava continued to flow from the vents, and another flow traveled further W. Previous short eruption ended on 22nd of June 2014, a morning bulletin from OVPLF reported that the eruptive tremor decreased slowly during the afternoon and probably the eruption ended during the night. OVPDLF reported that an eruption began at Piton de la Fournaise at 0120 on 21 June 2014 following a period of elevated seismicity. This new activity marks the end of more than three years of quiescence. During 7-20 June volcano-tectonic and rockfall-type earthquakes were recorded, with the largest number occurring on 17 June. The locations of these earthquakes were relatively consistent between 500 and 1,200 m a.s.l. within Dolomieu crater. There were neither significant gas emissions nor indicators of pre-eruptive deformation. On 19 June, a field campaign by the Observatory team confirmed the activity detected by the permanent monitoring network (geodetic, thermal, and gas). At 0006 on 21 June the seismic crises escalated and continued for 74 minutes. Localized deformation began at 0020 and continued for ~3 hours. Tremor began at 0120 and incandescence was observed by the remote cameras at 0135. The eruption was entirely contained within the Enclos Fouqué area on the ESE side of the central cone. Aerial observations by helicopter revealed an active lava fountain from a fissure that was within view of the Piton Bert webcamera. The fountaining built a spatter rampart and two lava flows extended ~1.5 km from the fissure. One lava flow extended 250 m after passing the Langlois crater (~2 km SE of Dolomieu crater); the second lava flow passed that crater on the E and S edge and extended an additional 500 m. (OVPLF ) The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. (OVPF information) - Journal de l'île de la Réunion - ). Live webcam - IPGP

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COMOROS - Karthala volcano

January 20th, 2007

As of 19th of January, Volcano observatory reported that on Thursday 18th the volcano shook twice again and local volcanologists said there was still a threat of eruption despite the tremor seems weakening. Comoros authorities have made emergency plan to help as many 30.000 people in case of eruption. As of 13th of January, volcano observatory reported that Mount Karthala (2631m) begun emitting fumes and producing a red glow over the tops. According to the chief geologist, the volcano has become eruptive since yesterday evening 12th of January. The lava level had risen in the volcano's crater. Preliminary information reported that residents of Mvurni, a town at 1000 m altitude on the volcano West slope were broken up by strong fumes. The island had been on red alert. The last big eruption of the volcano occured in April 2005, sent thousands fleeing in fear poisonous gas and lava. The worst disaster on record came in 1903, when 17 died from noxious fumes that seeped from cracks. The southernmost and largest of the two shield volcanoes forming Grand Comore Island (also known as Ngazidja Island), Karthala contains a 3 x 4 km summit caldera generated by repeated collapse

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TANZANIE - Lengai volcano

October 30th, 2012

News and recent photos taken in September 2012 at the summit crater. Previously, as of the 22nd of February 2010 GNN/GVP reported that periodic eruptions from a small fissure and steam emissions from an area of the crater rim next to a part that had collapsed were observed on 11 February, and three fresh black hornitos were noted on the W part of the crater floor, a cone-shaped grey hornito in the middle of the floor and a new black lava flow to the S were seen during 14-15 February. Previous Informations : June-August 2009: a few reports received during the summer, including ones documenting visits in August by Thomas Holden , in July by David Gregson , and in June by Tobias Fischer , indicate that Lengai continues to produce small effusive eruptions within the pit crater. Thomas Holden reported that on his climb in late August (exact date unknown) he saw active lava flows. Tobias Fischer witnessed flows and a small lava lake ~5m in diameter in June.  David Gregson did not see significant activity but heard sounds of activity at depth. Although the activity appears to have returned to the typical eruptions of fluid natrocarbonatite lava for which Lengai is so well known, no samples of the new flows have been obtained for analysis due to their inaccessability deep inside the pit crater.  It is not known how similar the new lava is in composition to the lavas produced prior to the 2007-2008 eruption. (From Fred Belton website) Previous information : qccording to Frederick Belton team which climbed Ol Doinyo Lengai on 18 June 2009reported that the new active cone covered the former crater floor entirely except for an area N of the summit. The new cone's W, N, and E sides stood about 30 m above the rim of the former crater and enclosed a deep crater. The visitors saw a few small vents on the crater's floor. Frequent emissions of ash-poor plumes originated from the SW part of the crater's floor, producing light ashfall. They heard continuous loud rumbling noises, occasional gas-jetting sounds, and rockfalls. As of the 21st of February, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania erupted on 19th of February, according to an aviation report. Ash was observed to 38,000 ft. Pilots have been advised to avoid flying near the volcano. The activity at Lengai seems to be increasing. In the past two weeks, explosions have ejected ash plumes rising several kilometers. On 15 Feb., Dutch pilots observed and photographed an eruption plume rising to estimated 12 km (36,000 ft). The Toulouse VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by pilots on 15 February and rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. As of the 24th of January, the Global Volcanism Network (GVN) has reported that a visitor to Ol Doinyo Lengai informed that it erupted on 14 January. According to this visitor "shower of stones" fell at their location about 50 m from the summit and a lava flow went another direction. Typical ash eruption from the new ash cone in the N crater. A small group from Volcano Discovery , local mountain guides and partners stayed near and on Lengai volcano during 17-21 January. During this period, Lengai continued to erupt ash to several 100 metres above the new ash cone during phases lasting several hours alternating with periods of quiet when only a weak plume of very fine gray ash and gas was issuing out of the new ash cone. Photos from an eruptive phase of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano consisting in near continuous ash emissions from its new crater and taken from the summit during a recent expedition in January 2008 have been posted at the Discovery: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/volcano-tours/photos/lengai/0108.html . These photos also document the impressive recent changes on the volcano and help to illustrate the significant hazards present when climbing Lengai or staying at its top. The Toulouse VAAC reported previously that an ash plume from Ol Doinyo Lengai was observed by visiting scientists on 20 December and rose to an unreported altitude. As of the 20th of October, John Seach has reported that a pilot report indicated an eruption of Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania occurred at 0830hrs local time today. An ash plume reached 25,000 ft. altitude, and was visible from a distance of 50 miles. The eruption lasted 30 minutes. As of the 7th of September, according to Matthieu Kervyn De Meerendre, University of Gent (Belgium) has reported that Ol Doinyo Lengai has re-erupted again. A large eruption (?) seems to be taking place at Lengai volcano, this time for real On 4 September 2007, reports started coming in that a large (natrocarbonatite) lava flow is descending the West flank. A considerable ash plume was visible on satellite data. Over 30 thermal anomalies have been detected by the MODIS team since August 23 - more than during the large eruption in March 2006. On 4 and 5 Sep, the thermal anomaly at the summit was extremely strong. From this and satellite imaginery, it seems that there was a short overflow to the East and a major overflow to the West starting on September 1st (it could be a bush fire on the volcano flank ignited by lava). New overflows on 5 Sep seem to be taking place on the W and NW flanks. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai stratovolcano is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent volcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep craters walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

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CONGO - Nyamulagira volcano

July 3rd, 2014

On 29 June NASA reported that Nyamuragira vented steam and other volcanic gases and there was a glow from the lava
lake. NOAA reported that an Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite detected high SO2 concentrations above Nyamuragira. The University of Hawaii reported that Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite
data detected thermal anomalies and issued six MODVOLC alerts for the volcano's N side. Previously, according to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January 2014 showed a gas-and-steam plume rising from Nyamuragira.
Previous 2012 news about last eruption - As of the 28th of January, MODVOLC is still recording thermal anomaly on the volcano and probably the eruptive activity is still going on. (photos from M.Rietze).The initial scoria cone appeared inactive and second cone formed to the N of the first cone. Both cones were about 300 m high. The second cone was extremely active during the duration of the observations (about 15 hours) with fire fountains over twice the height of the cone; lava flowed N. The observers, about 1.5 km away, felt the heat from the eruption as well as lapilli fall. The VolcanoDiscovery Team observed the fissure eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November 2011 during 22-25 January 2012 from the newly formed cinder cones located about 10 km E of the summit crater. They reported three coalescent cones with the largest cone containing a small lava lake. The lake ejected spatter every few seconds as high as 200 m above the summit; individual bombs reached the base of the cone. Lava flows from the vent extended several kilometers N. Numerous small breakouts formed secondary flows, and a large breakout about 2 km N of the cone fed a large lava flow about 20 m wide. Burning forests were reported to the NNE. Satellite imagery acquired on 3 January from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed an active lava flow to the NE of the central vent over the fissure located 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater. A sulfur dioxide-rich plume was also detected.According to OMI data, SO2 plume is still rose above of the volcano suggesting tha the eruption is continued. As of the 8th of December, the eruptive activity is still continuing. Thermal anomaly and gas plume are still visible from satellite image. On 18 November, Virunga National Park reported that lava flows from the eruption along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater had possibly stalled. An observer aboard an overflight a few days before noted that the lava did not appear to have moved any further N. A photo taken from the Rumangabo headquarters (7.5 km NE of the eruption site) on 16 November showed a tall cinder cone with lava fountains rising above the rim. The eruption at Nyamuragira that began on 6 November, after two days of intense seismic activity, was located along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of the main crater, close to one of the 1989 eruption sites. Virunga National Park staff had previously been observing the eruption from a hilltop in Rumangabo, but on 9 November the staff and rangers traveled to the site. After a 3-hour hike, the team viewed the eruption from the S and noted roaring and lava fountains, as well as thunder and lightning. The observers also noted that the ground was covered by black pumice. On 11 November about 100 people, including staff, rangers, carpenters, porters, and volcanologists, traveled to a similar but safer location to set up a camp for visitors. The eruption site was described as a flat area with a 500-1,000-m-long fissure, oriented perpendicular to the Albertine (Western) rift. Lava fountains rose as high as 300 m above a cinder cone. Slow-moving lava traveled N. GORISK noted that radar images acquired on 11 November showed the largest deformation ever detected by the method (InSAR) since the early 1990's over Nyamuragira. A very preliminary analysis of the observed deformation suggested an affected area of more than 250 square kilometers. The ground rose more than 50 cm at the eruptive site where the spatter cone was developing. Another 15 cm of deformation was detected within the Nyamuragira caldera accompanied by deflation on the flanks. Satellite images acquired on 12 November showed that the lava flow had traveled approximately 11.5 km during the six days of the eruption. As of the 15th of November, The eruptive activity was still continuing characterized by lava fountain about 300 m high and lava which overflowed on the North flank of the volcano.(video) .As of the 7th of November, Rangers from the Virunga National Park reported that an eruption began last night on Nyamuragira in the Democratic Republic of Congo in central Africa. The eruption was observed from the park headquarters and it was reported that it appears to be a flank eruption. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira (Also spelled Nyamulagira) is a massive basaltic shield volcano N of Lake Kivu and NW of Nyiragongo volcano. Lava flows from Nyamuragira cover 1,500 sq km of the East African Rift. The 3058-m-high summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km summit caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. About 40 historical eruptions have occurred since the mid-19th century within the summit caldera and from numerous fissures and cinder cones on the volcano's flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938. Twentieth-century flank lava flows extend more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

CONGO - Nyiragongo

February 3rd, 2014

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January showed a gas-and-steam plume rising from Nyiragongo.Previously, according to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image of Nyiragongo acquired on 29 July 2013 showed a red glow coming from the active lava lake in the summit crater. A diffuse blue plume drifted N. Previous news 2012 - The Toulouse VAAC reported that, according to a Volcano Observatory Notices for Aviation (VONA) issued by the Goma Volcano Observatory, a gas plume composed mostly of sulfur dioxide rose from Nyiragongo on 1 November. Previously according to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image of Nyiragongo acquired on 15 November showed heat coming from the active lava lake in the summit crater. Previous news : The Toulouse VAAC reported that during 4-5 February 2011diffuse plumes, likely composed primarily of sulfur dioxide gas, were observed in satellite imagery. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained an active lava lake in its deep summit crater that drained catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark the levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late 19th century. About 100 parasitic cones are located on the volcano's flanks and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Monitoring is done from a small observatory building located in Goma, ~18 km S of the Nyiragongo crater. (From GVO) - Nyiragongo Photos gallery - January 2011 (German group)
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ETHIOPIA - Erta Ale volcano

February 5th, 2012

According to a member of Activ website, and following a recently 2012 fieldtrip a lava lake lies within the South pit-crater of the Erta Ale caldera. This lake was about 15 m depth with 50-60 m diameter. Important degassing occured from incandescent hornitos within the North pit-crater. News 2010 - As of the 5th of March 2010, according to Rafael Werndli reports an unusually hight lava level in the pit crater on Erta Ale in mid February 2010. The lake surface was approximately 20m below the pit's edge. The lava lake had a diameter of 100 to 110m. Occesional floodings of the uppermost terrace were observed. In addition a hornito was active in the north crater, ejecting scoriae and small lava flows. PREVIOUS INFORMATION AND REPORTS : As of the 20th of February 2008, the Stromboli-On-Line website has reported that upon their return to volcano Erta Ale, they found it to be in eruption on the 8th of February and have confirmed this information. Volcanologique de Geneve (SVG) trip on 8-9 February 2008 noted extensions of ropy lava in the N crater. The lake was little changed from the group's last visit in 2005. The group visited the N Crater, and, given its constant degassing, was able to take gas samples. They also measured the lake's surface temperature (700°C). The descent into this crater, seemingly easy, was made difficult by a mantle of very unstable lava scoria. An elevated level of the lava lake halted a subsequent descent.Previous information reported that on 7th of October 2005, according to Ethiopian newspaper an earthquake measuring 4.2 on the Richter scale, jolted northern Ethiopia (Teru area in Afar) on Tuesday triggering eruption of the Erta Ale. According to M; Manahlo Belachew, an expert in the seismology department of Addis Ababa University, the quake which strick the remote region afar is the 11th tremblor to rumble across the region since last month. As of 5th of October a hot spot was visible on the Erta Ale from the MODIS images which could confirmed an eruptive activty this day. Previous new report about recent activity of the Erta Ale : group of scientists assessed the visible changes at Erta Ale on 26 September after activity began around 24 September. In comparison to observations made in November 2004, they found that the southern main crater/pit had widened significantly, with portions of the previous crater walls having collapsed into the lava lake. A new cone-shaped construct had grown within the southern main crater where there had been a platform. A lava lake occupied the entire width of the inner crater/pit. In the northern crater/pit, there was a solidified lava bulge and abundant “smoking” along the crater walls. No incandescent lava was visible in the pit. Based on descriptions by local residents of seeing “red and glowing light shooting and rising into the air above the volcano,” the scientists believe that a Strombolian eruption probably occurred, emitting a significant volume of fresh magma within, and possibly out of, the pit. As of 4th of 0ctober, Personal source reported from Addis Ababa University that the recent earthquake that occured in Afar state has caused landslide and big fissure in Teru locality kebele 02 of the state near the active volcano Mount Erta Ale, a team of geologists who have just returned from the site disclosed. The earthquake observed from September 10 -24, 2005 is the culmination of volcanic activities in the area since millions of years ago, geologists Dr. Derge Ayalew and Dr. Gezahegn Yirgu told WIC. The geologists said the landslide and fissure are indicators that there would be a possible volcanic eruption in the future. The Physical Observatory of the Addis Ababa University recorded on Sunday earthquake that measured 5.5 on Richter scale following earthquake. In Erta Ale the volume of material inside the Crater is actually increasing i.e. rising up to the Crator rim. Due to all this recent geological activity the government is starting to evacuate the people residing around these areas. Previous Erta Ale visit : an international team led by SVE carried out a new visit at the Erta Ale from 22nd of January to 23rd of January 2005. During these two full days at the summit the eruptive activity showed no significant change since our previous observation carried out in November 2005. Degassing activity was still occuring from 3 of the 4 coalescents hornitos located in the SW part of the South crater, but decreased slightly in comparison with our December observations. There were about 10 m high and represented the only portion of the lava crust covering the crater floor where gas emissions were in evidence. One of the hornitos contained glowing molten lava visible from a window located in the upper part. During the clear day of Sunday 23rd of January, members of the team abseiled down within the crater to collect recent lava poured out from the hornitos during partial collapse. Degassing activity (mainly SO2) from the North crater has also slightly decreased in comparison with early December 2004. From a small terrace located in the NW part of the crater it was possible to observe the degassing activity from several hornitos ( some of them were several meters high in the central part of the " lava bulge ") - Near the NW wall of the crater two small red glowing areas were visible at the summit of two other hornitos. Seismic activity of the volcano, together with infrasound signals were recorded by a portable system of the University of Hamburg. Preliminary results of this deployment will be reported soon at this place. Informations : Henry Gaudru, SVE Geneva ; Alexander Gerst , University of Hamburg, Germany ; Georges Kourounis, Derek Tessier, Brian Fletcher (Toronto - Canada) , Motomaro Shirao (Tokyo- Japan) . A previous visit of the SVE-SVG group (4th of December 2004) have permits to observe an important change in the activity of the volcano. The lava lake activity stopped within the South pit crater and a solidified lava crust has filled the whole part of the crater floor (about 15 m below the crater rim). Three (4) coalescent hornitos (about ten meters high) have built on the solidified lava crust in the SE part of the South crater. During the night between 4th of 5th of December, some incandescent degassing lava was visible at the summit of two hornitos. Moreover, we have also noted that a new activity has recently occured within the North crater. A solidified lava bulge uplifted and filled more than 4/5 of the crater floor (about 20-25 below the crater rim). Strong and noisy degassing activity was occcuring in the central part of the lava bulge from several small hornitos. From the smell and bluish color, these gases contained a high quantity of SO2. During the night , ten small incandescent vents were visible at the periphery of the lava bulge. In the morning, two plumes rose above the volcano. Information : Henry Gaudru (SVE) and Co (SVG) - Erta Ale report in case of problem with this link look directly at "articles page" Recent Erta Ale photos 2011 *********************************************************************************************************************************************

INDIA - Barren Island volcano - Andaman islands

June 16th, 2015

Based on pilot observations, analysis of satellite imagery, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-13 June ash plumes from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km NE.Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-7 June ash plumes from Barren Island rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-45 km NE and E. According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot observed an ash plume from Barren Island that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified in satellite images.Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 February an ash plume from Barren Island rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km SW. A SIGMET report noted that low-level ash plumes were also observed on 9 February. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S-trending volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). The 354-m-high island is the emergent summit of volcano that rises from a depth of about 2,250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the W, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. The morphology of a fresh pyroclastic cone that was constructed in the center of the caldera has varied during the course of historical eruptions. Lava flows fill much of the caldera floor and have reached the sea along the western coast during historical eruptions.

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Piton de la Fournaise - Eruptive fissure - 16th November 2002 - Photo Laï-Yu (JIR)

PHILIPPINES - Mayon Volcano

December 19th, 2014

PHIVOLCS reported that during 9-16 December white plumes were occasionally observed rising from Mayon's crater and drifted WNW and WSW, sometimes downslope. Three volcanic earthquakes were recorded on 9 December and one
was recorded on 11 December. Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale). PHIVOLCS reminded residents of the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) around the volcano and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank.
PHIVOLCS reported that during 3-8 December white plumes were occasionally observed rising from Mayon's crater and drifted WSW, SSW, and NW, sometimes downslope. Inclement weather prevented views of the summit on some days. As
many as three volcanic earthquakes were recorded per day. Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale). PHIVOLCS reminded residents of the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) around the volcano and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank. PHIVOLCS reported that during 18-25 November white plumes rose from Mayon's crater and drifted WSW, WNW, NE, and SE, often downslope. As many as six volcanic earthquakes and one rockfall event were recorded per day. Sulfur dioxide emissions were below baseline levels. Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale). PHIVOLCS reminded residents of the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) around the volcano and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank. PHIVOLCS reported that during 12-18 November white plumes rose from Mayon's crater and drifted S, SSW, SW, WSW, and WNW, often downslope. As many as three volcanic earthquakes and one rockfall event were recorded per day. Data from a deformation study conducted during 9-13 November indicated deflation relative to results from a 21-28 October survey, although the volcano remained inflated relative to the baseline. Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale). PHIVOLCS reminded residents of the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) around the volcano and the 7-km extended Danger Zone (EDZ) on the SE flank.PHIVOLCS reported that during 5-11 November white plumes rose from Mayon's crater and drifted S, SW, WSW, WNW, and NW, sometimes downslope. Weak incandescence from the crater was noted some nights. As many as five volcanic earthquakes were recorded per day. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale).PHIVOLCS reported that during 28 October-4 November white plumes rose from Mayon's crater and drifted SW, WSW, WNW, and NW, sometimes down the flanks. Weak incandescence from the crater was noted at night on 28 October. A few volcanic earthquakes and rockfall signals were recorded during 29-31 October and 4 November. A 4 November report noted that ground deformation had been detected since the beginning of 2014. Tilt data from the network on the NW flank indicated continuing inflation since August, subsequent to a period of inflation in June and July. The inflation events were thought to correspond to a magma body, approximately 107 cubic meters, slowly intruding at depth. Precise leveling measurements also indicated sustained inflation. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale).PHIVOLCS reported that during 22-28 October white plumes rose from Mayon's crater and drifted SW, WSW, WNW, and NW. A few volcanic earthquakes and rockfall signals were recorded during 23-25 and 28 October. Weak crater incandescence from the crater was noted at night on 22, 25, and 27 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale).PHIVOLCS reported that during 14-21 October white plumes rose from Mayon's crater and drifted NW, W, WSW, SW, and SE. On 14 October a seismic signal indicating a rockfall was recorded and a brief period of incandescence from the crater was observed. A few volcanic earthquakes were recorded during 18-21 October. On 19 October weak incandescence from the crater was noted. A new lava flow first observed that same day was 300-400 m long on 20 October based on an aerial survey. Weak crater incandescence from the lava dome was again seen on 21 October. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale). PHIVOLCS reported that during 8-12 October white plumes rose from Mayon's crater and drifted NW, NE, ESE, SE, and SSW. During an overflight of Mayon on 12 October volcanologists observed a 350-m-long lava flow traveling down the SE flank, on the E side of Bonga Gully. The report noted that the small number of volcanic earthquakes and rockfall signals recorded during the previous few days indicated slow lava extrusion from the crater and a slow-moving lava flow. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale).PHIVOLCS reported that during 1-7 October the seismic network at Mayon recorded 0-7 rockfall events per day. White steam plumes drifted SSE, ESE, and NW. Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale).PHIVOLCS reported that during 24-30 September the seismic network at Mayon recorded 0-9 volcanic earthquakes and 1-6 rockfall events per day. White steam plumes drifted SW and NW. According to a news article, the Albay Public Safety and Emergency Management Office noted that more than 54,000 people were in evacuation shelters. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 0-5 scale). Mayon, a 2463-metre stratovolcano, is famous for the near-perfect symmetry of its cone, as well as its ability to unleash destructive eruptions, with hazards including pyroclastic flows, lahars and heavy ashfall. Particularly violent eruptions causing many deaths occurred in 1814 and 1897; more recently an eruption in September 1984 caused no fatalities after warnings from Philvolcs brought about the evacuation of more than 70,000 people from at-risk areas near the volcano. Information : PHIVOLCS - Latest satelllite image of the Mayon (every 30 mn)

PHILIPPINES - Taal volcano

January 4th, 2014

No recent news since the crisis in 2011 - NEWS 2011 - Taal Volcano's seismic network detected seven (7) volcanic earthquakes in september 2011 Field measurements on 20 September 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake yielded slightly increased water temperature of 33.6 ° C from 33.5 ° C, water level at a steady 1.74 meters and more acidic pH of 2.72 from 2.79 as compared to previous readings. Field measurements on 06 September 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake yielded slightly increased water temperature of 33.5 ° C from 33.4 ° C and water level increase of 1.74 meters from 1.65 meters as compared to previous readings. Ground deformation survey (precise leveling) on the Volcano Island last 21-28 July 2011 indicated that the volcano edifice is slightly deflated compared with 01-10 June 2011, but is nonetheless still inflated compared with baseline data. Baselines calculated from continuous GPS (Global Positioning System) data for the period February to July 2011 also recorded a very slight but steady inflation of the northeast flank of the Volcano Island. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission recorded on 27 June 2011 at the Main Crater Lake was 1,821 tonnes/day, which is above background levels. Field measurements on 30 August 2011 at the western sector of the Main Crater Lake yielded slightly decreased water temperature of 32.9 ° C from 33.6 ° C and water level increase of 1.29 meters from 1.20 meters as compared to previous readings.  Field measurements conducted last 26 July 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature remained unchanged at 33.4 ° C, the water level increased from 0.86 meter to 0.91 meter and the pH value showed insignificant change from 2.85 to 2.86 as compared with the previous readings on 12 July 2011.  Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. Measurements conducted last 19 July 2011 at the western sector of the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature changed slightly from 33.4 ° C to 33.0°C. The water level decreased from 0.85 meter to 0.81 meter and the pH value became less acidic from 2.80 to 2.91. Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake.  Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 01 - 10 June 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is slightly inflated relative to 26 April - 03 May 2011 survey.  Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate last 27 June 2011 at Taal Main Crater Lake yielded a value of 1,821 tonnes per day which is above the background level. As of the 18th of July, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded five (5) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. One (1) of these events was felt at Intensity II at Calauit, a barangay located at the eastern sector of the volcano. Field measurements conducted last 12 July 2011 at the eastern sector of the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature changed slightly from 33.4 ° C to 33.6°C. The water level increased from 0.74 meter to 0.86 meter and the pH value became less acidic from 2.74 to 2.85.  Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 01 - 10 June 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is slightly inflated relative to 26 April - 03 May 2011 survey.  Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate last 27 June 2011 at Taal Main Crater Lake yielded a value of 1,821 tonnes per day which is above the background level. Taal Volcano's status remains at Alert Level 1. As of the 5th of July. PHIVOLCS reported that Eleven (11) weeks after Taal Volcano's alert status was raised from Level 1 to Level 2 on 09 April 2011, the following monitoring parameters have been observed: 1.  The number of volcanic earthquakes recorded daily gradually declined to low levels beginning 1 st week of June 2011. From June 2 to 5, four (4) to eight (8) volcanic earthquakes were detected per day. Since June 6 to present, the number of recorded volcanic earthquakes further decreased to a daily count of zero (0) to six (6) small events. No perceptible volcanic earthquake has occurred since 02 June. 2.   Hydrothermal and steaming activities in the northern and northeast sides of the Main Crater and Daang Kastila area have abated.  Since 01 June 2011, the Main Crater Lake temperature remained at 32.5 ° C to 33.4 ° C, and despite becoming more acidic, measured pH of 2.78 – 2.59 vary around the baseline level of pH above 2.5.  All other geochemical parameters are returning to background levels. Bubbling activity at the northeastern sector of Main Crater Lake weakened and the activity has ceased in some of the bubbling sites. 3.   Ground temperature and total magnetic field measurements at Daang Kastila and in the Main Crater showed no significant changes in both parameters. 4.  Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) gas measurements at the Main Crater Lake since March 2011 showed a decreasing trend. From an elevated value of 4,670 tonnes per day (t/d) in March, CO 2 decreased to 2,057 t/d in May and then to 1,821 t/d in June. 5.  Precise leveling in June 2011 along the flanks of Volcano Island and Global Positioning System (GPS) data from November 2010 to June showed that the volcano is slightly inflated.  Ground deformation data, nonetheless, are not suggestive of large pressure build-up within the volcano edifice. The above observations suggest that Taal Volcano's activity has declined. In view thereof, PHIVOLCS is now lowering the status of the volcano from Alert Level 2 to Alert Level 1. As of the 24th of June, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded one (1) volcanic earthquake during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted last 21 June 2011 at the western sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 32.9 ° C to 33.1°C, the water level increased from 0.33 meter to 0.60 meter and the water became more acidic (pH value from 2.88 to 2.62) as compared with the previous readings on 31 May 2011.  Minimal bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake.  Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 1 - 10 June 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is slightly inflated relative to the 26 April - 03 May 2011 survey. Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas emission rates last 03-04 May 2011 at Taal Main Crater Lake yielded a value of 2,057 tonnes per day (t/d) which is above the background level. As of the 17th of June, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded four (4) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted last 14 June 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature decreased to 32.9°C from 33.8 ° C, the water level increased to 0.59 meter from 0.31 meter and the pH value showed an insignificant change to 2.67 from 2.69 as compared with the previous readings on 7 June 2011.  Bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. As of the 3rd of June, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded four (4) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted last 31 May 2011 at the western sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 32.5 ° C to 32.9°C, and the pH value became more acidic decreasing from 2.72 to 2.60.  Bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. As of the 2nd of June, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded thirteen (13) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Two of these events were felt at   Intensity II by residents of Calauit located at the eastern sector of the volcano. The events were reportedly accompanied with rumbling sounds. As of the 1st of June, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded twenty two (22) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Two of these events were felt at   Intensity II by residents of Calauit, Tuoran and Bignay located at the eastern sector of the volcano. The events were reportedly accompanied with rumbling sounds. Field measurements conducted on 31 May 2011 at the western sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 32.5 ° C to 32.9°C, and the pH value became more acidic decreasing from 2.72 to 2.60. Bubbling activity was observed at the middle portion of the Main Crater Lake. As of the 30th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that a remarkable increase in the seismic activity occured on Taal Volcano. For the past 24 hours, Taal‘s seismic network detected a total of one hundred fifteen (115) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Twelve of these events were felt at Intensity I – IV by residents of Pira-piraso, Alas-as and Calauit located at northeast, southwest and southeast sectors of Volcano Island, respectively. One of these events (8:32 PM, 29 May) was felt at Intensity I, nine (9)  events (1:02:19 AM, 1:02:26 AM, 2:32 AM, 2:53 AM, 2:12 AM, 3:08:19 AM, 3:08:52 AM, 3:17 AM, 3:19 AM, 3:26 AM 30 May) were felt at Intensity II, one event (1:26 AM 30 May) was felt at Intensity III and another one (1:05 AM 30 May) was  felt at Intensity IV. All of these felt events were reportedly accompanied by rumbling sounds. As of the 26th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded three (3) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Field measurements conducted on 24 May 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature slightly increased from 32.5 ° C to 32.8°C, the pH value became more slightly acidic decreasing from 2.83 to 2.67 and the water level increased from 0.21 meter to 0.25 meter. Results of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 26 April - 03 May 2011 showed that the volcano edifice inflated slightly relative to the 05-11 April 2011 survey. Measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas emission rates last 03-04 May 2011 at Taal Main Crater yielded a lower value of 2,057 tonnes per day (t/d) compared with that measured last March 2011 which had a value of 4,750 t/d. However, the obtained value is still higher than the emission rates of 1,875 t/d measured last February 2011. Previously, as of the 18th of may, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded five (5) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  As of the 13th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded five (5) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Field measurements conducted May 13, 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature slightly increased from 32.0°C (May 5, 2011) to 32.5°C. The water is still acidic with the pH value remained at 2.94 and the water level slightly increased from 0.19 meter to 0.21 meter as compared with the reading on May 5, 2011. Results of the ground deformation measurement (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 26 April -03 May 2011 showed that the volcano edifice is still inflated as compared with the 05-11 April 2011 survey. Results of gas measurements conducted between 03-04 May 2011 at Taal Main Crater yielded a carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of 2,057 tonnes per day (t/d). This emission value is down from 4,750 t/d last March 2011, but still higher than the emission rates of 1,875 t/d measured last February 2011. As of the 6th of May, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded six (6) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.  Field measurements conducted on 05 May 2011 at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 31.5 ° C to 32.0 ° C, the water became more acidic with pH value decreasing from 3.09 to 2.94 and the water level further receded to 0.19 meters from the 0.23 meters as compared to the last reading on 19 April 2011. As of the 25th of April, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded fourteen (14 ) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours.Field observation and measurements conducted at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the water temperature increased from 30.5 ° C to 31.5 ° C. Result of the ground deformation survey (precise leveling) conducted around the Volcano Island last 05-11 April 2011 showed that volcano edifice is slightly inflated as compared with the 02-09 February 2011 survey. As of the 23rd of April, PHIVOLCS reported that seismic network recorded nineteen (19) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. One of these events, which occurred at 12:23 midnight, was felt at Intensity II at Brgy. Calauit on the southeastern part of the Volcano Island. Another event which occurred at 4:31 AM today was felt at Intensity III in Brgy. Pira-piraso at the northeastern part of Volcano Island accompanied by rumbling sounds.  Field observation and measurements conducted at the eastern sector inside the Main Crater Lake showed that the temperature at the Main Crater Lake increased from 30.5 ° C to 31.5 ° C. As of the 19th of April, PHIVOLCS reported that Taal Volcano's seismic network recorded six (6) volcanic earthquakes during the past 24 hours. Alert Level 2 is hoisted over Taal Volcano with the interpretation that magma has been intruding towards the surface, as manifested by CO 2 being released in the Main Crater Lake and increase in seismic activity.  Hence, PHIVOLCS advises the public that the Main Crater, Daang Kastila Trail and Mt. Tabaro (1965 -1977 Eruption Site) are strictly off-limits because sudden hazardous steam-driven explosions may occur and high concentrations of toxic gases may accumulate.  Breathing air with high concentration of gases can be lethal to human, animals and even cause damage to vegetation.  In addition, it is reminded that entire Volcano Island is a Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ), and permanent settlement in the island is strictly not recommended. Taal volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines and has produced some of its most powerful historical eruptions. In contrast to Mayon volcano, Taal is not topographically prominent, but its prehistorical eruptions have greatly changed the topography of SW Luzon. The 15 x 20 km Talisay (Taal) caldera is largely filled by Lake Taal, whose 267 sq km surface lies only 3 m above sea level. The maximum depth of the lake is 160 m, and several eruptive centers lie submerged beneath the lake. The 5-km-wide Volcano Island in north-central Lake Taal is the location of all historical eruptions. The island is a complex volcano composed of coalescing small stratovolcanoes, tuff rings, and scoria cones that has grown about 25% in area during historical time. Powerful pyroclastic flows and surges from historical eruptions of Taal have caused many fatalities (gvn).

PHILIPPINES - Bulusan volcano

June 25th, 2015

PHIVOLCS reported that the seismic network at Bulusan recorded an explosion-type event that lasted for two minutes on 18 June; dense clouds obscured visual observations of the summit area. A phreatic explosion that occurred at 1455 on 19 June, and lasted for seven minutes, produced a 1.5-km-high grayish ash plume that drifted WSW. A low-level ash cloud on
the upper NW flank, possibly from a short pyroclastic flow, was also observed. Minor amounts of ash fell in the neighborhoods of Bacolod, Buraburan, Mapili, Puting Sapa, and Juban. The event was followed by a voluminous gray white emission, which later turned completely white, that rose 250 m and drifted SW. At 1315 on 21 June an event which lasted 111 seconds generated a steam-and-ash plume that rose 150 m and drifted E. Trace amounts of ash fell in San Jose, San Francisco, Bulusan Proper, Sapngan, San Rafael, and Dapdap. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).PHIVOLCS reported that at 1102 on 16 June a 10-minute-long phreatic explosion from Bulusan generated a steam-and-ash plume that rose 1 km and drifted WSW. This event was accompanied by rumbling sounds reported by residents in Cogon, Irosin on the WSW flank. A second and smaller event occurred at 1120 and, based on seismicity, lasted for one minute. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). During 13-15 and 17-19 May PHIVOLCS reported that six or fewer volcanic earthquakes were recorded at Bulusan. Weak steam emissions were occasionally observed rising from the SW vent and from a vent on the upper NW flank; plumes drifted SW, WNW, or drifted downslope. PHIVOLCS maintained Alert Level 1, indicating abnormal conditions, and reminded the public of the 4-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).PHIVOLCS reported that at 2146 on 6 May a phreatic explosion from a vent on the upper NW flank of Bulusan generated an ash plume that rose 250 m before drifting W. Seismic data indicated that the event lasted 3.5 minutes. Traces of ash were reported in Sitio Tulay of Bagsangan Barangay, and in the Cogon, Monbon, and Tinampo Barangays. The Alert Level was raised to 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). During 8-9 and 11-12 May diffuse white emissions rose from vents on the SW and upper NW flanks.PHIVOLCS reported that at 0809 on 1 May a steam-and-ash explosion from Bulusan was detected for five minutes by the seismic network. Dense rain clouds at the summit prevented visual observations at the time, but during a clear period around 1030 gray-white steam plumes were observed rising 200 m above the NW vent and drifting WNW. Minor ashfall affected areas to the W and NW, including Bolos, Cogon, Gulang-Gulang, Sangkayon, Tinampo, and Umagom in Irosin, Sorsogon, and Puting Sapa in Juban, Sorsogon. Only five volcanic earthquakes had been recorded during the past week prior to the event; after the event the network detected 62 volcanic earthquakes within an eight-hour period. Alert Level 0 and the 4-km restricted zone, the Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ), were maintained due to the possibility of sudden and hazardous steam-driven or phreatic eruptions. Luzon's southernmost volcano, Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 36,000 years ago. Bulusan lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic Bulusan complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit of 1565-m-high Bulusan volcano is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Bulusan since the mid-19th century.

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Mayon volcano - Philippines

INDONESIA Volcanoes activity VSI - CVGHM reports : Recent events in 2014- 2015

Merapi (Java) - PVMBG reported that during 30 May-5 June 2014 seismicity at Merapi fluctuated at normal levels and declined as compared to the previous two weeks. Deformation measurements showed no significant changes. Solfatara plumes rose 400 m and drifted W on 31 May. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4).PVMBG reported that during 16-22 May 2014 seismicity at Merapi fluctuated at normal levels and deformation measurements showed no significant changes. Solfatara plumes rose 300 m and drifted W on 27 May. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 23 May. PVMBG reported that seismicity at Merapi decreased during 9-15 May, as compared to the previous week. Thumping noises continued to be reported from multiple observation posts, and on 12 May fumarolic plumes rose 350 m. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 29 April. PVMBG reported that during 2-8 May white plumes rose as high as 650 m above Merapi. Thumping noises continued to be reported from multiple observation posts. Seismicity fluctuated but remained above background levels. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 29 April.PVMBG reported that during 20-29 April 2014 seismicity at Merapi increased and thumping sounds were heard within an 8 km radius. On 25 April white fumarolic plumes rose 450 m and drifted W. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 29 April.PVMBG reported that field observations of Merapi conducted two days after the explosion on 20 April 2014 revealed that a fracture in the dome had widened 70 m to the W, and new material had been deposited in the W part of the crater. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4).PVMBG reported that Merapi observers at the Ngepos post noted white plumes rising 300 m above the lava dome on 15 April 2014. Seismicity increased during 18-20 April. During 0426-0440 on 20 April an explosion occurred and rumbling was heard in areas as far as 8 km away. Ash plumes were observed from some observations posts, but foggy conditions prevented views from others. Based on satellite images and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 260 km WNW. PVMBG noted that ashfall was reported in areas within 15 km S, SW, and W. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4).PVMBG reported explosions from Merapi on 9 March 2014. An explosion detected at 0654 was followed by a plume observed on CCTV from Pasarbubar that drifted W. Two Explosions were also recorded at 0655. At 0708 a volcanic earthquake occurred and CCTV in Market Bubar recorded brown plumes that rose 1.5 km above the crater. At 0730 ash fell in the villages of Umbulharjo (30 km S), Kepuharjo, Sidorejo (27 km NNE), and Balerante (6 km SSE). During 14-20 March dense gas plumes rose 600 m. Seismicity was at normal levels. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4). The Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately N of the major city of Yogyakarta. The steep-sided modern Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, was constructed to the SW of an arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated and inhabited lands on the volcano's western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time. The volcano is the object of extensive monitoring efforts by the Merapi Volcano Observatory (MVO).

Tangkubanparahu volcano ( Java) - PVMBG reported a phreatic eruption from Tangkubanparahu at 0621 on 5 October. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). As of the 8th of October CVGHM reported that activity continues characterized by small explosive eruptions and increase in earthquakes. Aall signs that the unrest that started last fall is persists. The volcano had a series of smaller phreatic explosions this past spring, but the increase in seismicity over the last year could suggest new magma continues to rise up into the system at Tangkubanparahu. So far, the activity has been fairly minor, but with all of these Indonesian volcanoes, abundant precautions need to be taken due to the proximity of populated areas to the volcanoes. The PVBMG raised the alert status at Tangkuban Perahu to Level 2 (of 4). CVGHM reported that phreatic eruptions from Tangkubanparahu's Ratu Crater occurred on 28 February 2013 and during 4-6 March, and generated ash plumes that rose up to 100 m above the crater. Sulfur dioxide emissions increased to a high level on 24 February and then decreased through 3 March. Sulfur dioxide emissions again increased during 5-9 March; CVGHM speculated that the increase was due to an enlargement of the eruptive vent, which had grown to a diameter of 20 m. Gas emissions decreased abruptly on 10 March and emission sounds stopped. Seismicity had significantly increased on 22 February, marked by a growing number of daily events. A significant decrease was detected on 9 March. Deflation was detected from 24 February through early March, but was then stable during 7-14 March. On 18 March the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4). CVGHM reported that on 21 February tremor increased at tangkubanparahu and diffuse ash emissions rose from Ratu Crater. Based on the seismicity, visual observations, and temperature increases of the land around the crater, the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and visitors were reminded not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. Tangkubanparahu is a broad shield-like stratovolcano overlooking Indonesia's former capital city of Bandung that was constructed within the 6 x 8 km Pleistocene Sunda caldera. The volcano's low profile is the subject of legends referring to the mountain of the "upturned boat." The rim of Sunda caldera forms a prominent ridge on the western side; elsewhere the caldera rim is largely buried by deposits of Tangkubanparahu volcano. The dominantly small phreatic historical eruptions recorded since the 19th century have originated from several nested craters within an elliptical 1 x 1.5 km summit depression. Tangkubanparahu last erupted in September 1983, when ash rose up to 150 m above the rim of Kawah Ratu. (GVN/GVP)

Dieng volcano complex (Java) - PVMBG noted that due to decreased activity and no observable flow of gas in
high concentrations from the crater the Alert Level for Dieng was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 11 August. Residents and visitors were advised to not enter the crater and to be vigilant if excavating to depths greater than 1 m around the crater.CVGHM reported that on 28 March 2013 gas emissions continued to be elevated at Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Plumes containing carbon dioxide drifted 2 km towards the S valley of Kali Sat, prompting a road closure until the early evening when the gas concentration decreased. On 30 March carbon dioxide gas emissions were not detected; however, "smoke" rose at most 100 m above the crater. Hydrogen sulfide odors were very potent in areas 1 km W and weak in areas 1.5 km S. On 19 April sulfur dioxide odors were reported. On 24 March Sileri Crater lake water changed from dark gray to brown. On 7 April white plumes rose 50 m and the water color returned to normal. Diffuse white plumes rose 15 m on 20 April. Other craters had not exhibited any changes by 28 April. Based on gas concentrations, seismicity, and visual observations, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 May and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 500-m radius. The Dieng plateau in the highlands of central Java is renowned both for the variety of its volcanic scenery and as a sacred area housing Java's oldest Hindu temples, dating back to the 9th century AD. The Dieng volcanic complex consists of two or more stratovolcanoes and more than 20 small craters and cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age over a 6 x 14 km area. Prahu stratovolcano was truncated by a large Pleistocene caldera, which was subsequently filled by a series of dissected to youthful cones, lava domes, and craters, many containing lakes. Lava flows cover much of the plateau, but have not occurred in historical time, when activity has been restricted to minor phreatic eruptions. Toxic volcanic gas emission has caused fatalities and is a hazard at several craters. The abundant thermal features that dot the plateau and high heat flow make Dieng a major geothermal prospect.

Kawah Ijen volcano (Java) - PVMBG noted that due to decreased volcanic seismicity the Alert Level for Ijen was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 11 August 2014. Residents and visitors were advised to not approach the crater rim or crater floor. Previously, past year,CVGHM reported that during 1 July-25 August 2013 diffuse white plumes rose 100-150 m above Ijen's crater, the lake water was light green, and seismicity decreased. On 26 August the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors, tourists, miners, and hikers were reminded not to approach the crater within 1 km. Previously, CVGHM reported that, although weather conditions at Ijen often prevented views of the volcano during 1-24 July 2012, white plumes were occasionally observed rising 50-100 m above the crater. Seismicity indicated unrest, and along with visual observations, prompted CVGHM to raise the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 24 July. CVGHM reported that during 1-30 April white plumes from Ijen rose 100-200 m above the crater; during 1-11 May diffuse white plumes rose 50-100 m. From the beginning of April until 13 May the amplitude and number of earthquakes gradually decreased and the crater lake water temperature decreased by eight degrees Celsius. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 13 May. On 24 March 2012, CVGHM reported that Ijen's lake water chemistry changed during 10 January-17 March, exhibiting a significant increase in carbon dioxide, especially after 5 February, and an increase in acidity. The lake surface temperature increased from 28.8 degrees Celsius on 3 March to 45.1 degrees Celsius on 17 March. The lake water temperature at a depth of 5 m also rose from 42.7 to 44.7 degrees Celsius on 3 and 17 March, respectively. Seismicity increased starting in March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). CVGHM raised the Alert Level for Ijen from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 March because of increased seismicity and visual observations. On 10 March scientists observed some plant damage around the crater lake and a 10-m-wide area of disrupted water on the crater-lake surface.CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Ijen from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 February based on decreased seismicity and visual observations of white plumes rising as high as 300 m above the crater. In addition, a decrease in lake water temperature was measured, which ranged from 42 degrees Celsius on 20 January to 37 degrees on 2 February. The Ijen volcano complex consists of a group of small stratovolcanoes constructed within the large 20-km-wide Ijen (Kendeng) caldera. The N caldera wall forms a prominent arcuate ridge, but elsewhere the caldera rim is buried by post-caldera volcanoes, including Gunung Merapi stratovolcano, which forms the 2,799 m high point of the Ijen complex. Immediately W of Gunung Merapi is the renowned historically active Kawah Ijen volcano, which contains a nearly 1-km-wide, turquoise-colored, acid crater lake. The picturesque lake is the site of a labor-intensive sulfur mining operation, in which sulfur-laden baskets are hand-carried from the crater floor. A half dozen small-to-moderate phreatic eruptions have taken place from Kawah Ijen during the 20th century.

Papandayan volcano (Java) - PVMBG reported that during 1-11 June shallow volcanic earthquakes at Papandayan occurred at an average rate of 26 events/day. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post; observers noted white plumes rising at most 50 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius. PVMBG reported that during 22 April-25 May seismicity at Papandayan was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes but also consisted of volcanic earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, tremor, and local and remote tectonic earthquakes. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post; observers noted white plumes rising at most 30 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius. PVMBG reported that during 1 March-21 April seismicity at Papandayan was dominated by shallow volcanic earthquakes but also consisted of volcanic earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, and local and remote tectonic earthquakes. Visual monitoring occurred from the Pakuwon Village post; observers noted white plumes rising at most 100 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius..Papandayan is a complex stratovolcano with four large summit craters, the youngest of which was breached to the NE by collapse during a brief eruption in 1772 and contains active fumarole fields. The broad 1.1-km-wide, flat-floored Alun-Alun crater truncates the summit of Papandayan, and Gunung Puntang to the N gives the volcano a twin-peaked appearance. Several episodes of collapse have given the volcano an irregular profile and produced debris avalanches that have impacted lowland areas beyond the volcano. Since its first historical eruption in 1772, in which a catastrophic debris avalanche destroyed 40 villages, only two small phreatic eruptions have occurred from vents in the NE-flank fumarole field, Kawah Mas. (GVN/GVP)

Mount Semeru ( Java) - PVMBG reported that white plumes and grayish white plumes from Semeru rose as high as 600 m above the crater during January-20 April, although inclement weather often prevented observations. Seismicity fluctuated, and was dominated by explosions and emission signals. During January incandescent avalanches from lava-flow fronts traveled 100-300 m. Eruptions were heard five times during 16-28 February. Nine explosions were heard
during 1-15 March; minor ashfall from one of the explosions fell on the observation post. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale from 1-4); visitors and residents were warned to avoid the SE flank within 4 km of the crater.PVMBG reported that during 1 January-10 April 2015 white and gray plumes were observed rising above Semeru even though inclement weather sometimes prevented visual observations. During January white plumes and nine instances of grayish-white plumes rose 200-500 m above the crater. Seven incandescent avalanches from a lava-flow front traveled at most 300 m down the flank. In February white plumes and 19 instances of grayish-white plumes rose 200-600 m above the crater. Eruption sounds were reported five times. In March white plumes and 21 instances of grayish-white plumes rose 200-500 m above the crater. Nine explosions were heard. During 1-10 April there were 18 instances of grayish-white emissions. Seismicity from 1 January through 10 April fluctuated, and was dominated by emission and explosion signals. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was reminded not to approach the crater within a 4-km radius. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The volcano, rises abruptly to 3676 m above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano. Semeru has been in almost continuous eruption since 1967. (GVN/GVP)

Lokon Empung (Sulawesi) - PVMBG reported that during 10-17 June observers at the Lokon Observation Post in Kakaskasen Tomohon, North Sulawesi (4 km from the crater) reported that although inclement weather sometimes obscured views of Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan Crater, white plumes were observed rising as high as 450 m above
the crater. The number of volcanic earthquakes fluctuated and signals indicating emissions were detected almost daily. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach Tompaluan Crater within a radius of 2.5 km. PVMBG reported that an eruption at 1520 on 20 May from Lokon-Empung's Tompaluan Crater generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km and drifted NNW. The eruption was accompanied by loud "thumping" noises heard at the local observation post. During 21-27 May white plumes rose as high as 150 m. Seismicity fluctuated but slightly decreased overall. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not
to approach Tompaluan Crater within a radius of 2.5 km. PVMBG reported that during 6-13 May 2015 observers of Lokon-Empung noted white plumes rising 25-50 m above Tompaluan Crater, although inclement weather often prevented observations. Seismicity fluctuated but slightly decreased overall. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were reminded not to approach Tompaluan Crater within a radius of 2.5 km. Based on ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 20 May. Inclement weather prevented satellite views of the volcano. The twin volcanoes Lokon and Empung, rising about 800 m above the plain of Tondano, are among the most active volcanoes of Sulawesi. Lokon, the higher of the two peaks (whose summits are only 2.2 km apart), has a flat, craterless top. The morphologically younger Empung volcano has a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep crater that erupted last in the 18th century, but all subsequent eruptions have originated from Tompaluan, a 150 x 250 m wide double crater situated in the saddle between the two peaks. Historical eruptions have primarily produced small-to-moderate ash plumes that have occasionally damaged croplands and houses, but lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows have also occurred.GVN/GVP)

Bromo volcano - Tengger caldera - (Java) - PVMBG reported that during 1 April-25 May white plumes from Tengger
Caldera's Bromo cone rose 50 m above the crater. A sulfur dioxide odor was noted at the Bromo observation post. Seismicity was dominated by tremor, but also included volcanic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were warned not to approach the crater within a radius of 1 km.
PVMBG reported that during January-10 April white plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 50-100 m above the crater. A sulfur dioxide odor was noted at the Bromo observation post. Seismicity was dominated by tremor, but also included volcanic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were warned not to approach the crater within a radius of 1 km.PVMBG reported that during January-10 April 2015 white plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 50-100 m above the crater. A sulfur dioxide odor was noted at the Bromo observation post. Seismicity was dominated by tremor, but also consisted of volcanic earthquakes, shallow volcanic earthquakes, and distant tectonic earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were warned not to approach the crater within a radius of 1 km. The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley. The most recent of the calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes.

Slamet volcano ( central Java ) - PVMBG reported that during 21 April-21 May dense white plumes rose as high as 700 m above Slamet's crater. Seismicity consisted of emission signals and tremor; RSAM values fluctuated. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were warned to not approach the crater within a radius of 2 km.
PVMBG reported that during 1 February-10 April 2015 dense white plumes rose 50-800 m above Slamet's crater. Seismicity consisted of emission signals and tremor; emission signals started to increase on 18 February and periods of continuous tremor were recorded during 21-22 and 28-29 March. RSAM values fluctuated but rose overall. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were warned to not approach the crater within a radius of 2 km.PVMBG reported that during 1 November-5 January 2015 white plumes rose at most 1.5 km above Slamet's crater. RSAM values fluctuated but decreased overall in December through 5 January. Deformation and geochemical data showed no significant changes. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 January. Residents and tourists were warned to not approach the crater within a radius of 2 km. PVMBG reported that during 13-16 September white plumes rose 50-200 m above Slamet's crater. An explosion on 17 September produced a dense blackish-gray ash plume that rose as high as 1.2 km and drifted S and SW. Incandescent material was ejected 200-500 m high and booming noises were reported. Ash fell in areas as far as 20 km S. Although white plumes mostly rose from the crater the next day, an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted W. Slamet is composed of two overlapping edifices, an older basaltic-andesite to andesitic volcano on the west and a younger basaltic to basaltic-andesite one on the east. Gunung Malang II cinder cone on the upper eastern flank on the younger edifice fed a lava flow that extends 6 km to the east. Four craters occur at the summit of Gunung Slamet, with activity migrating to the SW over time. Historical eruptions, recorded since the 18th century, have originated from a 150-m-deep, 450-m-wide, steep-walled crater at the western part of the summit and have consisted of explosive eruptions generally lasting a few days to a few weeks. (GVN/GVP)

Gamalama (Ternate) - PVMBG reported that during March-22 April diffuse white plumes rose as high as 50 m above Gamalama; on 7 April the plumes became dense and rose 100 m. Seismicity fluctuated but remained generally low. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach the crater within a radius of 1.5 km. Gamalama (Peak of Ternate) is a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire island of Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera and is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. The island of Ternate was a major regional center in the Portuguese and Dutch spice trade for several centuries, which contributed to the thorough documentation of Gamalama's historical activity. Three cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit of Gamalama, which reaches 1715 m. Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the volcano. Eruptions, recorded frequently since the 16th century, typically originated from the summit craters, although flank
eruptions have occurred in 1763, 1770, 1775, and 1962-63. (GVN/GVP)

Dempoi volcano (Sumatra)- Observers at the PVMBG Dempo observation post reported that during 0730-0900 on 27 April 2015 diffuse gray-white plumes rose 50 m above Dempo crater. Seismicity had increased during April as compared to the previous month. On 29 April the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale from 1-4). Visitors and residents were advised not to go within a 1-km radius of the summit. Dempo is a prominent 3173-m-high stratovolcano that rises above the Pasumah Plain of SE Sumatra. The andesitic Dempo volcanic complex has two main peaks, Gunung Dempo and Gunung Marapi, constructed near the SE rim of a 3 x 5 km caldera breached to the north. The one called Dempo is
slightly lower, with an elevation of 3049 m and lies at the SE end of the summit complex. The taller Marapi cone, with a summit elevation 3173 m, was constructed within a crater cutting the older Gunung Dempo edifice. Remnants of 7 craters are found at or near the summit of the complex, with volcanism migrating to the WNW with time. The large, 800 x 1100 m wide historically active summit crater cuts the NW side of Gunung Marapi (not to be confused with Marapi volcano 500 km to the NW in Sumatra) and contains a 400-m-wide lake located at the far NW end of the crater complex. Historical
eruptions have been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive activity that produced ashfall near the volcano. (GVN/GVP)

Raung volcano ( Java island) - PVMBG reported that, during times of clear weather during 1-28 June, white plumes were observed rising as high as 300 m above Raung's crater rim. Rumbling was frequently heard at the observation post. Seismic tremor sharply increased on 21 June, and crater incandescence was observed on 25 and 28 June. BNPB reported that increased activity on 28 June was characterized by Strombolian activity, roaring, ash plumes that rose 300 m,
and a loud thumping sound heard 20 km away at 2000. Incandescence from the crater was clearly visible from the observation post in Banyuwangi. PVMBG raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 29 June, and reminded
the public not to approach the crater within a 3-km radius.PVMBG reported that, during infrequent times of clear weather during February-21 May 2014, gray and gray-to-brown plumes were observed rising as high as 300 m above Raung's crater rim. Rumbling was frequently heard at the observation post. Crater incandescence was observed during February and on 12 April. Seismicity fluctuated and was dominated by tremor. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were reminded not to approach the craters within a 2-km radius. Raung, one of Java's most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The 3332-m-high, unvegetated summit of Gunung Raung is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the west flank produced a large debris avalanche that traveled 79 km from the volcano, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and west, respectively.

Kerinci volcano (Sumatra) - PVMBG reported that during May-8 June 2015 white plumes from Kerinci rose 50-100 m and drifted E. Seismicity was dominated by signals indicating emissions (100-110 per day on average) as well as volcanic earthquakes (1 per day on average). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 3 km of the summit. PVMBG reported that during 1 February-21 May 2015 white plumes from Kerinci rose 50-150 m and drifted E and W. Seismicity during 1-21 May was dominated by signals indicating emissions (100-110 per day on average) as well as volcanic earthquakes (1 per day on average). The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 3 km of the summit. During 1 February-13 April 2015 white plumes rose 50-150 m and drifted E and W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 3 km of the summit. The 3800-m-high Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. Kerinci is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. The volcano contains a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit of Kerinci. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. The frequently active Gunung Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838. Latest activity occurred in June 2013

Sinabung volcano (Sumatra) - Summary from the beginning of the eruption - PVMBG reported that foggy weather sometimes prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 22-29 June. White plumes rose as high as 500 m above the
crater, and lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 3 km S and SE. Multiple pyroclastic flows per day during 22-26 and 28 June traveled 2.5-4 km down the flanks from the SSE to the SE. One pyroclastic flow was observed on 27 June. Ash plumes rose generally 3.5 km on most days, drifting E, SE, and S, although an ash plume rose as high as 5 km on 25 June. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. Deformation data showed a trend of inflation. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the SSE sector, and within 6 km in the ESE sector, should evacuate.BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high. On 17 June there were 120 avalanches, four pyroclastic flows that traveled 2-3 km ESE and S, and lava was incandescent as far as 2 km S and SE. On 18 June a pyroclastic flow traveled 2.5 km SE and incandescent lava as far as 1.5 km SE was observed. Based on ground observations, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE during 18-22 June. On 23 June BNPB noted that 10,184 people (3,030 families) were displaced, housed in 10 different shelters. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4).
BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high. On 13 June six eruptions generated ash plumes that rose 1-2 km high and pyroclastic flows that traveled as far as 3 km SE. At 2140 about 200 people from Sukanalu village were ordered to evacuate. The report noted that 2,053 families (6,179 people) had been living in temporary shelters since June 2014. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). On 5 June BNPB reported that the Alert-Level increase for Sinabung on 2 June prompted 2,727 people (677 families) from the S and SE flanks to evacuate. PVMBG reported that foggy weather often prevented visual observations during 5-10 June, except for a few clearer periods on some days. White plumes rose at most 1 km above the crater, and lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km S and SE. Pyroclastic flows traveled 0.7-1.3 km daily down the S and SE flanks. Ash plumes from pyroclastic flows rose as high as 1 km during 5-6 and 10 June. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported that foggy weather often prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 25 May-2 June, except for a few clearer periods on some days. White plumes rose 200-700 m above the crater, and lava flows on the flanks were incandescent as far as 2 km S and SE. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2-3 km down the S and SE flanks during 26-28 May. An ash plume from a pyroclastic flow on 28 May rose into the fog. Two pyroclastic flows occurred on 2 June but fog prevented visual observations. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tremor, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. Deformation data showed a trend of inflation. The Alert Level was raised to 4 (on a scale of 1-4), indicating that people within 7 km of the volcano on the S to E flanks should evacuate. On 3 June BNPB reported that the lava dome volume had increased to more than 3 million cubic meters and was unstable.PVMBG reported that foggy weather often prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 19-25 May, except for a few clearer periods on some days. White plumes rose as high as 800 m during 19-20 and 22-24 May. Lava from the lava dome was active as far as 1.5 km S during 21-23 May. On 24 May a pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km down the S flank and produced an ash plume that rose 500 m. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; RSAM values increased due to an increase of avalanche signals. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions. PVMBG reported that foggy weather prevented visual observations of Sinabung during 4-12 May, except for a few clearer periods on some days. On 4 May dense white-to-gray plumes rose 700 m above the summit. During 7-11 May white plumes rose as high as 700 m. Lava from the dome traveled 1 km S on 10 May. A pyroclastic flow originating from the lava dome traveled 3 km S on 12 May, and produced ash plumes mainly obscured by fog. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes; levels declined overall. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.PVMBG reported that during 6-12 April white plumes rose as high as 500 m above Sinabung; misty conditions prevented observations on 13 April. Lava was incandescent as far from the lava dome as 1.5 km S and SE. The main lava flow remained 2.9 km long. After pyroclastic flows descended the flanks on 2 April, a new lava flow from the growing lava dome formed near the crater and traveled 170 m SSE. Recorded seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Overall seismicity decreased compared to 30 March-6 April. Tilt and EDM (Electronic Distance Measurement) data fluctuated but showed overall deflation. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions. According to social media sources, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 April an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and a pyroclastic flow descended the flank. Meteorological cloud cover prevented satellite observations.PVMBG reported that during 6-12 April white plumes rose as high as 500 m above Sinabung; misty conditions prevented observations on 13 April. Lava was incandescent as far from the lava dome as 1.5 km S and SE. The main lava flow remained 2.9 km long. After pyroclastic flows descended the flanks on 2 April, a new lava flow from the growing dome formed near the crater and traveled 170 m SSE. Seismicity consisted of avalanche signals, low-frequency and hybrid events, local and far tectonic events, and volcanic earthquakes. Overall seismicity decreased compared to 30 March-6 April. Tilt and EDM (Electronic Distance Measurement) data fluctuated but showed overall deflation. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 6 km on the S, 5 km on the SE, and 3 km in other directions Based on PVMBG notices, BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung increased on 1 April. Seismicity increased. Pyroclastic flows traveled 3.5 km S and produced ash plumes that rose 2 km and drifted SW. Avalanches were detected and incandescent lava was observed at night. On 2 April 2015 pyroclastic flows traveled 4 km S and 1 km SE. Avalanches continued. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km on the S and SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.Based on report from PVMBG, new pyroclastic flows episode started at Sinabung on 2nd of April. Several Pyroclatic flows travelled more than 3 4km on the flank of the volcano and generated plume above the volcano Based on reports from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 March an eruption at Sinabung generated a plume that rose 3 km above the summit. Satellite images detected an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100-230 km WNW and NW. Later that day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km SW.
Based on satellite images and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 February an eruption from Sinabung generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 13.7 km (45,000 ft) a.s.l., drifted almost 540 km NW, and became detached. A lower-level eruption later that day produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on satellite images and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-12 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 30 km SE. Based on satellite images, weather models, and ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 9 February an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 10-30 km W.Based on satellite images and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 January an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 45 km NW. On 18 January BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high; low-frequency earthquakes and constant tremor were detected. A pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km S and ash plumes rose 700 m. The number of people that remained displaced was 2,443 (795 families). The Alert Level was at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).Based on satellite images, weather models, and ground observations, the Darwin VAAC reported an eruption from Sinabung on 10 January with an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in nearby areas at night on 11 January. During 12-13 January ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. BNPB reported that an eruption at Sinabung occurred during 0833-0919 on 3 January; this event was larger than the events that had been occurring almost daily. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2-4 km down the flanks and ash plumes rose as high as 3 km. Ashfall was reported in Payung (5 km SSW), Tiganderket (7 km W), Selandi (5 km SSW), Juhar (20 km SW), and Laubaleng (35 km WSW). Since the September 2013 onset of activity, 2,443 people (795 families) still remained displaced.Based on satellite images, webcam views, and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume from Sinabung drifted almost 30 km SW on 24 December. Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 10 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. The notice stated that the eruption was more significant and higher than the intermittent pyroclastic flows observed during the previous week. Eruptions during 11-16 December produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.3-6.1 km (14,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted at most 30 km N, NW, and W. Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Eruptions during 5-7 December produced ash plumes that drifted 2-20 km in multiple directions. On 4 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2-3 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that duirng 19-20 November eruptions from Sinabung produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Continuous dense white plumes and intermittent pyroclastic flows were also visible. During 22-23 November intermittent pyroclastic flows recorded by the webcam reached the base of the volcano. On 23 November an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S. On 14 November BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained elevated; avalanches occurred 79 times, and pyroclastic flows generated by three of the avalanches traveled 4 km S. Ash plumes rose 1 km and the lava flow was active 500 m down from the crater on the S and W flanks. The report stated that 2,986 people from 956 households remained displaced. The Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes drifting W, SW, and S were recorded by a webcam during 12-18 November. Dense white plumes and intermittent pyroclastic flows were visible on 19 November.The Darwin VAAC reported that eruptions from Sinabung were recorded by a webcam during 4-7 and 10-11 November. Based on a report from PVMBG, the VAAC reported that an eruption on 9 November produced an ash plume that rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km NW. Based on a pilot observation, the Darwin VAAC reported localized ash from Sinabung on 2 November, but a meteorological cloud in the area prevented further observations. A pyroclastic flow and an ash plume were recorded by the webcam on 3 November. The ash plume rose to an estimated altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE; the altitude of the ash plume was again uncertain due to meteorological cloud. On 4 November an ash plume observed with the webcam rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Based on webcam views, wind data models, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 23-27 October ash plumes rose from Sinabung. During 23-24 October ash plumes drifted 15-40 km N and SW. A small eruption observed on the webcam on 25 October produced a minor amount of ash that drifted SW; a later ash plume drifted almost 30 km WNW. The next day another eruption generated an ash plume that drifted E. Ash emissions on 27 October were recorded by the webcam. The VAAC noted that PVMBG reported an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and then dissipated. On 27 October BNPB reported that activity at Sinabung remained high; on 26 October pyroclastic flows traveled 3.5 km S and avalanches occurred multiple times. Hot ash clouds rose 2 km. The report stated that 3,284 people from 1,018 families remained in evacuation shelters. Based on webcam views and wind data models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-20 October daily small eruptions from Sinabung generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted 55 km NW during 15-17 October and ESE on 19 October.The Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption from Sinabung, observed in the webcam at 1248 on 8 October, generated a pyroclastic flow. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. (based on webcam views and wind models) and drifted E. Eruptions recorded at 0636 and 1107 on 9 October generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, based on webcam views and wind models. On 10 October satellite images and the webcam detected an ash plume drifting 55 km NE. An ash plume drifting SW at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. was recorded by the webcam on 11 October. On 14 October an ash plume was again recorded by the webcam and rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW.Based on reports from PVMBG, BNPB reported four eruptions from Sinabung on 5 October. The first one occurred at 0146, and produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled 4.5 km S and an ash plume that rose 2 km. The next three events, at 0638, 0736, and 0753, all generated pyroclastic flows that traveled 2.5-4.5 km S. The fourth event also produced an ash plume that rose 3 km. A news article stated that pyroclastic flows from a fifth event at 0900 were smaller, but again traveled 4.5 km after a sixth event at 1200. According to the Darwin VAAC a low-level eruption recorded by the PVMBG webcam generated a pyroclastic flow on 6 October; some of the ash rose higher and drifted E. The Jakarta MWO noted that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S on 7 October. Cloud cover prevented satellite observations. A news article posted on 8 October noted that eruptions in the previous four days caused some evacuations. According to news articles a pyroclastic flow at Sinabung traveled 2 km SE down the flanks at 1343 on 24 September 2014. The height of a corresponding ash plume could not be determined because it rose into the cloud cover. About 4,700 people remained in evacuation shelters. On 30 September at 1720 an ash plume rose 2 km and a pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km. PVMBG reported that RSAM values from Sinabung were low and stable during 12-20 September. Earthquake signals indicating lava-dome instability were recorded and had increased from 96 to 110 events/day since the 5-11 September period. Seismicity also continued to signify growth of the main lava flow on the flanks; incandescent lava was visible at the top, middle, and front of the lava flow. The length of the lava flow was 2.9 km on 6 September. White and sometimes bluish plumes rose as high as 1 km above the lava dome. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2.5 km SE on 15 September and 2 km S on 18 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Eruptive activity is still continuing. As of the 10th of July, a short pyroclastic flow occurred (about 1000 m long) went down toward the Soutwest flank of the volcano. previously, after more than a month of dome growth and lava flows, PVMBG reported that Sinabung erupted explosively again on 29 June 2014. The eruption plume rose to 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and pyroclastic flows extended 4.5 km SE. Visual observations were impeded by inclement weather. About 14,000 persons remain evacuated since September 2013. The Alert Level remains at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG reported visual monitoring of Sinabung during 1-17 June 2014 from the Ndokum Siroga village (~8.5 km of the summit). Dome growth continued and was accompanied by a lava flow that was frequently visibly incandescent. The observatory noted that the lava flow (particularly avalanches from the flow front) presented a threat to areas S and SE within a 5 km radius from the summit. During this reporting period, seismicity was dominated by tremor associated with avalanches, and there was minor deformation. Alert Level 3 was maintained (on a scale of 1-4). Based on webcam images, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 April an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km W.PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 23 March-8 April 2014 based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose at most 1.2 km above the lava dome. Lava had traveled 2.5 km down the flanks as of 6 April and was incandescent at various locations. Incandescent material originating from the edges of the lava dome and flow traveled up to 2 km S and 500 m SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome decreased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied but were relatively insignificant. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km on the S and SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.Based on webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 March an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. Meteorological cloud cover prevented satellite views. Gas emissions were noted on 30 March. PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 15-22 March based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose 500 m above the lava dome daily, and as high as 1 km on 21 March. Lava had traveled 2.4 km down the flanks as of 20 March and was incandescent at various areas. Incandescent material originating from the edges of the lava dome and flow traveled up to 1.5 km S and 200 m SE. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3 km S on 17 March. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome decreased slightly. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied between 300 and 598 tons per day, indicating no new magma. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 8-15 March based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose from the lava dome daily, as high as 1 km on most days; plumes rose 2 km on 12 March. Incandescent material originating from various parts of the lava dome traveled up to 2 km S and SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome increased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied between 300 and 598 tons per day. Observations on 13 March showed that lava from the dome had flowed 2.4 km downslope. The report also noted that three people burned during a pyroclastic flow on 1 February later died in the hospital bringing the total number of casualties from that day to 17. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.Based on wind data, satellite images, and webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-7 and 9-11 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4 km (12,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW. Ash plumes drifted 35-165 km SW and W during 6 and 9-11 March.Based on wind data, webcam images, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25 February-1 March and 3-4 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4 km (10,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km E, NE, N, NW, W, and SW. On 19 February 2014 BNPB reported that villagers outside of the 5-km evacuation zone around Sinabung continued to return to their homes. Based on wind data and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19 and 21-22 February ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-35 km NE and SW. Ash plumes were visible in webcam images during 23-25 February; ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. on 25 February and drifted 45 km E. On 24 February BNPB noted that 16,361 people remained in 34 evacuation shelters. Dense white plumes rose 100-300 m above the dome and incandescent material as far as 2 km SE from the dome was observed. previously,b ased on webcam images, Indonesian Met office notices, wind data, and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-13 and 15-18 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-95 km N, NE, and E. On 16 February BNPB reported that villagers outside of the 5-km evacuation zone around Sinabung slowly return to their homes.Based on reports from PVMBG, BNPB reported on 8 and 9 February 2014 that seismicity at Sinabung continued to be dominated by hybrid earthquakes, indicating pressure below the crater and a growing lava dome. Earthquakes associated with avalanches increased. The 9 February report noted that the number of displaced people reached 32,351 (9,991 families) in 42 evacuation centers. Refugees from 17 villages outside the 5-km radius were allowed to return to their homes, starting with four villages during the first phase.PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 24-31 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. On 24 January dense white plumes rose as high as 1 km. During 25-26 and 28-31 January dense grayish-white plumes rose 0.1-1.5 km; on 27 January plumes rose 4 km. Each day pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km SE and S. Incandescent material was observed 0.2-1.5 km SE of the vent. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes continued to decrease. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that between 1200 and 1800 on 23 January pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5 km down Sinabung's S flank. The number of displaced people reached 28,715 (9,045 families) in 42 evacuation centers. Based on webcam views, satellite images, ground reports, and altitude and drift directions derived from wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-23 and 25-27 January ash plumes rose to an altitude 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-185 km N, NE, and E. PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 10-17 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Each day brownish white or gray and white ash plumes rose as high as 5 km, pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km E, SE, and S, and incandescent material was observed on the S and SE flanks as far as 3 km. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes continued to drop, however. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 3-10 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Each day ash plumes rose as high as 5 km, pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km E, SE, and S, and incandescent material was observed as far as 2 km SE and E. Roaring was periodically heard and burned trees on the S flank were noted on 4 January. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes dropped dramatically, however. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 7 km on the SE flank and 5 km elsewhere. Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that the number of hybrid earthquakes decreased on 11 January and volcanic earthquakes increased. Ash plumes rose 1-5 km and drifted W, and pyroclastic flows traveled 1-4.5 km SE and 1 km E. Several villages in the Namanteran district reported ashfall. The 11 January report noted that the number of displaced people reached 25,516 (7,898 families) in 38 evacuation centers.Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that during 30-31 December 2013 Sinabung continued to be very active. Ash plumes rose as high as 7 km above the lava dome, pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 3.5 km SE, and incandescent avalanches traveled 1.5 km SE. On 3 January 2014 the lava dome continued to grow and collapse. Pyroclastic flows occurred 172 times and traveled 2-4 km SE, and ash plumes rose 2-6 km. Two villages located 6.5 km SE, Jerawa and Desa Pintu Besi, were evacuated. On 4 January pyroclastic flows were larger and more frequent. They continued to travel up to 5 km SE as well as 3.5 km SSE. Ash plumes rose 2-4 km. On 5 January the number of hybrid earthquakes increased, indicating a growing lava dome, and pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5-4.5 km SE. During 4-5 January pyroclastic flows were recorded 426 times. On 7 January ash plumes rose 1-6 km and drifted SW, and pyroclastic flows continued to travel 1.5-4.5 km SE. The number of refugees reached 22,145. PVMBG reported that seismicity at Sinabung increased during 21-26 December and indicated rising magma and lava-dome growth. Observers in Ndokum Siroga, about 8.5 km away, noted dense white plumes rising 70-1,200 m above the crater. Roaring was also periodically heard. A lava dome in the North Crater, visible on 24 December, was 56 m high and 210 m wide. During 25-26 December plumes were white and gray, and rose 300-400 m above the crater. On 26 December the lava-dome volume was estimated to be over 1 million cubic meters, with a growth rate of 3.5 cubic meters per second. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km. On 30 December Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that the number of displaced people reached 19,126 (5, 979 families). They also noted that activity at Sinabung had increased. Collapsing parts of the lava dome generated block-and-ash flows as well as pyroclastic flows which traveled as far as 3.5 km down the SE flank. Explosions and pyroclastic flows generated ash plumes that rose at least 6 km above the crater.PVMBG reported that observers in Ndokum Siroga, about 8.5 km away, noted gray plumes rising 1 km above Sinabung on 6 December 2013. Grayish-white plumes rose as high as 400 m on 7 December, and dense white plumes also rose as high as 400 m the next day. Dense grayish-to-white plumes rose 70-200 m on 9 December. White plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater during 10-13 December. Tremor during 6-13 December was recorded continuously, with varying amplitude. The number of low-frequency earthquakes significantly increased on 7 December, and the number of hybrid earthquakes increased the next day. RSAM values had steadily increased since 28 November. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on webcam data, wind data, satellite image analysis, and PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 December 2013 an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Later that day and during 5-6 December ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 10 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW. A few hours later an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km NW. Based on webcam data and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-31 November and 2 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted 150 km W during 30-31 November and 55 km Won 2 December. On 3 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. According to a news report on 2 December, landslides killed nine people in the Gundaling village, 12 km E. As of the 25th of November 2013, CVGHM reported that explosive activity increasing again during the past days. Eight explosions occurred between Saturday and Sunday and many ashfalls occurred on villages around the volcano (0,5 -1 cm) and until the town of Medan (50 km North). CVGHM raised the Alert level to 4(AWAS) and exclusion zone radius to 3.5 km. About 19 villages with 15.000 people should be evacuated. VAAC raised the alert level for Airlines to Red because the ashplume rose to 7000 m high in the area. On 25 November Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that 17,713 people, out of the 20,270 residents living within 5 km, had been evacuated to 31 helters. Previous news :an explosion observed with the webcam on 18 November 2013 produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. About 30 minutes later an ash plume also visible in satellite images rose to an altitude of 11.3 km (37,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km W. Four hours later satellite images showed ash plumes at an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. to the W of Sinabung and at an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. over the crater. On 19 November the webcam recorded an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. over the crater. A news article stated that later that night that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. Based on webcam data and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 150 km NW and W. According to a news article, a pyroclastic flow traveled 1.2 km down the SE flank on 14 November, prompting more evacuations from villages near the base of the volcano. The article noted that more than 7,000 people had been evacuated from 10 villages. Based on information from the Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, webcam data, wind data, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The next day an ash plume rose to the same altitude but was not observed in satellite images due to meteorological cloud cover. According to webcam views an eruption on 8 November produced a low-level ash plume. The Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, the webcam, and satellite data detecting sulfur dioxide indicated two explosions on 10 November. The first one, at 0720, generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. The altitude of the second plume, from an explosion at 1600, was unknown. An ash plume on 11 November rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 20 km SW. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km NW.According to a news article posted on 12 November, more than 5,000 people from seven villages had evacuated their homes in recent days. The article noted that the government had called for an evacuation of people living within a 3-km radius of Sinabung, but people outside of that zone had also been evacuating. The 6th of November 2013 PVMBG(CVGHM) the new eruption occurred at 1423 on 5 November. This event lasted for 20 minutes and generated an ash plume up to 3,000 m above the crater that drifted SW. Rumbling sounds were also noted by staff at the observation post. Pyroclastic flows were observed at 1431; the flows extended 1 km down the SE flank. No casualties were reported due to the event. The evacuated residents remained displaced on 5 november.Previously, PVMBG reported that elevated seismicity, including events of continuous tremor, was ongoing since 29 October. Relatively small ash explosions were also reported prior to the larger events on 3 November. During 29 October-2 November plumes rose to 200-2,000 m above the summit. Gas measurements conducted during 31 October and 1-2 November showed an SO2 flux of 226-426 tons per day; this was a general decrease in emissions. During 31 October ashfall was noted on the SE flank up to 1 km from the summit. An eruption began at 0126 on 3 November that generated ash plumes up to 7 km a.s.l. (~23,000 ft) and triggered evacuations from communities within 3 km of the volcano (approximately 1,681 residents); the ash plume drifted W. Rumbling sounds that lasted up to 10 minutes long were noted by staff at the Sinabung Observation Post (~8.5 km from the volcano). News agencies reported that this was the second largest eruption since the 24 October event that displaced more than 3,300 people. The Alert Level was increased from Level II (Watch) to Level III (Alert) at 0300. A second eruption occurred in the afternoon. PVMBG reported that Sinabung had been erupting more frequently and with increasing energy.PVMBG reported that after 29 September, the day the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4), seismicity at Sinabung declined but continued to fluctuate through 22 October. White plumes were seen rising 100-300 m from the crater. On 22 October plumes were also grayish and rose 250 m. Vents appeared on the N flank and produced dense white plumes that rose 70 m. On 23 October landslides at two locations were observed, and explosions occurred at 1619 and 1651. Plumes rose from the summit crater and from a fracture formed on 15 October near Lau Kawar. Fog prevented observations for a period after the explosions; once the fog cleared dense gray plumes were observed. A third explosion occurred at 2100. On 24 October an explosion at 0550 generated an ash plume that rose 3 km and caused ashfall in areas S. Another explosion was detected at 0612. According to a news article about 3,300 people that evacuated their homes were mostly from two villages within 3 km of Sinabung, in the Karo district. CVGHM reported that seismicity at Sinabung fluctuated in 2012-2013, including during July-September 2013. During 1-14 September dense white plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater, and at 0255 on 14 September incandescence from the crater was observed. According to news articles an eruption at 0245 on 15 September produced an ash plume and ashfall in Sukameriah (50 km NE), Kutarayat, Kutagugung (16 km SW), and Berastagi (14 km E). About 3,000 people evacuated from areas within a 3-km radius of the volcano, and several flights at Medan's airport (55 km NW) were canceled. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). An eruption at 1203 on 17 September ejected tephra and a dense ash plume that rose higher than the plume from 15 September. According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km SE. On 18 September a low-level ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical, 2460-m-high andesitic-to-dacitic volcano is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. An unconfirmed eruption was noted in 1881, and solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks of Sinabung in 1912, although no confirmed historical eruptions were recorded prior to 2010.

Colo volcano (Sulawesi) - PVMBG PVMBG reports that seismicity at Colo significantly increased on 8 June 2015,
particularly volcanic and shallow-volcanic earthquakes; 12 volcanic earthquakes were recorded on 22 June (previously, 1-5 events per day had been recorded), and there were 11 shallow volcanic earthquakes on 23 June (previously, 1-8 events per day had been recorded). On 24 June the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). However, observers at the Colo
Volcano Observation Post in the Wakai village did not see plumes during April-23 June. Residents and tourists were warned not to approach the volcano within a radius of 1.5 km. Colo volcano forms the isolated small island of Una Una
in the middle of the Gulf of Tomini in northern Sulawesi. The broad, low volcano contains a 2-km-wide caldera with a small central cone. Only three eruptions have been recorded in historical time, but two of those caused widespread damage over much of the island. The last eruption, in 1983, produced pyroclastic flows that swept over most of the island shortly after
all residents had been evacuated. (GVN/GVP)


Dukono (Halmahera) - Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-75 km NEBased on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-4 and 6 June ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-100 km W, NW, N, and NE.Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 May an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km SE. On 2 June an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-19 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 17-19 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-75 km E and NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-10 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-110 km E and NE. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 April-3 May 2015 ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4-2.7 km (8,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-185 km E and SE.Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the N-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. Dukono is a complex volcano presenting a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of Dukono's summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

G. Karangetang (Siau Island)- PVMBG reported that on 18 June a lahar in Karangetang's Batuawang drainage (E) was 25 cm thick, carried boulders, and covered a 100-m section of roadway. The lahar also damaged or destroyed four homes. Based on observations conducted at the Karangetang Volcano Observation Post in the village of Salili, white plumes rose as high as 150 m above the main crater and 25 m above Crater II during 22-29 June. Incandescence from the lava dome was observed at night. Lava flowed from the S part of the dome; incandescent avalanches from the front the lava flow traveled as far as 2.3 km towards Batuawang and Kahetang drainages (E). Seismicity was dominated by signals characteristic of avalanches, and indicated that activity continued to be high. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach Karangetang within a 4-km radius.As of the 9th of June, eruptive activity is still continuing. On 5 June BNPB reported that activity at Karangetang remained high; a total of 339 people (106 families) remained displaced.Based on observations conducted at the Karangetang Volcano Observation Post in the village of Salili, PVMBG reported that white plumes rose as high as 400 m above Karangetang's main crater and 25 m above Crater II during 20-27 May. Incandescence from the lava dome was observed at night. Lava flows began to appear on 22 April; incandescent avalanches from the fronts of 300-m-long lava flows traveled as far as 2 km towards Batuawang and Kahetang drainages (E). Seismicity was dominated by signals characteristic of avalanches. Harmonic tremor was continuously detected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach Karangetang within a 4-km radius.Based on satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 May an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted almost 85 km E, and dissipated two days later. On 12 May an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km SW. Pyroclastic flow activity was also reported. BNPB reported that activity at Karangetang had increased. On 7 May at 1400 an eruption that ejected incandescent material and produced a dense ash plume also generated a pyroclastic flow that traveled as far as 4 km E, leveling four houses in Kora-Kora. There were no reported fatalities, and 465 people quickly evacuated. The next day pyroclastic flows descended the S flank 2.5 km, in the Kahetang (E) and Awang drainages. Incandescent material continued to be ejected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach Karangetang within a 4-km radius. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 50 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

Anak Krakatau ( Sunda Strait) - PVMBG reported that during 22 April-25 May diffuse white plumes rose 25 m above Anak Krakatau, although foggy weather often prevented observations. Seismicity was high during May, and continued to be dominated by shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater.
PVMBG reported that during 1 March-21 April diffuse white plumes rose 25-50 m above Anak Krakatau, although foggy weather often prevented observations. Seismicity continued to be dominated by shallow and deep volcanic earthquakes, as well as signals indicating emissions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were warned not to approach the volcano within 1 km of the crater. The renowned Krakatau volcano lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 AD, resulted in a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this volcano formed Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. The post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau), constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan, has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927. Live Webcam

Soputan volcano (Sulawesi) - PVMBG reported that during 10-17 June white plumes were observed rising as high as 500 m above Soputan even though inclement weather sometimes obscured crater views. Variable seismicity was dominated by volcanic earthquakes and signals indicating emissions and avalanches. Low-frequency harmonic tremor was occasionally detected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km, or 6.5 km on the WSW flank. PVMBG reported that during 20-27 May white plumes were observed rising as high as 100 m above Soputan even though inclement weather sometimes obscured crater views. Variable seismicity was dominated by volcanic earthquakes and signals indicating emissions and avalanches. Low-frequency harmonic tremor was occasionally detected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km, or 6.5 km on the WSW flank.PVMBG reported that during 6-13 May white plumes were observed rising as high as 100 m above Soputan even though inclement weather sometimes obscured crater views. Seismicity fluctuated; volcanic earthquakes continued to be recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km, or 6.5 km on the WSW flank.Based on information from PVMBG and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 March 2015 an eruption at Soputan generated ashplumes that rose to an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 260 km SE and SW. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images. The small Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano rises to 1784 m and is located SW of Sempu volcano. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924. Last previous eruption occured in 2008. VSI website

Ruang volcano (Sangihe Islands) - PVMBG reported that seismicity at Ruang decreased from 14 March through 2
June. Emissions were unobserved during periods of clear weather from 1 May through 2 June. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 3 June. Residents and tourists were warned not to approach the active craters.PVMBG reported that emissions from Ruang were unobserved during periods of clear weather from 1 January through 12 March 2015. Seismicity increased starting on 6 March prompting PVMBG to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 March. Residents and tourists were warned not to approach the craters within a 1.5-km radius. Ruang volcano, not to be confused with the better known Raung volcano on Java, is the southernmost volcano in the Sangihe Island arc, north of Sulawesi Island. The 4 x 5 km island volcano rises to 725 m across a narrow strait SW of the larger Tagulandang Island. The summit of Ruang volcano contains a crater partially filled by a lava dome initially emplaced in 1904. Explosive eruptions recorded since 1808 have often been accompanied by lava dome formation and pyroclastic flows that have damaged inhabited areas.

Batu Tara volcano (Flores) - Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-22 May ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 80 km W.
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-19 May ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-95 km W and NW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-9 May ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-85 km W and WNW.According to the Darwin VAAC a pilot observed an ash plume in the vicinity of Batu Tara on 7 April 2015 . The plume drifted NW at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Previously, based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 1 November 2014 ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 1.2-1.5 km (4,000-5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 95 km NE. The small isolated island of Batu Tara in the Flores Sea about 50 km north of Lembata (formerly Lomblen) Island contains a scarp on the eastern side similar to the Sciara del Fuoco of Italy's Stromboli volcano. Vegetation covers the flanks of Batu Tara to within 50 m of the 748-m-high summit. Batu Tara lies north of the main volcanic arc and is noted for its potassic leucite-bearing basanitic and tephritic rocks. The first historical eruption from Batu Tara, during 1847-52, produced explosions and a lava flow. The Current Colour Code for Batu Tara is ORANGE

Kelimutu (Flores) - CVGHM reported that on 3 June 2013 the water in Kelimutu's Crater II (Tiwu Nua Muri Kooh Tai Crater) turned from blue to a light brown color, “smoke” rose 50 m above the crater, “rustling water sounds” were heard near the wall of Crater I (Tiwu Ata Polo), and a sharp sulfur odor was noted. That evening a weak sulfur odor was reported in Pemo (3 km). Plants within 2 km S and SE appeared to have wilted. Based on seismicity from 20 May-2 June and visual observations on 3 June, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and warned the public not to approach the craters within a radius of 2 km and to avoid river valleys. Kelimutu is a small, but well-known Indonesian volcano in central Flores Island with three summit crater lakes of varying colors. The western lake, Tiwi Ata Mbupu (Lake of Old People) is commonly blue. Tiwu Nua Muri Kooh Tai (Lake of Young Men and Maidens) and Tiwu Ata Polo (Bewitched, or Enchanted Lake), which share a common crater wall, are commonly green- and red-colored, respectively, although lake colors vary periodically. Active upwelling, probably fed by subaqueous fumaroles, occurs at the two eastern lakes. The scenic lakes are a popular tourist destination and have been the source of minor phreatic eruptions in historical time. The summit of the compound 1639-m-high Kelimutu volcano is elongated 2 km in a WNW-ESE direction; the older cones of Kelido and Kelibara are located respectively 3 km to the north and 2 km to the south.

Lewotobi volcano (Flores Island) - PVMBG reported that white plumes were observed rising 15-20 m above Lewotobi during periods of clear weather from 1 February to 17 March 2015. Seismicity increased significantly on 13 March, especially volcanic earthquakes and shallow volcanic earthquakes; harmonic tremor, Tornillo events, and tectonic events were also detected. On 17 March the Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were warned not to approach the craters within a 1-km radius. The Lewotobi "husband and wife" twin volcano (also known as Lewetobi) in eastern Flores Island is composed of the Lewotobi Lakilaki and Lewotobi Perempuan stratovolcanoes. Their summits are less than 2 km apart along a NW-SE line. The conical 1584-m-high Lewotobi Lakilaki has been frequently active during the 19th and 20th centuries, while the taller and broader 1703-m-high Lewotobi Perempuan has erupted only twice in
historical time. Small lava domes have grown during the 20th century in the crescentic summit craters of both volcanoes, which are open to the north. A prominent flank cone, Iliwokar, occurs on the E flank of Lewotobi Perampuan. (GVN/GVP)

Marapi volcano (Sumatra) - PVMBG reported that during February-25 May diffuse white plumes rose as high as 300 m above Marapi, although inclement weather often prevented observations. Seismicity fluctuated. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 3 km of the summit.
According to news articles, an explosion at Marapi on 26 February produced an ash plume that caused ashfall in areas as far as 10 km S. According to PVMBG the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). According to a news article from 5 February 2014 four explosions from Marapi occurred in early February. One of the explosions was followed by ashfall in the Tarab River area and Batu Sangkar (17 km SE). Gunung Marapi, not to be confused with the better known Merapi volcano on Java, is Sumatra's most active volcano. Marapi is a massive complex stratovolcano that rises 2,000 m above the Bukittinggi plain in Sumatra's Padang Highlands. A broad summit contains multiple partially overlapping summit craters constructed within the small 1.4-km-wide Bancah caldera. The summit craters are located along an ENE-WSW line, along which volcanism has migrated to the W. More than 50 eruptions, typically consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been recorded since the end of the 18th century; no historical lava flows outside the summit craters have been reported.
(GVN/GVP)

Seulawah Agam volcano (Sumatra) - CVGHM reported that visual observations of Seulawah Agam during 27 December-2 January seismicity increased. Visual observations were prevented due to fog, although on 2 January scientists observed a new solfatara that produced roaring noises and was within 20 m of van Heutsz Crater on the NNE flank. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 3 January. Seulawah Agam at the NW tip of Sumatra is an extensively forested volcano of Pleistocene-Holocene age constructed within the large Pleistocene Lam Teuba caldera. A smaller 8 x 6 km caldera lies within Lam Teuba caldera. The summit contains a forested, 400-m-wide crater. The active van Heutsz crater, located at 650 m on the NNE flank of Suelawah Agam, is one of several areas containing active fumarole fields. Sapper (1927) and the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (CAVW) reported an explosive eruption in the early 16th century, and the CAVW also listed an eruption from the van Heutsz crater in 1839. Rock et al. (1982) found no evidence for historical eruptions. However the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia noted that although no historical eruptions have occurred from the main cone, the reported NNE-flank explosive activity may have been hydrothermal and not have involved new magmatic activity. (GVN/GVP)

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RUSSIA - Bezymianny volcano (Kamchatka)

September 20th, 2014

KVERT maintained Alert Level Yellow during the week of 12 September for Bezymianny. Weak seismic activity continued, and according to video data, moderate gas and steam activity occurred, although the volcano was frequently obscured by clouds. Satellite data showed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano during 4-5 and 11 September. Previously,KVERT reported that Bezymianny's activity continued during25-29 June; shallow earthquakes were registered. Video data captured weak gas-and-steam plumes rising from the volcano. Satellite data showed the volcano was frequently obscured by clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that Bezymianny's activity gradually increased during the week; shallow earthquakes were registered. Video data captured moderate gas-and-steam plumes rising from the volcano. Satellite data showed a thermal anomaly over the lava dome on 12, 16, and 18 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. As of the 18th of June, KVERT reported that reported that seismicity at Bezymianny increased on 17 June, when about 12 shallow events were recorded that were thought to be caused by extrusion of material at the top of the lava dome. A thermal anomaly was also identified using satellite data. The Aviation Color Code was raised from Yellow to Orange. Previously, KVERT reported that during 1-8 February 2013 seismic activity at Bezymianny was obscured by strong seismicity at Tolbachik. A viscous lava flow continued to effuse on the lava-dome flank, accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery on 31 January and 1 February; cloud cover prevented views on the other days. As of the 3rd of September, KVERT reported that Based on seismic data analyses, an explosive eruption occurred from 0716 to 0745 on 2 September. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 10-12 km and drifted more than 1,500 km ENE. A thermal anomaly observed in satellite imagery was very bright before the explosion. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE later that day, then ash emissions ceased. Ash plumes continued to be detected in satellite imagery and drifted 450-600 km ENE and SE. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. On 3 September seismic activity was low. A viscous lava flow effused on the lava-domeflank, and was accompanied by fumarolic activity and hot avalanches. (photos). During 9-13 March strong gas-and-steam emissions were noted, a viscous lava flow effused onto the lava-dome flank, and a thermal anomaly continued to be detected in satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange on 14 March. As of the 9th of March, KVERT reported that a strong explosive eruption began at 21:27 UTC on March 08. According to seismic data, the culmination phase of the eruption occurred from 21:27 till 22:10 UTC on March 08, a magnitude of volcanic tremor was 7.52 µm/s at that time. From 23:00 UTC on March 08, volcanic tremor was not registering. Ash plumes from pyroclastic deposits rose up to 26,200 ft (8 km) a.s.l. and extended to the northeast of the volcano on the height about 19,700 ft (6 km) a.s.l. At about 00:15 UTC on March 09, probably a new portion of ash began to extending a little to northern to northeast of the volcano. According to satellite data, a length of ash plume was about 434 mi (700 km) at 04:32 UTC on March 09. According to video data, gas-steam plumes containing ash are raising up to 11,500-13,100 ft (3.5-4.0 km) a.s.l. and extending to the north-east of the volcano.(MODIS image) Ashfall was reported in Ust-Kamchatsk Village (120 km ENE). Later that day activity decreased significantly and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Previous news - Seismic activity increased on February 12 and remained the same till February 29: about 7-19 weak seismic events were registering each day. There were 40 weak seismic events on March 01 and 25 events on March 02. Long episode of volcanic tremor was registered on March 02. Probably an extrude of lava blocks at the top of the dome occur, that prepares a strong explosive eruption of the volcano. According to satellite data, a size and a brightness of a thermal anomaly abrupt increased on March 02 (at 09:35 UTC on March 02, a temperature of the thermal anomaly was +53.4 degrees of Celsius). Density clouds obscured the volcano on March 02. Seismic activity increased on February 12 and remains the same till now: about 9-17 weak seismic events are registering each day. Two short episodes of volcanic tremor were registered on February 15 and 22. Probably an extrude of lava blocks at the top of the dome occur, that prepares a strong explosive eruption of the volcano. A strong and moderate gas-steam activity was observed at the volcano all week. According to satellite data, a thermal anomaly over the volcano continues to noting on the satellite images; gas-steam plumes were extending to the northeast of the volcano on February 20 and 22. According to visual data, a strong and moderate gas-steam activity of the volcano was observed on January 20 and 24-26, clouds obscured the volcano in the other days of week. (webcam) .Prior to its 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny volcano had been considered extinct. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3,000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1,000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. That eruption, similar to the 1980 event at Mount St. Helens, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater. KVERT

RUSSIA - Sheveluch volcano ( Kamchatka)

June 30th, 2015

KVERT reported that during 19-26 June lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 23-24 June; weather clouds obscured
the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that during 12-19 June lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity. Satellite images showed an ash plume drifting W at an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft ) a.s.l. on 15 June, and a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 15-17 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that during 5-12 June lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity. A thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 29 May-5 June lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 30 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that during 22-29 May lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 23 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 15-22 May lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by fumarolic activity. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 15-19 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 8-15 May lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot block avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was also detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that during 1-8 May lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot block avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was also detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that during 24 April-1 May lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot block avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was also detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that during 17-24 April lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by some incandescence, hot block avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A thermal anomaly was detected during 16-18 and 23 April; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 10-17 April lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot block avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Several ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed ash plumes drifting as far as 380 km E and SE during 9-11 and 13-16 April. A daily thermal anomaly was also detected. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 3-10 April lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch's N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot block avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Strong explosions on 3 and 7 April generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 9 and 12 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l., and drifted 100 km SE and more than 450 km NE, respectively. A daily thermal anomaly was also visible in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Sheveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. Strong culmination explosive eruption of the lava dome of Sheveluch volcano occurred in 1993, 2001, 2004 and two in 2005. Live cam link

RUSSIA - Zhupanovsky volcano (Kamchatka)

June 30th, 2015

KVERT reported that explosive activity at Zhupanovsky probably continued during 19-26 June; weather clouds obscured views of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that explosive activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 12-19 June. Weak steam-and-gas activity was observed on 14 June. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 16 June, as well as an ash cloud drifting 150 km W. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that explosive activity at Zhupanovsky continued during 5-12 June; ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km (a.s.l.) during 7-9 June. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 8-9 June, and ash clouds drifting 250 km SE on 9 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. On 9 June KVERT reported that the moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued; a webcam and satellite images showed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 30 km S. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.On 16 May KVERT reported that the explosive eruption that began at Zhupanovsky on 6 June 2014 ended at the beginning of April 2015. The last ash plume occurred on 3 April, although weak thermal anomalies continued to be detected. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. On 20 May an ash plume drifted 470 km E.KVERT reported that weak activity continued at Zhupanovsky during 8-15 May. Satellite images detected a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano on 14 May; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that moderate activity continued at Zhupanovsky during 1-8 May. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 3 and 5 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that moderate activity continued at Zhupanovsky during 24 April-1 May. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 25 and 28 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that strong gas-and-steam activity was observed at Zhupanovsky during 10-17 April. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed in satellite images during 16-17 and 23 April; cloud cover obscured views during 18-22 and 24 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 3-10 April. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 25 km SE on 3 April and a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 9 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 27 March-3 April. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 26 and 30 March, and 2 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 20-27 March. Based on observers and webcam recordings, explosions produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. on 25 March and drifted more than 100 km ENE. A daily thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 13-20 March. A webcam recorded incandescence from the crater on 15 March. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 350 km NE and S at an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. on 12 and 15 March. A thermal anomaly was also detected during 14-17 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 6-13 March. Two strong explosions on 7 and 8 March generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 333 km E on 7 and 10 March, and 232 km NE on 8 March. A thermal anomaly was also detected during 7-10 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 27 February-6 March. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 27 February, and 1 and 4 March. Ash clouds rose to altitudes of 3-8 km (10,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 400 km E. The Aviation color code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 20-27 February. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 20-22 and 25-26 February. Ash clouds rose to altitudes of 3-3.5 km (10,000-11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 250 km E and SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 13-20 February. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 14-15 and 18 February. Ash clouds rose to altitudes of 3-3.5 km (10,000-11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 200 km W during 15-16 February and SE during 17-19 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 6-13 February. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. Ash clouds rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 65 km W on 6 and 9 February. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that a moderate eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 30 January-6 February. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 23-30 January. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 160 km SW and SE at altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. during 22 and 25-26 January, and a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 23 and 25-27 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 16-23 January. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 17-20 January, and ash plumes drifting 300 km SW and E during 17-21 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 9-16 January. Pilots observed ash clouds rising to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. on 11 January. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 40 km SW during 11-12 January, and a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 12 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that an eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 27 December-4 January. Local airline pilots observed explosions and ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6-9 km (19,700-29,500 ft) a.s.l. on 29 December. That same day ash plumes were observed in satellite images drifting 75 km ENE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that an eruption at Zhupanovsky likely continued during 19-26 December. Intense steam-and-gas emissions were observed on 24 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that an eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 5-12 December. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on 9 December; the volcano was either quiet or obscured by clouds on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that ash explosions at Zhupanovsky continued during 25 November-1 December. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 422 km E and SE during 28 November-1 December. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly during 28-29 November; the volcano was either quiet or obscured by clouds on the other days. The aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that strong explosions at Zhupanovsky were detected at 0206 on 23 November and 1214 on 25 November. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 350 km E on 22 November and SE during 25-27 November. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 22, 25, and 27 November; cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that a moderate explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky likely continued during 14-21 November. Satellite images showed that the volcano was either quiet or obscured by clouds. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that moderate explosive eruptions at Zhupanovsky likely continued during 7-14 November. Satellite images detected ash plumes drifting 270 km SE during 7-10 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that a strong explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky occurred at 0955 on 8 November, generating an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 26 km SSW. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. On 9 November ash plumes detected in satellite images rose to altitudes of 3-4 km (9,800-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 190-250 km SE. KVERT reported that the eruption at Zhupanovsky had likely finished in mid-October; satellite images last detected an explosion on 11 October and a thermal anomaly on 12 October. Volcanologists conducting an overflight on 17 October observed only gas-and-steam activity from the active crater. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on the volcano during 10-12 October, and ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. on 11 October and drifted 411 km NE during 11-12 October. Cloud cover prevented satellite views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 3-10 October. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on 3 and 9 October; cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 26 September-3 October. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on 27 September, and ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4-4.5 km (13,000-14,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 205 km E on 28 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 19-26 September. Ground-based observers noted ash plumes drifting SW to Avachinsky Bay during 23-24 September. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly during 18 and 23-24 September, as well as ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 80 km SW and NE during 23-24 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that an explosive eruption at Zhupanovsky continued during 12-19 September. Volcanologists in Nalychevo Valley observed short-duration explosions on 13 September which generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly and ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 220 km SE and S during 13-14 and 16 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported ashfall from Zhupanovsky in the area of IVS FEB RAS (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky) during 1100-1300 on 7-8 September. The moderate explosive eruption continued and Alert Level Orange was maintained through the week of 12 September. According to visual data, ash plumes extended about 50 and 70 km S and SE of the volcano on 10 and 11 September, respectively. Persistent thermal anomalies were detected from the summit area based on satellite images during 4-5 and 10-11 September. Satellite data showed ash plumes up to 3.5-4.0 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. mainly during 9-11 September, and ash plumes drifted about 1,113 km SE and S. According to the Tokyo VAAC, ash plumes were detected by satellite images during 10-16 September with the exception of 15 September. Plume heights were 2,400-3,700 m (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l..KVERT reported that during 22-28 August the moderate explosive eruption continued at Zhupanovsky. On 28 August ash plumes rose to 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 80 km SW. The Zhupanovsky volcanic massif ( 2598 m) consists of four overlapping stratovolcanoes along a WNW-trending ridge. The elongated volcanic complex was constructed within a Pliocene-early Pleistocene caldera whose rim is exposed only on the eastern side. Three of the stratovolcanoes were built during the Pleistocene, the fourth is Holocene in age and was the source of all of Zhupanovsky's historical eruptions. An early Holocene stage of frequent moderate and weak eruptions from 7000 to 5000 years before present (BP) was succeeded by a period of infrequent larger eruptions that produced pyroclastic flows. The last major eruption of Zhupanovsky took place about 800-900 years BP. Historical eruptions have consisted of relatively minor explosions from the third cone.(GVN/GVP)

RUSSIA - Karymsky volcano (Kamchatka)

June 30th, 2015

KVERT reported that explosive activity at Karymsky likely continued during 19-26 June; weather clouds obscured views of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange KVERT reported that explosive activity at Karymsky likely continued during 12-19 June; weather clouds obscured views of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that explosive activity at Karymsky likely continued during 5-12 June. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly during 6 and 8-10 June, and ash clouds that drifted as far as 50 km SE during 8-9 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported moderate activity at Karymsky likely continued during 29 May-5 June. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly on 30 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that moderate activity at Karymsky likely continued during 22-29 May. Satellite images detected an ash plume drifting 45 km SE on 23 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that moderate activity at Karymsky likely continued during 15-22 May. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly during 15-16 May and an ash plume drifting 27 km W on 16 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that moderate activity at Karymsky likely continued during 8-15 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported moderate activity at Karymsky during 1-8 May. Satellite images showed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano during 4-6 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported moderate activity at Karymsky during 17 April-1 May. Satellite images showed ash plumes drifting about 140 km NE on 27 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.


RUSSIA - Kliuchevskoy volcano (Kamchatka)

May 15th, 2015

KVERT reported that moderate activity continued at Klyuchevskoy during 1-9 May. Satellite images detected a daily weak thermal anomaly over the volcano, and gas-and-steam plumes containing ash drifting over 450 km SE during 2-5 May. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow on 13 May.KVERT reported that moderate gas-and-steam activity at Klyuchevskoy was recorded by the webcam during 16-17, 19, 21, and 23 April. Satellite images detected a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano during 16-17 and 23 April. A gas plume containing a small amount of ash drifted 147 km E on 21 April. On 26 April the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow; KVERT noted that gas-and-steam activity and tremor continued.On 18 April KVERT reported that Strombolian activity at Klyuchevskoy continued. A webcam recorded a narrow ash plume that rose 1-2 km and drifted 100 km SE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.KVERT reported that gas-and-steam emissions at Klyuchevskoy increased at 0840 on 13 April and continued at least through 1215 on 14 April. Incandescence at the summit was indicative of renewed Strombolian activity. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.On 6 April KVERT reported that the Aviation Color Code for Klyuchevskoy was lowered to Green, noting that the explosive eruption had finished on 24 March. KVERT speculated that the continuing high seismicity reflected rebuilding of the magmatic system. Moderate gas-and-steam activity continued.KVERT reported that during 13-20 March the eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued but the energy of the explosions decreased significantly. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5-5.5 km (16,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. During 16-17 March satellite images showed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano and ash plumes that drifted 90 km E. Ash plumes were again detected in images during 22-23 March. On 25 March the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow KVERT reported that a strombolian-vulcanian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 27 February-6 March. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 400 km E, SE, and NE. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. The magnitude of seismic tremor significantly decreased at 0520 on 9 March, likely signifying the end of the explosive eruption. Only moderate emissions of steam and gas were observed and a thermal anomaly over the summit had been absent for the previous 10 hours. The Aviation color code was lowered to Yellow. KVERT reported that during 20-27 February a Strombolian and Vulcanian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued. Incandescence at the summit was visible and bombs were ejected 150 m above the crater. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed a daily, big, bright thermal anomaly over the volcano and ash plumes that drifted 430 km mainly NE, E, and SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.KVERT reported that during 13-20 February a Strombolian and Vulcanian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued. Incandescence at the summit was visible and bombs were ejected 150 m above the crater. Explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5-8 km (16,400-26,200 ft) a.s.l.; ashfall was reported in Klyuchi Village (30 km NNE) during 13-16 February. A lava flow effused onto the E flank. Satellite images showed a daily, big, bright thermal anomaly over the volcano, and ash plumes drifted about 600 km mainly E, SE, and S. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. On 15 February at 1035 the webcam recorded ash plumes rising to altitudes of 6-6.5 km (19,700-21,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 74 km E. At 1211, 1347, and 1524 ash plumes rose to an altitude of 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110-232 km E and ESE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. At 1656 ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7.5-7.8 km (24,600-25,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 232 km ESE. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. At 1512 on 16 February ash plumes identified in satellite images rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 270 km S. The next day, at 0641, 1503, and 1505, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 114-240 km SE. Kliuchevskoi flanks Kamen volcano to the SW and Ushkovsky volcano to the NW. The morphology of its 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years . Live cam link

RUSSIA - Gorely volcano

January 26th, 2014

KVERT reported that activity at Gorely decreased significantly in December 2013; volcanic tremor ceased being detected on 12 December, and the temperature of the thermal anomaly decreased during 12-15 December. No thermal anomaly was detected in January 2014, but weak seismicity continued along with gas-and-steam emissions. On 23 January the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green (on a four-color scale). Gorely volcano, one of the most active in southern Kamchatka, consists of five small overlapping stratovolcanoes constructed along a WNW-ESE line within a large 9 x 13.5 km late-Pleistocene caldera. The massive Gorely complex contains 11 summit and 30 flank craters. During the early Holocene, activity was characterized by frequent mild eruptions with occasional larger explosions and lava flows that filled in the caldera. Quiescent periods became longer between 6,000 and 2,000 years ago, after which the activity was mainly explosive. About 600-650 years ago intermittent strong explosions and lava flow effusion accompanied frequent mild eruptions. Historical eruptions have consisted of vulcanian and phreatic explosions of moderate volume. (GVN/GVP)


RUSSIA - Kizimen volcano

December 8th, 2013

KVERT reported that weak seismic activity at Kizimen continued during 29 November-6 December. Video showed gas-and-steam activity, and satellite images detected a daily weak thermal anomaly. On 9 December the Alert Level was lowered to Green. Previously, KVERT reported that during 6-13 September moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 8-11 September; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. On 13 September KVERT noted that activity had been decreasing; both video and satellite data indicated less incandescence from the crater over the past few weeks, and seismicity had decreased significantly at the end of August. Lava possibly continued to extrude from the crater at a low rate. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. KVERT reported that during 30 August-6 September moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 2 and 5 September; cloud cover obscured views on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. KVERT reported that during 23-30 August moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. A thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. The 2376-m-high Kizimen was formed during four eruptive cycles beginning about 12,000 years ago and lasting 2000-3500 years. The largest eruptions took place about 10,000 and 8300-8400 years ago, and three periods of long-term lava dome growth have occurred. The latest eruptive cycle began about 3000 years ago with a large explosion and was followed by lava dome growth lasting intermittently about 1000 years. An explosive eruption about 1100 years ago produced a lateral blast and created a 1.0 x 0.7 km wide crater breached to the NE, inside which a small lava dome (the fourth at Kizimen) has grown. A single explosive eruption, during 1927-28, has been recorded in historical time. GVN/GVP.

RUSSIA - Sinarka - Kurile islands

March 24th, 2015

SVERT reported that satellite images showed steam-and-gas emissions from Sinarka on 16 March and a weak thermal anomaly on 21 March.SVERT reported that activity at Sinarka was not detected during January; on 26 January the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.SVERT reported that steam-and-gas emissions detected in satellite images rose 3 km above Sinarka and drifted SE on 5 January. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 6-12 January. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that on 8 December satellite images of Sinarka showed diffuse steam-and-gas emissions. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 9-15 December. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.SVERT reported that on 3 December satellite images of Sinarka showed steam-and-gas emissions with small amounts of ash drifting 40 km NE. Diffuse steam-and-gas emissions were observed on 6 December. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 1-8 December. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow. SVERT reported that on 27 November satellite images of Sinarka showed steam-and-gas emissions drifting 50 km SE. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 24 November-1 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.SVERT reported that satellite images of Sinarka showed steam-and-gas emissions on 19 November. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 17-24 November. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow. SVERT reported that satellite images of Sinarka showed steam-and-gas emissions drifted 40 km E on 11 November. The next day a weak thermal anomaly was detected. Gas-and-steam activity became more robust; emissions drifted NE. A weak thermal anomaly was again detected on 16 November. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow. Sinarka volcano, occupying the northern end of Shiashkotan Island in the central Kuriles, has a complex structure. A small, 2-km-wide depression open to the NW has been largely filled and overtopped by an andesitic postglacial central cone that itself contains a lava dome that forms the 934 m high point of the island. Another lava dome, Zheltokamennaya Mountain, lies 1.5 km to the SW along the buried SW rim of the caldera, and a smaller dome lies along the northern caldera rim. Historical eruptions have occurred at Sinarka during the 17th and 18th centuries. The last and largest of these, during 1872-78, was once thought to originate from Kuntomintar volcano at the southern end of the island, but is now attributed to Sinarka volcano (Gorshkov, 1970). (GVN/GVP)

RUSSIA - Chirinkotan volcano- Kurile islands

May 12th, 2015

SVERT reported that on 10 May a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was detected in satellite images. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 4-11 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
SVERT reported that on 30 April a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was detected in satellite images. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 27 April-4 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
SVERT reported that during 17-18 April a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was detected in satellite images. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 13-20 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.
SVERT reported that on 6 April a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was detected in satellite images. Weak gas-and-steam emissions were noted on 8 April. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 7-13 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow SVERT reported that on 5 April a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was detected in satellite images. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 31 March-6 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. The small, mostly unvegetated 3-km-wide island of Chirinkotan occupies the far end of an E-W-trending volcanic chain that extends nearly 50 km west of the central part of the main Kuril Islands arc. Chirinkotan is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises 3000 m from the floor of the Kuril Basin. A small 1-km-wide caldera about 300-400 m deep is open to the SE. Lava flows from a cone within the breached crater reached the north shore of the island. Historical eruptions have been recorded at Chirinkotan since the 18th century. Fresh lava flows also descended the SE flank of Chirinkotan during an eruption in the 1880s that was observed by the English fur trader Captain Snow. (gvn/gvp) article about Kurils Islands

RUSSIA - Chirpoi volcano (Kurile islands)

June 10th, 2015

SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected a thermal anomaly during 1-2 June. Cloud cover obscured views during 3-8 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected weak steam-and-gas emissions on 25 May. A thermal anomaly was detected on 25, 28, and 30 May. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 26 May-1 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected a thermal anomaly on 12 and 16 May. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 13-18 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected a thermal anomaly during 6-8 and 11 May. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 4-11 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, showed a thermal anomaly on 28 and 30 April, and 1 May. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 27 April-4 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected steam-and-gas emissions on 20 April. Cloud cover obscured views during 21-27 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected a thermal anomaly on 14 and 17 April. Weak steam-and-gas emissions were also observed on 17 April. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 13-20 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected a thermal anomaly during 8-11 April. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 7-13 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected a thermal anomaly during 2 and 4-5 April. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 31 March-6 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected a thermal anomaly during 26-27 March, and gas-and-steam emissions on 29 March. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 23-30 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, showed faint stream-and-gas emissions on 16 March and a thermal anomaly during 17-20 March. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 21-23 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow. Chirpoi, a small island lying between the larger islands of Simushir and Urup, contains a half dozen volcanic edifices constructed within an 8-9 km wide, partially submerged caldera. The southern rim of the caldera is exposed on nearby Brat Chirpoev Island. Two volcanoes on Chirpoi Island have been historically active. The symmetrical Cherny volcano, which forms the 691 m high point of the island, erupted twice during the 18th and 19th centuries. The youngest volcano, Snow, originated between 1770 and 1810. It is composed almost entirely of lava flows, many of which have reached the sea on the southern coast. No historical eruptions are known from 742-m-high Brat Chirpoev, but its youthful morphology suggests recent strombolian activity. (GVN/GVP)

RUSSIA - Chikurachki volcano (Kurile lslands)

April 26th, 2015

KVERT reported that, based on analysis of satellite images of Chikurachki from 18 April, a thermal anomaly and ash plumes were not detected; an observer from Severo-Kurilsk (60 km NW, Paramushir Island) had reported a minor ash plume. The Aviation Color Code was lowered back to Green on 24 April An observer from Severo-Kurilsk (60 km NW, Paramushir Island) reported that on 18 April a gas-and-steam plume from Chikurachki contained a small amount of ash. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow. KVERT reported that satellite images showed no activity at Chikurachki after 19 February. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green on 26 February.KVERT noted that the eruption of Chikurachki that began on 16 February produced ash plumes during 16-18 February. Satellite images detected the ash plumes rising to altitudes of 7.5-8 km (24,600-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifting about 280 km W and E. No activity was detected during 19-22 February; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Chikurachki is not monitored with seismic instruments but is observed by ground-based means and satellite images According to KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC stated that an eruption at Chikurachki began at 1000 on 16 February. A support to Aviation Control Service (SACS) notice described a large amount of aerosol near the Northern Kuriles Islands at 1322 that same day. Satellite images detected ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 7-7.5 km (23,000-24,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 80 km W. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. At 0641, 1328, and 1635 on 17 February satellite images showed ash plumes rising to altitudes of 3-3.5 km (10,000-11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 95-230 km SW. On 18th of February, activity seemed slightly decreased. Chikurachki, the highest volcano on Paramushir Island in the northern Kuriles, is actually a relatively small cone constructed on a high Pleistocene volcanic edifice. Oxidized basaltic-to-andesitic scoria deposits covering the upper part of the young cone give it a distinctive red color. Frequent basaltic plinian eruptions have occurred during the Holocene. Lava flows from 1781-m-high Chikurachki reached the sea and form capes on the NW coast; several young lava flows also emerge from beneath the scoria blanket on the eastern flank. The Tatarinov group of six volcanic centers is located immediately to the south of Chikurachki, and the Lomonosov cinder cone group, the source of an early Holocene lava flow that reached the saddle between it and Fuss Peak to the west, lies at the southern end of the N-S-trending Chikurachki-Tatarinov complex. In contrast to the frequently active Chikurachki, the Tatarinov volcanoes are extensively modified by erosion and have a more complex structure. Tephrochronology gives evidence of only one eruption in historical time from Tatarinov, although its southern cone contains a sulfur-encrusted crater with fumaroles that were active along the margin of a crater lake until 1959. (GVN/GVP).

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NEW ZEALAND - Tongariro volcano

April 22nd, 2015

On 20 April GeoNet reported that it had been three weeks since anomalous seismicity at Tongariro's Ngauruhoe cone had been detected. In addition, no anomalous ground temperatures or unusual levels of gas emissions were detected at the summit during fieldwork, indicating that the minor unrest had ceased. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 0 (on a scale of 0-5).On 23 March GeoNet reported that during the previous two to three weeks an increase in the number and magnitude of earthquakes at Tongariro was detected by the seismographs around Ngauruhoe. The earthquakes were shallow, with depths less than 5 km. The report noted that although earthquakes are not unusual near Ngauruhoe, it had been some time since significant numbers or events above M 1 were recorded. The Volcanic Alert Level was raised to 1 (on a scale of 0-5). Mount Tongariro is a volcanic complex that lies to the north of Ngauruhoe. It consists of numerous craters and vents. Te Mari craters lie about two kilometres east of Ketetahi hot springs on the north side of Mt Tongariro. The Te Mari craters are the last craters to be active on Tongariro. Ash eruptions have been recorded from Tongariro from 1855 to 1897, as well as unconfirmed activity in 1926-27. Previous recent activity occured in 2013 (IGNS)

NEW ZEALAND - White island volcano

January 26th, 2014

On 22 January, the GeoNet Data Centre reported that the Volcanic Alert Level for White Island remained at 1 and the Aviation Colour Code remained Green. Since a moderate eruption on 11 October 2013, seismicity had remained at low levels while gas flux was elevated. Sulfur dioxide flux ranged from 133 to 924 tonnes per day, higher than levels before 2012 when daily averages were less than 300 tonnes. The level of the water in Crater Lake continued to rise, and was about 5 m deeper than in late 2013. Temperature measurements with a recently acquired thermal Infrared camera confirm that hot gases were rising from vents on the lava dome; temperatures at the vents were 200-330 degrees Celsius, and over 400 degrees at one vent. Previously, on 4 November 2013, the GeoNet Data Centre reported that the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 while the Aviation Colour Code was decreased from Yellow to Green. Since 11 October, seismicity and gas flux have remained at low levels, however, the volcano-hydrothermal system was considered unstable. GeoNet stated that eruptive activity could occur without prior warning and that current conditions permitted a range of eruptive activity.On 21 October the GeoNet Data Centre reported that no further eruptive activity at White Island was detected after the eruption on 11 October, which ejected material over 350 m from the active vent and caused a wet surge cloud that enveloped the Main Crater. Volcanic tremor levels had decreased after the eruption and continued at variable levels. Gas flight measurements on 17 October showed that the SO2 flux was 450 tonnes per day, CO2 was 1,140 tonnes per day, and H2S was12 tonnes per day. The SO2 and H2S flux had changed very little, and CO2 had decreased from the previous measurements on 23 August. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 1 and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow As of the 6th of October, Geonet reported that after a small steam explosion last Friday (October 4) and an increase in tremor beneath the island volcano in the Bay of Plenty. White Island has had an eventful 2013, with small explosions occasionally rocking the tourist destination. Thus far, the size of the eruptions has been small, but larger eruptions are not out of the question for White Island. This all being said, GNS Science has kept the volcanic alert status at 1 for the volcano. The GeoNet Data Centre reported that after the eruption at White Island on 20 August, activity remained low through the next day. Steam-and-gas plumes continued to be emitted. During the afternoon on 21 August the Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 1 and the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Yellow.The GeoNet Data Centre reported that a small eruption from White Island occurred at 1023 on 20 August and continued for about 10 minutes. The eruption ejected mud and rocks short distances, and generated a voluminous steam plume (visible from the Bay of Plenty coast), that rose 4 km a.s.l. and then slowly dispersed. Weather radar observations showed that a minor amount of ash was present in the plume. The Volcano Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and the Aviation Colour Code was raised to Red (on a four-color scale). Later that day the Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Orange. The eruption originated in the active crater area that had been ejecting small amounts of mud in recent weeks. A short period of strong volcanic tremor was detected the previous morning, but it was not clear if it was related to the eruption. The uninhabited 2 x 2.4 km White Island, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is the emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The 321-m-high island consists of two overlapping stratovolcanoes; the summit crater appears to be breached to the SE because the shoreline corresponds to the level of several notches in the SE crater wall. Throughout the short historical period beginning in 1826 the volcano has had long periods of continuous hydrothermal activity and steam release, punctuated by small-to-medium eruptions. Its activity also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. The most recent eruptive episode, which began on 7 March 2000, included the largest eruption at White Island in the past 20 years on 27 July. Live cam link - other webcam

NEW ZEALAND - Ruapehu volcano

May 6th, 2015

GeoNet reported that water temperatures of Ruapehu's summit Crater Lake had been increasing since early December 2014, rising from 15 degrees Celsius to over 40 degrees in late January-early February. The temperatures declined to 31 degrees in mid-March, and then climbed again to 37-39 degrees. No other changes were detected at the lake. In addition, over the previous 2-3 weeks intermittent moderate-to-strong levels of volcanic tremor were detected, which had been some of the strongest recorded there over the past eight years. The report noted that historically there had not been a direct link between volcanic tremor and discrete volcanic eruptions or sequences of eruptions. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Green and the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (signs of volcano unrest).On 30 January, GeoNet reported that water temperatures of Ruapehu's summit Crater Lake had been increasing since early December 2014, rising from 15 degrees Celsius to over 40. Similar temperatures were recorded in March 2011 and April 2014, before the lake cooled. Data from a field visit on 14 January showed increased amounts of volcanic gas emissions through the lake. Other recent observations from pilots and field visits confirmed that the lake changed color from blue green to light gray due to lake convection. A GeoNet volcanologist noted that lake temperature cycling was not unusual; five heating cycles have been detected since 2010. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Green and the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (signs of volcano unrest). Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least 4 cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 cu km dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and is surrounded by another 100 cu km ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place at Ruapehu between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent at Ruapehu. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys. Ruapehu Live cam ******************************************************************************************************************************************

PAPUA - NEW GUINEA - Manam volcano

July 2nd, 2015

Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-30 June ash plumes from Manam rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 75 km NE.
Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 21-23 June ash plumes from Manam drifted over 35 km N and NW at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 May an ash plume from Manam drifted over 35 km NE at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.RVO reported that activity at both Manam's Southern Crater and Main Crater was low during 1-30 April; variable amounts of white emissions rose from both craters. Incandescence from Southern Crater was visible at night during 2, 6, 8-10, 15, 21, and 29-30 April, and from main Crater during 8-10, 15, 21, and 29-30 April. The seismicity was characterized by sub-continuous and continuous volcanic tremor, and discrete low-frequency earthquakes. Sulfur dioxide flux was slightly higher at the end of April; distinct sulfur dioxide levels were detected on 2 May.Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 April an ash plume from Manam drifted 150 km NW at an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27-28 April ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75-130 km W. RVO reported that activity at both Manam's Southern Crater and Main Crater was low during 1-18 March although inclement weather made crater observations difficult; no noises were reported. Seismicity had slowly and erratically increased since 28 February, peaked on 13 March and remained at that level through 15 March, and then increased again through 18 March. The seismicity was characterized by small-to-moderate, sub-continuous, and continuous volcanic tremor. Discrete low-frequency earthquakes were also recorded.Based on observations of satellite imagery and wind data analyses, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 24 February ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km W.RVO reported that activity at both Manam's Southern Crater and Main Crater was low during 1-31 January; diffuse white vapor emissions were observed rising from both craters during brief clear views. Incandescence from Main Crater fluctuated from weak to bright during 19 and 23-27 January. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys," regularly spaced 90 degrees apart, channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE avalanche valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded at Manam since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.
(GVN/GVP)


PAPUA-NEW GUINEA - Rabaul volcano

September 24th, 2014

RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was mostly quiet during 13-19 September. Variable amounts of white vapor and small amounts of diffuse blue vapor rose from the summit crater. A small explosion at 1242 on 18 September produced a light gray ash plume that rose a few hundred meters above the crater and drifted NW. Previously, as of the 29 th of August, RVO reported that an important explosive activity started at 3 AM (local time) from the Tavurvur cone. Lava fountaining and high ashplume rose above the volcano (18 km-high). Large ashfall occurred on Kokopo (South from Tavurvur. Previously, RVO reported that explosions from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone were detected during 1-11 March, notably during 1 and 6-11 March, and generated ash plumes that rose 1 km and drifted E and SE. Mild ash emissions on other days during 1-15 March also drifted E and SE. Gases from Tavurvur caused browning vegetation on Turangunan (South Daughter) since early January. Previously, RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was quiet during 26 January-11 February. A pale gray/brown plume rose 50-100 m above the vent and dispersed on 12 February.RVO reported that Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone was quiet during 16-31 December. White and occasionally blue vapor plumes rose from the crater. An explosion at 0732 on 22 December generated an ash-poor plume. Weak fluctuating glow was visible at night on 31 December. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the E, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay. Two major Holocene caldera-forming eruptions at Rabaul took place as recently as 3,500 and 1,400 years ago. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city. (GVN/GVP)

PAPUA - NEW GUINEA - Bagana volcano (Bougainville island)

June 8th, 2015

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-6 June ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-65 km SW, W and NE.Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 May an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 160 km NW.Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2 April an ash plume from Bagana drifted 75 km SE and NE Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 March a low-level ash plume from Bagana drifted 37 km NE. During 27-29 March ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NE and N. On 1 April an ash plume drifted 75 km SE. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 21 January ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 22-40 km NE. The next day ash plumes drifted almost 20 km SW. Bagana is a massive symmetrical lava cone largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire lava cone could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity at Bagana is characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50-m-thick with prominent levees that descend the volcano's flanks on all sides. (GVN/GVP)

Papua-New Guinea - Ulawun volcano (New britain)

January 2nd, 2014

RVO reported that activity at Ulawun was low during 16-31 December; diffuse ash plumes rose from the crater during 51-21 December, and white vapor emissions were visible during 22-31 December.
RVO reported that activity at Ulawun was low during 16-30 November. Small volumes of gray to gray-brown ash plumes rose 100 m from the crater on most days and drifted S. On 21 November ashfall was reported in Navo on the SW flank.Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 November an ash plume from Ulawun rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 30 km NW. RVO reported that during 1 October-15 November activity at Ulawun was low; small volumes of white vapor and gray and gray-brown ash plumes rose 100 m above the crater and drifted S. Seismicity was low with RSAM values fluctuating between 100 and 150 units throughout the period. RVO reported that activity at Ulawun was low during 4-31 August; emissions from the summit crater consisted of white vapor until 16 August, and were gray during 17-31 August. Emissions were more energetic on 24 August, rising 200 m. A single booming noise and weak incandescence was also reported that day. RSAM values fluctuated but decreased overall.RVO reported that activity at Ulawun was low during 22 July-4 August; emissions from the summit crater consisted of white vapor. Seismicity was also low. RSAM values decreased from 80 on 21 July to 50 on 31 July, and then began to increase on early 2 August. By 4 August RSAM values reached 600, attributed to an increase in volcanic tremor.
RVO reported that activity at Ulawun was low during 15-21 July. Emissions from the summit crater were light gray during 15-16 July, and then changed to white vapor during 17-21 July. RSAM from volcanic tremors had increased on 14 July and reached a peak of 700 just after 0300 on 15 July. RSAM then decreased to 80 on 21 July, which also marked the cessation of volcanic tremors.The symmetrical basaltic to andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. Ulawun rises above the N coast of New Britain opposite Bamus volcano. The upper 1,000 m of the 2,334-m-high volcano is unvegetated. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side of the volcano, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the S of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater. (GVP/GVN)

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Salomon islands - Kavachi volcano

February 1st, 2014

According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image acquired on 29 January showed a plume of discolored water E of Kavachi, likely from lava fragments and dissolved gases. A bright area above the submerged peak suggested churning water. There was no sign that the volcano had breached the sea surface. Kavachi, one of the most active submarine volcanoes in the SW Pacific, occupies an isolated position in the Solomon Islands far from major aircraft and shipping lanes. Kavachi, sometimes referred to as Rejo te Kvachi ("Kavachi's Oven"), is located south of Vangunu Island only about 30 km north of the site of subduction of the Indo-Australian plate beneath the Pacific plate. The shallow submarine basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has produced ephemeral islands up to 1 km long many times since its first recorded eruption during 1939. Residents of the nearby islands of Vanguna and Nggatokae (Gatokae) reported "fire on the water" prior to 1939, a possible reference to earlier submarine eruptions. The roughly conical volcano rises from water depths of 1.1-1.2 km on the north and greater depths to the south. Frequent shallow submarine and occasional subaerial eruptions produce phreatomagmatic explosions that eject steam, ash, and incandescent bombs above the sea surface. On a number of occasions lava flows were observed on the surface of ephemeral islands. Last known eruption occureed in 2007. (GVN/GVP)

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Tonga - Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apa

January 29th, 2015

According to a news article from 26 January, the newly-formed island at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai was about 120 m high, 1.5 km wide (N-S), and 2 km long (W-E). The island was an estimated 1 km in diameter with a crater that was 400-500 m in diameter. It had joined Hunga Ha'apai to the W and was 150-200 m short of joining Hunga Tonga to the N. The article noted that the eruption had decreased during the previous week; there were no longer emissions rising from the vent.Based on a news article some international and domestic flights in Tonga had been canceled during 12-13 January, affecting about 600 passengers, due to the ash cloud produced from the on-going eruption at Hunga Tonga-Hunga
Ha'apai. The article noted that ash plumes were rising to an altitude of 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. from a larger explosion and that water around the eruption was colored blood-red. In a video of the eruption, posted on 18 January, volcanologists observe and describe the explosions occurring from a vent on a new rapidly-growing island.Based on a pilot observation, the Wellington VAAC reported that a dark ash plume from Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. on 12 January.Based on a pilot observation, the Wellington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. on 6 January. According to a news article, fisherman had reported an eruption at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai on 19 December. A photographer in Tongatapu captured a photo of a steam plume rising from the area on 30 December and noted that steam plumes had been visible since 24 December; dense clouds on the horizon prevented views before then. Terra MODIS imagery from 29 December also showed white plumes and areas of discolored water near the islands. The small islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai cap a large seamount located about 30 km SSE of Falcon Island. The two linear andesitic islands are about 2 km long and represent the western and northern remnants of the rim of a largely submarine caldera lying east and south of the islands. Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai reach an elevation of only 149 m and 128 m above sea level, respectively, and display inward-facing sea cliffs with lava and tephra layers dipping gently away from the submarine caldera. A rocky shoal 3.2 km SE of Hunga Ha'apai and 3 km south of Hunga Tonga marks the most prominent historically active vent. Several submarine eruptions have occurred at Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai since the first historical eruption in 1912. (GVN/GVP).

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Mariannes islands - Pagan volcano

June 22nd, 2014

Low-level unrest continued at Pagan during the week of 20 June; seismicity remained above background levels. A steam-and-gas plume was visible in web camera and clear satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. Previously, information rported that low-level unrest continued at Pagan during 27 December 2013-2 January 2014; seismicity remained above background levels. A robust steam-and-gas plume was occasionally visible in web camera images during the reporting period. A small explosion was detected at about 0145 on 28 December. It may have produced a diffuse ash emission, but the webcam was not in operation at the time to verify. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. Previously, the seismic network at Pagan recorded tremor and small discrete earthquakes during 9-16 August, indicating low-level unrest. A steam-and-gas plume was visible in satellite images during periods of clear weather and from web-camera images. A small explosion with a relatively high amplitude seismic component and small infrasound component occurred at 0010 on 12 August. The data suggested that degassing increased about 30 sec after the event. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory.The 570-m-high Mount Pagan at the NE end of the island rises above the flat floor of the northern caldera, which probably formed during the early Holocene. South Pagan is a 548-m-high stratovolcano with an elongated summit containing four distinct craters. Almost all of the historical eruptions of Pagan, which date back to the 17th century, have originated from North Pagan volcano. The largest eruption of Pagan during historical time took place in 1981 and prompted the evacuation of the sparsely populated island. Last know eruption occured in 2006.

Mariannes islands - Ahyi volcano

May 25th, 2014

On 23 May the USGS reported that during the previous week one explosion signal from the source at or near Ahyi seamount was detected. Seismic activity had been low since 8 May continuing to indicate that the eruption had possibly paused or ended. On 16 May the USGS reported that during the previous week seismic signals from the source at or near Ahyi seamount had greatly diminished, indicating that the eruption had possibly paused or ended. Scientists aboard the research ship Hi'ialakai conducted water column tests in the vicinity of Ahyi on 15 May and reported no sign of activity, suggesting that the eruption occurred from a nearby volcanic vent and not the summit. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory A helicorder plot from a station on Pagan showed that seismic signals from a source at or near the Ahyi seamount stopped at 1610 on 8 May. An additional isolated event was reported at 1810.Seismic stations on Pagan, Sarigan, Anatahan, and Saipan started recording signals on 24 April that continued at least through 2 May. The source had not been confirmed, but is thought to be at or near the Ahyi seamount. During 4-5 May a helicorder plot from a station on Pagan showed explosive signals at a rate of 20 per hour.Seismic stations on Pagan, Sarigan, Anatahan, and Saipan began recording signals starting at 0635 on 24 April believed to be from an undersea volcanic source. Hydroacoustic sensors on Wake Island suggested that the source is at or near Ahyi seamount, although it was possible that the vent is located at one of the other volcanic seamounts in the area. While conducting coral reef research at Farallon de Pajaros, NOAA divers reported hearing loud explosions and feeling the shock waves. One of the more powerful explosions was felt by the crew as it reverberated through the hull of the ship. On 27 April the Color Code was raised from Unassigned to Yellow. A report issued at 0536 on 30 April noted that seismic activity remained high. Ahyi seamount is a large conical submarine volcano that rises to within 137 m of the sea surface about 18 km SE of the island of Farallon de Pajaros (Uracas) in the northern Marianas. Water discoloration has been observed over the submarine volcano, and in 1979 the crew of a fishing boat felt shocks over the summit area of the seamount followed by upwelling of sulfur-bearing water. On April 24-25, 2001 an explosive submarine eruption was detected seismically from a seismic station on Rangiroa Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago. The event was well constrained (+/- 15 km) at a location near the southern base of Ahyi; the summit of the seamount lies within the location uncertainty. (GVN/GVP)

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INDIAN OCEAN SOUTH - Heard island volcano

April 25th, 2013

According to NASA Earth Observatory (EO) an image acquired on 7 April 2013 from the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA's EO-1 satellite showed that Mawson's Peak crater on Heard Island had filled and a lava flow had traveled down the SW flank. The lava flow was visible in an image acquired on 20 April and had slightly widened just below the summit. Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic structures. The large glacier-covered composite basaltic-to-trachytic cone of Big Ben comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon volcano lies at the NW tip of the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of Big Ben volcano because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active Mawson Peak forms the island's 2745-m high point and lies within a 5-6 km wide caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones are mostly located on the northern coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been reported in historical time at this isolated volcano, but observations are infrequent and additional activity may have occurred.(Smithsonian Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin).

KERGULEN - Heard island volcano

December 4th, 2014

According to a NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) scientist, thermal anomalies seemingly on the E flank of Heard were detected in Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)
satellite images during 2-30 November. Dense cloud cover prevented views of the volcano during 1-2 December. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images had detected thermal anomalies from September 2014 to 21 July 2014, and again on 16 November 2014, due to a persisting lava lake and possible lava flows. Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic structures. The large glacier-covered composite basaltic-to-trachytic cone of Big Ben comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon volcano lies at the NW tip of the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of Big Ben volcano because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active Mawson Peak forms the island's 2745-m high point
and lies within a 5-6 km wide caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones are mostly located on the northern coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been reported in historical time at this isolated volcano, but observations are infrequent and additional activity may have occurred. (GVN/GVP)

ANTARCTICA - Erebus Volcano

March 1st, 2014

As of the 1st of March 2014, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) reported that Antarctica's Mt. Erebus continues with a molten lava lake and vapour emissions. It may be covered with glaciers, but they do little to cool the volcano's molten core. Previous special news : as of the 1st of August 2007, the Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) was reported that Mt. Erebus has frequent Strombolian eruptions. Infrequent ash eruptions. Rare lava flows confined to inner crater. Notable features are: Persistent convecting phonolite lava lake. Persistent low-level eruptive activityAccording to the Mt. Erebus activity log, several "small- to medium-sized" eruptions occurred during 12-18 October 2005, with a "very large" eruption occurring on 14 October. The eruption sizes were based on comparisons of seismic data for known Erebus eruptions. Mt. Erebus, the southern most volcano in the world, still continues to be the most active volcano in Antarctica. Mt. Erebus (3794 meters above sea level) is classified as a polygenetic stratovolcano. The composition of the current eruptive activity on Mt. Erebus is anorthoclase-phyric tephriphonolite and phonolite, which constitute the bulk of exposed lava flow on the volcano. The oldest eruptive products from Mt. Erebus consist of relatively undifferentiated and non-viscous basanitic lavas that form the low, broad platform shield of the Erebus edifice. Slightly younger basanites and phonotephrite lavas crop out on Fang Ridge, an eroded remnant of an early Erebus volcano and at other isolated locations on the flanks of the Mt. Erebus edifice. Lava flows of more viscous phonotephrite, tephriphonolite and trachyte are erupted after the basanites. The upper slopes of Mt. Erebus are dominated by steeply dipping (~30°) tephriphonolite lava flows with large scale flow levees. A conspicuous break in slope at approximately 3200 meters is a summit plateau representing a caldera. The summit caldera itself is filled with small volume tephriphonolite and phonolite lava flows. In the center of the of the summit caldera is a small, steep-sided cone composed primarily of decomposed lava bombs and a lag deposit of anorthoclase crystals. It is within this summit cone that the active lava lake continuously degasses and periodically erupts. Mt. Erebus located on Ross Island, Antarctica is the world’s southern-most active volcano. Discovered in 1841 by James Ross, it is one of only a very few volcanoes in the world with a long-lived (decades or more) lava lake. Scientific research, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) since began the early 1970’s had included basic study of the petrology and geophysics of the volcano, the eruptive history, activity and degassing behavior of the lava lake, and the overall impact of the volcano on the Antarctica and global environment. Research on Mt. Erebus has been primarily conducted by scientists in the Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the Bureau of Geology and Mineral resources at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. Information from : MEVO - Live cam link

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VANUATU - Lopevi volcano

December 19th, 2014

According to observations by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department, , Geohazards reported that On 15 December based on observations and analyses in early December, activity at Lopevi had increased dramatically over a short time period. The Alert Level was raised to 1 (on a scale of 0-4), and access to the island was prohibited.
The small 7-km-wide conical island of Lopevi, known locally as Vanei Vollohulu, is one of Vanuatu's most active volcanoes. A small summit crater containing a cinder cone is breached to the NW and tops an older cone that is rimmed by the remnant of a larger crater. The basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has been active during historical time at both summit and flank vents, primarily along a NW-SE-trending fissure that cuts across the island, producing moderate explosive eruptions and lava flows that reached the coast. Historical eruptions at the 1413-m-high volcano date back to the mid-19th century. The island was evacuated following major eruptions in 1939 and 1960. The latter eruption, from a NW-flank fissure vent, produced a pyroclastic flow that swept to the sea and a lava flow that formed a new peninsula on the western coast.

VANUATU - Gaua - Mt. Garet volcano

August 18th, 2013

On 14 August 2013 the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity at Gaua had increased since June; volcanic tremor levels increased slightly and ash plume emissions continued. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4). previous news 2011 -Based on a hazards assessment during 17-18 October 2011, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that Gaua had been emitting ash since September. Ash fell on western parts of the island. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4).The data collected by the monitoring system of Gaua volcano shows the existence of earthquakes caused by volcanic activity in August 2011. The OMI satellite images clearly shows that Gaua volcano has gone through some degassing in 17, 27, and 28 September 2011. This means that the Gaua volcano activity is ongoing. The local authorities have reported, in October 10th, the ashfall on the north eastern and the western part of Gaua. With this report the Alert Level of Gaua volcano remains at level 1 according to the Vanuatu volcanoes Alert Systems . However this alert Level may change after the Geohazards team risk assessment on this volcano in the coming days. Previous news about eruptive activity 2010: At the current time of December, the Gaua volcano activity is low and has been low since September 2010. Latest observations on Gaua indicates that the vegetations near the volcano vent and the ones exposed to the trade winds on the western side of the island which were burnt by acid rains are now growing again. This means that the Gaua volcano is emitting less gas. This is also proven by the data recorded by the monitoring stations that clearly shows the decreasing number of counts of volcano triggered earthquakes since September 2010 As of the 24th of June, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that based on information from the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory, the Wellington VAAC reported that during the 16th-19th of June ash plumes from Gaua rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. On the 19th of June the plume drifted more than 90 km W. As of the 7th of May, Geohazard reported that field observations of Gaua volcano have shown that there has been moderate activity during the month of April through to the beginning of May. There has been significant emissions of ash and gas over the island of Gaua. This strong gas emission has caused the vegetations around the crater of the volcano to dry up as well as the areas that are exposed to dominant winds, especially from the North western to the South Western coast of the Island. Also during this month of April, mud flows were witnessed by the geo-hazards technical team at Ontar in West Gaua. Volcanic seismic data recorded by the station at Metsalewon in the North East, and the station in the South East both show that tremors have been occurring more frequent with time, since the beginning of the year till the present. As of the 22nd of April, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported that the situation at Gaua is worsening. Ash from the current eruption is contaminating water and food supplies on the island. Authorities are planning on evacuating 3,000 people from the island if the eruption that started in 2009 gets worse, but there has already been significant ash fall, mudflows and explosions. As of the 7th of April, the analysis of data collected from the monitoring network of Gaua volcano since October 2009 indicates the existence of volcanic tremor. The OMI satellite images also show the abundance of gases emitted from this volcano daily. Field observations reported by the Geohazards officer in Gaua confirmed significant change of activity with ticker and higher emissions of ash columns. Since last week (end of march/beginning of April 2010) the ash plumes height dwell between 7000 and 10000 feet every day. Field reports also stated that the explosion sounds could be heard from the villages daily. Moreover, starting from the 3rd of April 2010 the volcanic bombes projections from Gaua volcano could be observed from all the coastal villages from the north to the south of the island with reports of the ashfall. As of the 29th of January, Geo-hazards Vanuatu reported that the volcanic activity on Gaua has changed significantly during the month of January. More gas has been emitted since 16 January, followed by multiple explosions with thicker and darker ash plume. This plume of ash and gas was being expelled to about more than 3000 meters high and carried by the wind to surrounding villages in the south and west. Strong strombolian activity was evident on the 24th of January 2010 as villagers were able to observe its projections. These signs indicate that the level of magma is rising. Very strong explosions have been heard and seen from the coastal villages of East Gaua this morning, January 29th 2010. Due to the current activity, the level of water and the rate of river flow from the waterfall and outlets were observed to have risen from 20 to 30cm since January 22nd. This occurrence is possibly due to the disturbance within the Lake Letas which is feeding the river due to the rising activity. Water from water thanks in the eastern coast is becoming acid from the acid rains. This means that there can be greater threats posed given the occurrence of volcanic explosions. As of the 13th of January 2010, Geo-Hazards Vanuatu reported that the continuous ash emission activity of the Gaua volcano that begun on Monday 14th December 2009 with the significant emissions of ashes is still ongoing. This was accompanied by explosions heard from the villages on the 29th of December 2009. This eruptive phase is different from previous activities with thicker and darker plumes (see photos). These changes reflect the evolution of the source (alimentation) of the volcano. Ash falls continue to persist in the western part of Gaua and with the changes in the direction of the wind; it is possible that ash falls may also be experienced in the eastern part of the island. Chemical analysis of the ashes that fell and were collected in October, which was carried out by York University in England, have indicated that there is a high concentration of chemicals which are hazardous to the human health within these ash particles from Gaua. More analysis will be coming up on the new deposits. The latest OMI satellite images clearly show the persistence of significant flux of gases being emitted from Gaua volcano. As of the 27th of November, the Geo-hazards Officer who is responsible for the Gaua volcano monitoring works on Gaua has confirmed the big explosion of the Gaua volcano in November 18th 2009 at 2pm. This explosion has been followed by very thick and high emissions of ash columns that were covering the areas exposed to trade winds in the West. Volcano-seismic data recorded by the monitoring station based in east Gaua shows the increase in volcano activity signals starting from October 25th. Until present, the data shows that the activity of Gaua volcano remains significant. With this trend, it is recommended that the Alert Level of the volcano be remained at level 2 according to the Vanuatu volcano Alert Levels (VVAL) while Geo-hazards is carrying out a very close monitoring with the IGNS counterparts. The danger persists in the red and yellow colour zones of the hazard map, especially the risks of ash falls and mudflows in the zone 1, zone 2 and zone 3 of the revised hazards map. According to news release more than 300 villagers were evacuated on Thursday 26th of November after an eruption started from the volcano and spewing smoke and ash onto the island and villages around. Residents were loaded onto fishing boats and shipped to the far side of Gaua island after the volcano. Also, according to Vanuatu's National Disaster Management Office they're evacuating people to the other side of the island. The Red Cross is providing water containers and purification tablets for the villagers, who have been hit by respiratory problems and diarrhoea caused by the volcano's pungent sulphur fumes. The evacuees will have to stay away from their villages until the volcano subsides, he said. The area has been put on the second highest alert level. No more information was reported directly from VGO yet. Previously, as of the 13th of October VGO (Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory) latest bulletin reported that after the assessment of the geohazards team on Gaua volcano from 3-7 October 2009, it is confirmed that Mont Garet volcano is going through an eruptive phase starting from the 27th of September 2009. Seismic records of the seismic station installed on Gaua show that many explosions occurred on Gaua volcano. Volcanic gas flux measurements on October 3rd show that 3000 tons of sulfuric dioxide is released from this volcano each day, this means that a significant quantity of magma is degassing from Gaua volcano. The lake letas, localised close to the Mont Garet volcano, is one of the biggest crater lake of South Pacific, its volume reachs 800 million cubic meters which is drained out through the river of the Waterfall. With this information, the Alert level of this volcano is now raised to Level 2 on the Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL). This means that this volcano is going through a minor eruption. It is not recommended to approach the volcano. The danger remains in the red zone area on the hazard map including all the river outlets in Gaua, especially the river of waterfall (see Hazard map). With the related alert level, a level of response from the community is required (see attached Community Disaster response plan). Geohazards is doing its best with the limited resources available to continue monitoring this volcano. As of the 6th of october, local New Zealand information reported that volcanologists in Vanuatu are closely monitoring the Gaua volcano to consider whether to move its alert to level two. A senior vulcanologist at the geohazards department, Douglas Charley, reported his team has recorded more activity since last night. Very late yesterday the team started to observe an increase of a high volcanic high frequency. The level remains at one and the team will be trying to observe this until the next 48 hours. If activity will increasing further, Alert level will be putting to level two.Douglas Charley says they have one monitoring station in the field, but are now requesting more to get more reliable data. As of the 1st of october 2009, the national authorities of the republic of Vanuatu from the the Vanuatu Department of Geology Mines and Water Resources have issued an alert (at the lowest level of one , on a scale of 1-5) for Gaua volcano island, also known as Santa Maria Island located the northern part of the archipelago. The volcano has been showing signs of activity for the last two weeks, with accounts of repeated explosions and ash and gas emission. Local inhabitants have reported large quantities of smoke being produced by the volcano, a strong smell of sulphur and some contamination of local water and food supplies. About 2000 people live on the island. The roughly 20-km-diameter Gaua Island, also known as Santa Maria, consists of a basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcano with an 6 x 9 km wide summit caldera. Small parasitic vents near the caldera rim fed Pleistocene lava flows that reached the coast on several sides of the island; several littoral cones were formed where these lava flows reached the sea. Quiet collapse that formed the roughly 700-m-deep caldera was followed by extensive ash eruptions. Construction of the historically active cone of Mount Garat (Gharat) and other small cinder cones in the SW part of the caldera has left a crescent-shaped caldera lake. The symmetrical, flat-topped Mount Garat cone is topped by three pit craters. The onset of eruptive activity from a vent high on the SE flank of Mount Garat in 1962 ended a long period of dormancy. Last know significative activity occures in 1982 (GVN/GVP)

VANUATU - Ambrym volcano

May 20th, 2015

On 18 May the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory issued a statement reminding residents and visitors that Ambrym remained active. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). Areas deemed hazardous were near and around the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu and Mbwelesu), and in downwind areas prone to ashfall.
Previously, On 7 April the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory issued a statement reminding residents and visitors that Ambrym remained active. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a new scale of 0-5). Areas deemed hazardous were near and around the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu and Mbwelesu), and in downwind areas prone to ashfall. On 2 March the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity at Ambrym had slightly decreased but remained elevated. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a new scale of 0-5). Areas deemed hazardous were near and around the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu and Mbwelesu), and in downwind areas prone to ashfall. On 21 February the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory issued a notice reminding the public that a minor eruption was occurring at Ambrym from a new vent inside the caldera. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a new scale of 0-5). Hazardous areas were identified as being near and around the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu and Mbwelesu), and in downwind areas prone to ashfall. Previously, on 8 December 2014 the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that observations and analyses of Ambrym conducted during November and early December showed that activity levels had slightly decreased. The Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 0-4). VGO warned that the area in close proximity to the active vents (Benbow, Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu, and Mbwelesu) remained dangerous.On 10 November the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity at Ambrym remained elevated. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). On 1 October 2014 the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported a slight increase in activity from Ambrym. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). Ambrym, a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, is one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides arc. A thick, almost exclusively pyroclastic sequence, initially dacitic, then basaltic, overlies lava flows of a pre-caldera shield volcano. The caldera was formed during a major Plinian eruption with dacitic pyroclastic flows about 1900 years ago. Post-caldera eruptions, primarily from Marum and Benbow cones, have partially filled the caldera floor and produced lava flows that ponded on the caldera floor or overflowed through gaps in the caldera rim. Post-caldera eruptions have also formed a series of scoria cones and maars along a fissure system oriented ENE-WSW. Eruptions have apparently occurred almost yearly during historical time from cones within the caldera or from flank vents. However, from 1850 to 1950, reporting was mostly limited to extra-caldera eruptions that would have affected local populations.

Bezymianny volcano - H. Gaudru 1992

VANUATU - Yasur volcano ( Tanna island)

April 30th, 2013

On 27 April 2015, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that Yasur continued in a state of unrest; the Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4). VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were in proximity to and around the volcanic crater, and in volcanic ash and gas prone areas exposed to trade winds. Previous News 2013 -On 19 November 2013, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that a new phase of ash emissions from Yasur began on 3 November. The intensity of the explosive activity remained low; therefore the Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-4). Previously, on 28 May, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity at Yasur continued to increase slightly, and bombs fell around the summit area, the tourist walk, and the parking area. Ash venting and dense white plumes from the crater were observed. Photos included in the report showed ash emissions and ashfall on 5 and 8 May, and dense white plumes on 23 and 24 May. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). According to observations by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards department, started from 02nd April 2013, the explosive activity level of Yasur volcano has slightly increased. Explosions have become slightly stronger and more frequent. The fresh volcanic bombs from active vents have been falling around the summit area, the tourist walk and the parking area. Yasur volcano exhibited ash venting beginning on 02nd April 2013 and believed to continue. With this situation, villages and communities located far away and close to the volcano, especially those in the prevailing trade winds direction will expect ash falls (See Fig.2a/b). The Volcanic Alert Level of Yasur volcano increase at Level 2, the risk remains near the volcano crater for volcanic projections, and in part of the Red Zone for volcanic ash falls. This level of alert could evolve in the coming days. Moderate ash venting occurred at Yasur volcano at 15:15 pm (02 April), at 09:30 am (4 April) and at 07:00am (5 April). Satellite image (OMI) on 01st April 2013 shows the light degassing from Yasur volcano Previously, past year, following an assessment during 7-12 July 2012, the Geohazards Observatory team concluded that explosive activity at Yasur had slightly increased, becoming stronger and more frequent, and shifting from Strombolian to sub-Plinian. Bombs ejected from the vents fell in the crater, around the summit area, and on the tourist walk and parking area. The explosions were heard, felt, and observed from nearby villages and schools. Activity at all three volcanic vents was characterized by degassing, ash emissions, and ejection of bombs. On 13 July the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 0-4). Previously, On 13 June 2011, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that activity from Yasur decreased during the previous week after a brief period of high activity with significant explosions and ashfall. Even though Strombolian activity occasionally ejected bombs that fell around the crater, explosions had become slightly weaker and less frequent. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 0-4).Following the assessment done by the Geohazards team on the 31 th May and 01 st   June, Yasur volcano has maintained its high activity with the strong explosions and ashes/bombs emissions from all the three active vents. The increasing activity of the Yasur volcano since May 2011 led us to upgrade the hazard rating of this volcano at Alert Level 3 starting from June 01, 2011.On 12 May 2011, the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory reported that, based on information collected by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department, satellite imagery showed strong degassing from Yasur during the previous week. Residents living close to the volcano reported persistent strong explosions that were heard and felt on 12 May. The Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL) remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4). Update past year : 10th of June 2010 - Observations and assessments on the Yasur volcano during the past week week have indicated that Yasur's volcanic activity has decreased after a brief period of high activity with significant explosions and ash falls at the end of May 2010. Explosions have become less frequent yet constant strombolian activity with occasional ejections of lava bombs still occur around the volcano. Therefore with these indications the Alert Level of Yasur volcano is now decreased to Level 2 on the Vanuatu Volcano Alert Level (VVAL) . Visitors to the volcano are still advised to observe the volcano from safe distance away from the vent. It is advisable that visitors and tourist agencies must carefully consider this information given, to avoid the risks and dangers of the volcano. As of the 27th of May, Geohazard Vanuatu reported the increasing activity of the Yasur volcano since January 2010 led us to upgrade the hazard rating of this volcano at Alert Level 3 starting from May 27, 2010 .  Therefore the access to the volcano is now closed and its 500 m surrounding zone is strictly prohibited. Yasur volcano is currently undergoing moderate to large eruption with strong explosions ejecting volcanic bombs reaching the view points for visitors and the parking area with the significant ash fall in the villages nearby. High risk of volcanic projections remains in the red color Zone and threats of ash fall in parts of the yellow color zone that are exposed to trade winds that Following the assessment done by the Geohazards team on the 26th and 27th April, Yasur volcano has maintained its high activity with the strong degassing and ash emissions from all the three active vents and falling on most parts of the island from the east to the west. Fresh volcanic bombs have fallen around the crater rim; few of them have even reached the ash plain and the parking area. Explosions could be heard and viewed from the villages. Around 5 volcanic bombs have already fallen on the observation point B since beginning of April. Tour operators and local population have confirmed that the activity remains very important since the beginning of April. OMI pictures and the seismic data collected from the monitoring station confirmed this important activity with the strong degassing and very explosive activity to date Following the observations of the Geo-hazards team on in March 8th 2010 and the analysis of the volcano-seismic data recorded by the monitoring network of this volcano, it is confirmed that the activity of this volcano is increasing since January 2010, as indicated in the satellite images. This is also proven by the activity of all the three active vents and the recent volcanic bombs that fell on visitors' observation path. Under these circumstances, the Alert Level for Yasur volcano is raised to LEVEL 2 according to the Vanuatu Volcanoes Alert Levels (VVAL) . This means that eruptions are moderate and danger close to the volcano, within parts of Red Zone of the Hazard map. Thus approaching the volcano could be dangerous; it would be safer to view the yasur volcano from the parking area to avoid the volcano impact. Visitors and tourism agencies are advised to consider this information until the next alert is released. Previously, as of the 12th of August 2009, John Seach reported that eruptive activity continues at Yasur volcano in Vanuatu. During a visit to the volcano from 1-3 August, John Seach observed Strombolian explosions ejecting lava to a height of 300 m above the vent. Ash emissions were lower than normal, which allowed good views into the crater. One vent was active in the northern crater, and two vents active in the southern crater. As of the 1st of March 2009, Yasur volcano continues to erupt many times per hour as it has done so for at least 800 years. Previously, as of the 1st of October, mainly from reports from colleague, John Seach of Australia, reports that Yasur is still currently erupting. Strombolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions continue at Yasur volcano. Three main active vents are visible inside the summit crater. Incandescent lava explosions reached 250 m above the crater, accompanied by loud explosions. Projectiles were observed falling on the crater rim, 170 m from the vents. As of the 9th of April 2008, mainly from reports of John Seach , reported that a major earthquake (magnitude 7.6) hit southern Vanuatu today at 2346hrs local time. The earthquake was located east of the South New Hebrides Trench and 97 km SW of Yasur volcano. The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre said there was no tsunami threat. The main earthquake was preceded by a large and two medium sized earthquakes; magnitude 6.5, 5.9, and 4.9. Yasur is the closest active volcano to the earthquake epicentre and is currently erupting. As of the 1st of April, activity has been almost continuous at the Yasur volcano in Vanuatu. As of the 26th of March, the Darvin Volcanic Ash Advisory (DVAAC) has reported that Strombolian and mild Vulcanian eruptions continue at Yasur volcano. Three main active vents are visible inside the summit crater. Incandescent lava explosions reached 250 m above the crater, accompanied by loud explosions. On 7-8th March, ash emissions increased at Yasur producing ashfall over villages within 4 km of the crater. Projectiles were observed falling on the crater rim, 170 m from the vents. Previous information from IRD reported that a new cycle of important activity has began at the end of June 2004. Its the fifth cycles of strong activity since the beginning of the permanent monitoring in 1993. This activity produced important ashfalls ( several millimeters as far 4 km distance of the volcano). Main eruptive activity occurred from the Crater A with strombolian explosions. Height has been estimated estimated to some 300 m high above the crater rim. Sulphur dioxide measurements (SO2) made between 11-17 of July 2004 with mini Doas spectrometer reaches average values of 1000 tonnes per day (500 tonnes per day in April 2004). Information from Michel Lardy (IRD Noumea) and DGMWR (Vanuatu) Yasur is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Previous informations from IRD reported that a new cycle of important activity has began at the end of June 2004. Its the fifth cycles of strong activity since the beginning of the permanent monitoring in 1993. This activity produced important ashfalls ( several millimeters as far 4 km distance of the volcano). Main eruptive activity occured from the Crater A with strombolian explosions. Height has been estimated estimated to some 300 m high above the crater rim. Sulphur dioxyde measurements (SO2) made between 11-17 of July 2004 with mini Doas spectrometer reaches average values of 1000 tons per day (500 tons per day in April 2004). Information from Michel Lardy (IRD Noumea) and DGMWR (Vanuatu)Previous significative information (September 2002) reported an increasing level of activity at Yasur since October 2001 and the volcanic quake of August 29, 2002 (about 3:00 pm local time), led local volcanologist to upgrade the hazard rating to Alarm Level 3. Access to the volcano was closed.The August 29 quake, magnitude 6 was strongly felt by the inhabitants of the whole district around the volcano (White Sands, Port Resolution, …). This was the first time since the seismic station was installed in October 1992 that a shock of such magnitude was recorded (see graphs below). Elders of the Yasur district confirm that such a quake had not been experienced within living memory.Two new seismological monitoring stations are about to be installed, to complement the existing alarm system installed 2 km from Yasur and the Isangel station. At this time, evacuation of the roughly 6000 inhabitants of the district has not been considered. Information bulletins will be broadcast by Radio Vanuatu to keep the population concerned informed of new developments. Yasur's activity follows a long volcanic history in the southeastern part of the island , whose main phases, over approximately the last 10,000 years, have produced: 1/ lava flows; 2/ extensive glowing ash flows that covered the entire region from Kwamera to Waisisi, and 3/ the construction of another small volcanic cone, the Ombus. Yasur volcano lies over a large and shallow (less than 10 km from the surface) magmatic chamber whose center is located between Port-Resolution and Sulfur Bay; thus, the possibility of a major eruption within a century or a millennium cannot be ignored. Such an eruption, however, would be preceded by numerous earthquakes. Should this happen, evacuation of the local population toward the west coast, the central districts and the north of the island would have to be carried out rapidly. Informations from :M.Lardy (IRD Noumea) VANUATU - SVE Travel volcanic fieldtrip in project for 2013 (SEPTEMBER ?) - if you are interested please contact us : info@sveurop.org

 

Yasur volcano (31December 2002) S.Wallez- DGMWR

 

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